Presentation on theme: "By Nelle Harper Lee TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD. Background Setting (fictional) Maycomb County, Alabama Set in the 1930s Published in 1960 Basis Harper Lee."— Presentation transcript:
Background Setting (fictional) Maycomb County, Alabama Set in the 1930s Published in 1960 Basis Harper Lee was born in 1926 (and is still alive) Many of the characters and events in the novel were based on things Lee experienced while growing up in Alabama biography.com
The Great Depression: 1929 Imagine: You have invested $100 in something and expect to have $110 when you go to get your money back. You make a budget, planning out your expenses around that $110 because you’re sure the money will be there; in fact, you’ll probably even come out with more than that! However, when you go to get your money, you only come out with $60. Not only did you not get a return on your investment, but you lost some of the money you initially put in, for no good reason. How are you going to afford your budget now?
The Great Depression: 1929 The Stock Market In order to finance their businesses, companies sell stocks to the public In theory, a share of stock is basically a loan that benefits both parties – if I loan my money to Company X and they do well, I make money on my initial investment In October 1929, because of shaky happenings in London and in American Congress, investors started to get nervous and began selling their stocks (getting out while the values were still high) This created a snowball effect; as more people pulled their money out, the value of stocks began to drop, causing even more people to get out while they could still save some of their money On October 29, 1929, known as “Black Tuesday,” the stock market crashed completely as everyone scrambled to get out at the same time, causing many people to lose a lot of money they had been counting on
The Great Depression: 1929 As businesses lost money, they began laying off workers and even shutting down completely, causing many people to lose their jobs Even people with money suffered because others couldn’t afford to pay for the goods or services they provided The government established the “relief” program, which, like modern-day Welfare, was designed to help the financially disadvantaged afford basic things like food and shelter video.about.com
Legal Segregation In 1865, the Civil War ended slavery However, in the 1930s (only 65 years later), many people were still prejudiced – after all, there were still people alive who may have owned slaves! Blacks and whites were legally kept separate in many public areas, such as schools, restaurants, train stations, etc. Racism was especially prevalent in the South, where the novel takes place museumsyndicate.com
Women in the ’30s Women were expected to be homemakers, so their training as young ladies needed to prepare them for this. They were brought up to be mild-mannered and quiet, to speak softly and properly, and to always be dressed like a lady. The main character, Scout, is a tomboy, and since her mother passed away when she was very young, she is not receiving this “training.” rubylane.com
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What does is mean for an ordinary person to be courageous? Is everyone courageous at some point? What does it mean to lose one’s childhood innocence (i.e. “grow up”)? How does one view the world differently after that? How can prejudice affect more people than just the victim? Is it ever okay to make conclusions before getting to know someone? Who should get to decide whether a public act is ethical or unethical? What if people disagree?
Literary Terms Symbol: A person, place, thing, or event that represents an abstract concept Flashback: A piece of a narrative that moves that action back to a previous time Static character: A character whose essential qualities do not change over the course of the story Dynamic character: A character whose essential qualities do change over the course of the story
Scout as an adult Early summer 1933 Ch. 1 September 1933 Ch. 2-3 Late spring/early summer 1934 Ch. 4-5 Late summer 1934 Ch. 6 Oct./Nov. 1934 Ch. 7 Winter 1934 Ch. 8-9 February 1935 Ch. 10 Spring 1935 Ch. 11 Summer 1935 Ch. 12-23 August 1935 Ch. 24 September 1935 Ch. 25-26 October 1935 Ch. 27-31 To Kill a Mockingbird Timeline
1.How many people does Scout physically fight? 2.Name one of them and why she fights him/her. 1.Summarize one of the two important conversations Scout has (or overhears) in this chapter.
Rhetorical Devices Alliteration: the repetition of initial consonant sounds of words that are close together; this causes listeners to hear this part of the speech more acutely Simile: comparing two seemingly unlike things, using a connecting word such as like, as, than, or resembles; the purpose is for listeners to consider how these two examples are alike Metaphor: comparing two seemingly unlike things by saying one thing is another; the purpose is for listeners to consider how these two examples are alike Repetition: the repeating of words, phrases, or clauses for emphasis
Rhetorical Devices Parallelism: a set of words in successive phrases, clauses, or sentences with the same or very similar grammatical structure; usually includes some repetition Antithesis: the pairing of two opposing ideas next to one another to more starkly contrast the two; usually uses parallel structure Emotional words: the use of words likely to engage strong emotions in the audience Allusion: a reference to literature, history, or culture; the purpose could be (1) for listeners to consider how these two examples are alike or (2) to establish the credibility of the speaker’s argument
Courage ORAGNIZE BY CHARACTER Body paragraph 1: Character #1’s courage in the beginning, middle, and end Body paragraph 2: Character #2’s courage in the beginning, middle, and end (Optional) Body paragraph 3: Character #3’s courage in the beginning, middle, and end ORGANIZE BY IDEA Body paragraph 1: All characters’ courage in the beginning Body paragraph 2: All characters’ courage in the middle Body paragraph 3: All characters’ courage in the end
Innocence ORGANIZE BY CHARACTER Body paragraph 1: What causes character #1 to lose innocence and how this affects him/her Body paragraph 2: What causes character #2 to lose innocence and how this affects him/her (Optional) Body paragraph 3: What causes character #3 to lose innocence and how this affects him/her ORGANIZE BY IDEA Body paragraph 1: What causes all characters to lose innocence Body paragraph 2: How this affects all characters
Ethics ORGANIZE BY CHARACTER Body paragraph 1: Character #1’s action(s), an ethical interpretation, and an unethical interpretation Body paragraph 2: Character #2’s action(s), an ethical interpretation, and an unethical interpretation (Optional) Body paragraph 3: Character #3’s action(s), an ethical interpretation, and an unethical interpretation ORGANIZE BY IDEA Body paragraph 1: What all the actions are Body paragraph 2: How all actions are viewed as ethical Body paragraph 3: How all actions are viewed as unethical
Topic Sentences The first sentence of your body paragraph should be: Specific enough to state the main idea Broad enough not to give everything away Too specific: To begin with, Atticus is a good parent because he cares for his children, he sets high expectations for them, and he serves as a positive role model. Too broad: To begin with, Atticus is a good parent. Just right: Atticus exhibits three traits Harper Lee considers to be characteristics of a good parent.
Start broad: How does your main idea / topic relate to life or literature in general? Don’t mention the novel or characters yet! Narrow: Introduce the novel and author by saying that the main idea you just mentioned appears in this text, too Be sure this sentence flows smoothly after the first! Finally, include your thesis, stating the title, main claim, and supporting details Introduction Paragraph
Thesis Statement Include: Title, main claim, 2-3 supporting details – all ONE sentence! E.g. In To Kill a Mockingbird, the characters Atticus Finch, Aunt Alexandra, and Bob Ewell show that a good parent is one who cares for and sets high expectations for his or her children, while serving as an admirable role model. HW: In the Google Doc you have shared with me, type your thesis and your introductory paragraph. Highlight your thesis.
In-text Citations You should imbed quotes- this means working the quote into your own sentence; quotes can’t stand on their own! Option 1: Use the character’s name to intro the quote Scout narrates, “When he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow” (1). Option 2: Paraphrase part of the quote “When he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem” broke his arm (1). BE CAREFUL that you don’t create a run-on by just shoving two sentences together! Scout says that Jem was thirteen when he broke his arm “he was seldom self-conscious about his injury” (1).
Punctuating Quotes Use a comma with the word “says” (or synonyms of it) Scout says, “when he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow” (1). Don’t use a comma with the word “that” Scout narrates that “when he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow” (1). Use single quotes if including both dialogue and narration When Dill proudly claims that he can read, Jem is unimpressed: “‘Shoot no wonder, then,’ said Jem, jerking his thumb at me. ‘Scout yonder’s been readin’ ever since she was born’” (2).
Altering Quotes Only capitalize the first word of the quote if it’s a proper noun or the beginning of a complete sentence Scout narrates, “When he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow” (1). However, she says that Jem “was seldom self-conscious about his injury” (1). You should change quotes so that they make sense, but follow MLA rules: Use an ellipsis (…) if taking out words in the middle Scout narrates, “when he was nearly thirteen … Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow” (1). Use brackets [ ] if changing a word “When he was nearly thirteen, [Scout’s] brother Jem” broke his arm (1).
WORKS CITED separate page at the end of your essay alphabetize by the first letter of each entry double space indent the 2 nd line of each entry and each subsequent line BOOK: Author Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. MOVIE: Title of Film. Director Firstname Lastname. Film Studio, release year. Medium of Publication.
WORKS CITED Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Harper Collins, 2002. Print. To Kill a Mockingbird. Dir. Robert Mulligan. Universal, 1962. DVD.
First, starting with a transition, restate your main claim Sum up your 2-3 supporting details (1 sentence each or a well-crafted compound sentence) Broaden these details by making a general observation about characters in literature and/or people in life Conclusion
Citing a Book Insert page break Center align, type: Works Cited Enter, left align Author’s last name, first name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.
Title One phrase (not a sentence) Specific to your topic Don’t mention supporting details Be creative Example: The Model Parent, as Defined by Harper Lee
Essay Revisions and Edits REVISION: reading overall essay for clarity (focus on ideas) Courage: How characters show courage in the beginning, middle, and end of the novel Innocence: What causes the loss of innocence and how the characters are different afterwards Prejudice: How characters are/aren’t prejudiced; how this affects them; how it affects victims; what the town thinks Ethics: Which actions are considered; the ethical side of each; the unethical side of each For all: multiple examples and one quote per paragraph EDITING: checking for proper use of conventions Check all of their editing marks and any other errors you see