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Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS ITS – The use of modern electronics and communications technologies to improve the performance of the transportation.

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Presentation on theme: "Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS ITS – The use of modern electronics and communications technologies to improve the performance of the transportation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS ITS – The use of modern electronics and communications technologies to improve the performance of the transportation system

2 Electronics Microprocessors – the “intelligence” in ITS – Allow continuous computation of key control values – Are ubiquitous in the modern world In vehicles On vehicles In the right-of-way In control systems

3 Electronics Also make possible the use of a wide variety of data collection sensors – Vehicle surveillance – On-board vehicle diagnostics – Remote identification

4 Communications Allow the transfer of information from one point to another Feed data into the microprocessors, in order to make control decisions

5 ITS Sensors describe what is happening Communications allow transmission of large quantities of data CPU power (and software) allow – fusion of multiple data sources at key control centers – improved control decisions Result = improved transportation system performance

6 Cheap Summary Anything that deals with any part of the above is now called “ITS” – Sensors / surveillance systems – Communication systems – Control systems ITS has traditionally been divided into the following basic categories

7 Types of ITS Services ATMS – Advanced Traffic Management APTS – Public Transportation ATIS – Traveler Information ARTS – Rural Transportation CVO – Commercial Vehicle Operations AHS/IVI – Automated Highway Systems ADUS – Archived Data User Services

8 Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) Improved control systems that change traffic controls according to actual traffic conditions – New control strategies – Adaptive control – Coordination between control systems – Integration of independent control systems

9 ATMS Goal of ATMS – Improve the flow of traffic – Make better use of available infrastructure

10 Advanced Public Transit Systems (APTS) Goal: To improve the – Operational characteristics of transit fleets – Maintenance (cost and/or reliability) of transit fleets – Revenue control – Security of drivers and passengers – Level of service experienced by riders

11 Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) Goal: To improve the information given to travelers so that: – greater levels of mobility are experienced, and – decreased congestion and delay results OR When travel options do not exist: – Avoid the trip altogether, or – At least reduce level of driver frustration

12 Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS) Goal: Cost effective solutions for rural problems not associated with peak period congestion A combination of ATMS, APTS, ATIS, EMS aimed specifically at rural applications – Recreational travel patterns – Safety improvements Lower costs required Often a larger geographic area covered

13 Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) Goal: To improve the efficiency and safety of commercial vehicle fleets, and reduce the cost of commercial vehicle operations – Tax compliance – Safety records and compliance – Maintenance records – Legal status (weight, authorization, tax payment, customs/immigration status)

14 Automated Highway Systems Goal – Improve safety by reducing the effects of human error – Concept: Cars of the future will drive themselves! Result 1: Its technically feasible, but implementation is unrealistic Result 2: We can still take advantage of parts of the AHS concept

15 IVI Thus, AHS begat: IVI = Intelligent Vehicle Initiative, which begat VII = Vehicle Infrastructure Integration

16 IVI – Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Reality – Subsystems that can improve the safety and operation of individual vehicles – Anti-lock brakes – Automated headway maintenance – Collision avoidance warning systems – Automated mayday systems

17 VII – Vehicle Infrastructure Integration The public sector components of the system needed to connect the IVI components of different vehicles to gain additional safety and efficiency benefits Primarily DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication)

18 Archived Data User Services (ADUS) Goals: To store and use data generated by ITS systems to: – Improve the operation of those systems, and – Management of the transportation system

19 ADUS Management is not possible if you don’t know what is happening – “You can’t manage what you don’t measure” ITS generates the data needed to determine what is happening. ADUS – Stores it – Analyzes it, and – Reports it

20 ADUS - Examples Traffic control systems generate usage and performance information – Improve operational controls What plans work, what don’t How many vehicles are really using the system – Planning and programming Describing to the public and public officials the “state-of-the system” (for prioritization) Used in planning / programming analyses –Environmental analysis –Model calibration

21 ADUS Fleet management systems allow determination of where “slack time” exists and can be recovered – Idle vehicle time (trucks, buses) – Where delays are occurring and need to be eliminated – Which vehicle components are likely to fail so that they can be replaced before they break

22 Let’s Talk Remote Identification Knowing who/what is present allows many tasks to be automated: – Bill paying (tolls) – Access control (garage door openers) – Theft prevention / recovery (Lo-Jac) Commonly called - AVI

23 AVI AVI = automatic vehicle identification – The same technology is called AEI in the business world (auto. Equipment Identification) – Note that Wal-Mart is now requiring all goods delivered to them to be shipped on pallets equipped with RFID tags, one type of AVI/AEI

24 ID By Itself Is Useless Need to know other things about that person / thing. – Its location – Specific attributes – Actually knowing WHO it is, may not be important

25 Knowing Location Automatic Vehicle Location = AVL – Easiest = beacon or signpost (garage door opener) Basically – “I’m here! Do something for me.” – More complex, but more robust GPS Dead reckoning Combinations of two of the three

26 Communications High bandwidth – Mostly “wire-line” Fiber optic Co-axial cable, twisted pair copper – Wireless Tera Beam (light wave) Microwave WiFi ( g) Used for high volume data transmission – Usually from one fixed position to another

27 Communications Moderate Bandwidth – Dedicated short range (DSRC) technologies RF (radio frequency spectrum) IR (infrared) Other (FCC licensed and unlicensed spectra) Lower Bandwidth – Older wireless technologies Various cellular telephone technologies WiFi (802.11a & b?) Spread spectrum radio Pager networks

28 Electronics + Communications = New Capabilities Added together, electronics and communications provide new capabilities – Specific combinations of technologies = specific products Those products / technologies require software, and creativity

29 ITS Technologies / Products Automated Vehicle / Equipment Identification (AVI / AEI) Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) Vehicle Monitoring – Counting – Classification – Performance (speed, engine diagnostics, etc.)

30 Let’s Talk Location and Identification

31 AEI / AVI + Database Associating an identification number with other information allows powerful capabilities This requires data management capabilities It also turns technology into a product

32 So??? Technology = Products Products = Services Services solve problems People / agencies want solutions to problems ITS is only implemented when it solves an important problem (or cuts the cost of doing business)

33 So???? For example: Vehicle location allows: – Improved transit bus security Police can respond to the exact location of trouble – Operational improvements A trucking operator can send the closest, empty, truck to pick up the new load that is now ready – Performance monitoring Tracking location at consecutive locations = travel time (or speed)

34 But… ITS technology only gets implemented when it makes economic sense That is, when it resolves a problem (including providing a desired service) more cost-effectively than alternative methods

35 And… ITS frequently requires a change in business practice (what an agency does, or how an agency goes about its business) Thus, ITS is often not successful unless agency support for those changes in business practice exists

36 Worse Yet Changes in business practice often require: – Cooperation of outside agencies / organizations – Cooperation of other divisions within your own organization – Interaction with other computer systems Many of which were built without consideration of the need to interact with exterior systems Causes problems with the timing of system updates Raise issues of data security

37 Worse Yet (cont.) Changes in Business Practice: – Create problems with who pays for what – Requires picking the “best” technology given imperfect information

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