Presentation on theme: "Educational Accommodations and Supports How to complete the sections on this page of the IEP."— Presentation transcript:
Educational Accommodations and Supports How to complete the sections on this page of the IEP
Transition __ Yes__ No __ NA Consideration of service needs, goals, and support/services is required (by age 14 ½, the team must address transition service needs). If yes, complete the “Transition Services” section of the IEP. In addition to the age requirement of 14 ½, there are times when IEP teams must consider “transition services”. Transition refers to activities meant to prepare students with disabilities for adult life. One of the primary purposes of the IDEA is to “ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for employment and independent living. Please check one of the three choices (yes, no, or NA). If the student is 14 ½ then you would check yes and complete the appropriate transition section of the IEP. If you check no or NA then move on to the next Transition question.
Transition __ Yes__ No__ NA Consideration of a student’s eligibility for “Home-Based Support Services Program for Mentally Disabled Adults” for 18 year-old student is required. If yes, complete the “Home-Based Support Services Program” section of the IEP. Please check one of the three choices (yes, no, or NA). If yes you will also need to complete the appropriate section of the IEP as well. What It Is: A program that provides services and equipment to enable adults with qualifying mental illness or developmental disabilities to remain in their home and avoid institutionalization. Where to Apply: Illinois Department of Human Services Who May Be Eligible: Illinois residents between the age of 18-60 with a qualifying mental disability who need home-based support services, but not 24-hour a day supervision.
Consideration of Special Factors Check the boxes to indicate if the student requires any supplementary aids and/or services due to the following factors. For any box checked “yes,” specify the special factors in the “Supplementary Aids, Accommodations and Modifications” section listed below. Yes No Assistive technology devices and services Yes No Autism Considerations (see additional pages) Yes No Communication needs Yes No Deaf/hard of hearing – languages and communication needs Yes No Limited English proficiency – language needs Yes No Blind/visually impaired – provision of Braille instruction Yes No Behavior impedes student’s learning or that of others. If yes, the team must consider the use of positive behavior interventions and supports, and other strategies to address behavior. This may include a Functional Behavioral Assessment and/or a Behavioral Intervention Plan. If, so attach any completed forms. On the 15 slides that follow we will take each supplementary aids and/or services and discuss further
Assistive technology devices and services Assistive technology devices and services allow students with specific learning disabilities to find success in their educational experience by removing barriers to learning. A variety of assistive technology is available, from low tech to high tech, to meet each student’s special needs. Numerous types of assistive technology devices and services are available to accommodate special education students and their specific learning disabilities. For instance, students who have autism or other communication disorders and language processing disabilities can benefit from low- to high-technology devices or systems. Some of these devices include the following: – Low-tech: albums, binders, dry erase boards, folders, picture cards, or other items that facilitate communication – Mid-tech: overhead projectors, tape recorders, voice output communication aids (VOCAs) – High-tech: adaptive hardware for keyboards, computers, specialty software, VOCAs (more complex than mid-tech devices)
Assistive technology devices and services Students with Specific learning disabilities in specific subject areas such as math (dyscalculia), writing (dysgraphia), or reading (dyslexia), can benefit from the following types of assistive technology devices: – Dyscalculia: calculators, electronic math games and worksheets, math flashcards and manipulatives, and “talking” calculators. – Dysgraphia: alternative keyboards, graphic organizers, proofreading software, word processors, speech recognition and synthesis software, spellcheckers. – Dyslexia: adaptive keyboard software, optical character recognition (OCR) and screen reading software, tape recorders for classroom instruction or books on tape.
Autism Considerations The legislation requires that “In the development of the individualized education program for a student who has a disability on the autism spectrum (which includes autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, childhood disintegrative disorder, and Rett syndrome, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, 2000)), the IEP team shall consider all of the following factors: – The verbal and nonverbal communication needs of the child. – The need to develop social interaction skills and proficiencies. – The needs resulting from the child’s unusual responses to sensory experiences. – The needs resulting from resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines. – The needs resulting from engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements. – The need for any positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address any behavioral difficulties resulting from autism spectrum disorder. – Other needs resulting from the child’s disability that impact progress in the general curriculum, including social and emotional development.
Autism Considerations BMP has a form to document Autism Considerations Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may have unique educational issues as a result of the seven core areas outlined in P.A. 095-0257. The following information is provided to assist an IEP Team in understanding the needs of the student on the autism spectrum in these areas, and therefore develop a more effective educational program. 1. The verbal and nonverbal communication needs of the child : Impairment in communication is a defining characteristic of autism spectrum, and students with ASD need communication skill development. Communication abilities of students with ASD may range from individuals who are nonverbal to those who are highly verbal but have difficulty in the social aspects of language. – Considerations for the student’s IEP Team: The student’s current level of communication The system of communication most effective for the student The functions for which the student uses and understands language The student’s ability to use and understand non-verbal communication (e.g., eye gaze, facial expression, gesture) Emerging communication skills reported by the family or other Team members Alternative augmentative communication assessment, system and devices to enhance communication
Autism Considerations 2. The need to develop social interaction skills and proficiencies: Another core characteristic of autism spectrum is that of qualitative impairments in social interaction. Impairment in this area can range from seeming distant and avoidant with even close family members to misunderstanding social situations, being unable to initiate a social interaction or to carry on a conversation with a peer. A younger student may have restricted social or imaginative play or unusual play activities. – Considerations for the student’s IEP Team: The student’s ability to respond appropriately to the social approach of others The types of social interactions the student is capable of initiating The student’s pragmatic skills Anecdotal information about the student’s abilities within small and large groups and in typical age-level activities 3. The needs resulting from the student’s unusual responses to sensory experience : A student on the autism spectrum may experience under- or over-sensitivity to stimuli in the environment. Family members often have critical information as to how this student responds to, or needs, specific sensory experiences in order to successfully participate in activities.
Autism Considerations Considerations for the student’s IEP Team: – Tactile – Does the student demonstrate a lack of awareness to his/her body in space, and/or a need for higher level of input in tactile experiences? – Visual – Is the student’s eye gaze avoidant of, or fixated on, particular sights? – Sound – How does the student respond to auditory events? – Smell/taste – Does the student respond in an atypical way to olfactory events or tastes? 4. The needs resulting from resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines: A student on the autism spectrum may have unusual or intense responses to a change in the environment or change in daily routine. Attention to the needs of the student in this area can reduce anxiety and enable the student to anticipate change and focus on the important activities of the day rather than the change or sequence. Considerations for the student’s IEP Team: – Preparing for transitions with visual supports and timers – Previewing changes in environment and schedules – An individual visual schedule – either written, pictures, photos, line drawings – All supports provided in the most successful modality for this student for communicating upcoming change or transition
Autism Considerations 5. The needs resulting from engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements. Another defining characteristic of autism spectrum is the existence of ritualistic behaviors, intense interests and/or repetitive phrases or behaviors. Considerations for the student’s IEP Team: – Determine the function of the behavior, activity or verbalization – Determine the extent to which the behavior interferes with engagement in other more appropriate activities (social or academic) – The use of formal and informal data collection for significant behaviors – The use of positive behavior supports to encourage participation in social and academic activities – Depending on the behavior, effective practice can include modifying the behavior, teaching more appropriate replacement behaviors, providing sensory and motivating breaks, using special equipment, developing curriculum around student’s topic of interest 6. The need for any positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address any behavioral difficulties resulting from autism spectrum disorder: As a result of the complexity of the disability, students on the autism spectrum may exhibit behaviors that are challenging in their intensity and/or frequency or interfere with engagement in appropriate activities.
Autism Considerations Considerations for the IEP Team: – Discuss the need for a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) of the target behavior – Match the intensity level of the FBA to the behavior being addressed – Use the information to determine positive behavior interventions, strategies and supports and replacement behaviors to teach – Select the least amount of intervention likely to be effective and efficient 7. Other needs resulting from the child’s disability that impact progress in the general curriculum, including social and emotional development : A student with ASD may have difficulties in executive function, organization and generalization, and tendencies to perseverate on unimportant factors that may distract and limit participation and learning. Considerations for the IEP Team: – Intervention strategies for social skill development – Regular review of classroom and individual expectations – Organizational supports – Previewing information – Direct instruction for learning new skills or generalizing skills – Repeated instruction and practice in multiple environments with a variety of materials and people
Communication Needs Understanding of how a child does (or does not) communicate is paramount to designing appropriate instruction and services. If any student needs a particular support or a service, including a related service, to address his/her communication needs, a ‘Yes’ must be indicated in the box in “Special Considerations” section of the IEP. The particular service or support needed would be documented in the section of the IEP entitled Recommended Special Education Programs and Services. It’s important to note that, regardless of a child’s disability, IEP teams must consider a child’s communication needs. In determining the child’s communication needs, the IEP team might ask: What communicative demands and opportunities does the child have? Does the child have the skills and strategies necessary to meet those communicative demands and take advantage of communicative opportunities? Can the child fulfill his or her need to communicate in different settings? Does the child communicate appropriately and effectively, and if not, why not? How would the deficit in communication be described?
Deaf/hard of hearing – languages and communication needs Consider the communication needs of the child, and in the case of a child who is deaf or hard of hearing, consider the child's language and communication needs, opportunities for direct communications with peers and professional personnel in the child's language and communication mode, academic level, and full range of needs, including opportunities for direct instruction in the child's language and communication mode Guiding Questions to Facilitate Dialogue: – How fluidly can the staff in the placement(s) being considered communicate with the student according their language and communication mode? Is there a need for change? What are the training needs of staff? – How will the student have communication access to incidental learning, school sponsored special activities (e.g. assemblies, plays, field trips, movies) and social opportunities (i.e. cafeteria, recess) If the student is interested in extracurricular activities and/or athletics, how will the student have communication access during these activities?
Deaf/hard of hearing – languages and communication needs – What is the ability and opportunity of the student and the hearing staff and students to communicate directly and meaningfully with each other so that the student can effectively engage in the educational process? What is the opportunity for the student to engage in direct conversation with other deaf or hearing peers and adults who can converse at a fluent level in the student’s language and mode, so that the student is able to expand his/her skills and meet grade level standards and benchmarks. – Are there adequate numbers of Deaf/HH peers who use the student’s language and mode of communication to enable the student to engage meaningfully and directly in the educational process? Are there adequate numbers of professionals who are native language users or highly fluent in the student’s language and mode of communication? What is the need of the child to interact with other Deaf/HH peers to support his/her development of his/her self-identity and self esteem?
Limited English proficiency – language needs Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, districts are required to provide LEP children with alternative language services to enable them to acquire proficiency in English and to provide them with meaningful access to the content of the educational curriculum that is available to all students, including special education and related services. In addition, if the student needs test accommodations that are allowable for other LEP students (e.g. increased time, translating directions into the student's native language, etc.), these accommodations should be noted in this section of the PLAAFP and under the test accommodation's section of the IEP. The IEP team needs to make decisions about: Whether he/she will receive instruction in English and/or in his/her native language so he/she can participate in the general curriculum Whether he/she needs tutoring in English as a service in his/her IEP to meet his/her individual needs Whether the special education and related services he/she needs will be provided in his/her native language. Examples of special education services needed to address the student’s needs might include, but are not limited to, interpreters, bilingual speech and language therapy, bilingual counseling and bilingual special class.
Blind/visually impaired – provision of Braille instruction If a child is blind or visually impaired, the IEP team must consider instruction in Braille and the use of Braille, unless the IEP team determines that such instruction is not appropriate. This determination should be made after an evaluation, many people in the blindness profession have come to refer to it as a learning media assessment, of the child’s reading and writing skills, needs, and appropriate reading and writing media (including an evaluation of the child’s future needs for instruction in Braille or the use of Braille), that instruction in Braille or the use of Braille is not appropriate for the child. In all instances where Braille instruction is not provided for children covered under this provision, documentation of a learning media assessment (the evaluation) is required. Furthermore, is it critical that a qualified person conduct the assessment. The Braille provision specifically requires that the following be addressed: skills in reading and writing, reading and writing needs, and future need for Braille or Braille instruction. The assessment of future needs is important because a number of congenital eye diseases or disorders are degenerative. As we know, the educational system is charged with the responsibility of preparing students for a lifetime of literacy. This provision protects the right of children with visual impairments to be provided with skills in a literacy mode that will also last a lifetime, whatever the prognosis might be for their vision.
Behavior impedes student’s learning or that of others If yes, the team must consider strategies, including positive behavioral interventions and supports to address behavior. This may include a Functional Behavioral Assessment and/or a Behavioral Intervention Plan. If, so attach any completed forms. IDEA requires the IEP team to address “behavior that impedes his or her learning or that of others” (IDEA Section 614(d)(2)(B) ), and the Federal Regulations further point out that “positive behavior interventions, strategies and supports” are to be considered supplementary aids and supports. FBAs and BIPs are required when the LEA, the parent, and the relevant members of the child’s IEP team determine that a student’s conduct was a manifestation of his or her disability. If a child’s misconduct has been found to have a direct and substantial relationship to his or her disability, the IEP team will need to conduct an FBA of the child, unless one has already been conducted. Similarly, the IEP team must write a BIP for this child, unless one already exists. If a BIP already exists, then the IEP team will need to review the plan and modify it, as necessary, to address the behavior.
Behavior impedes student’s learning or that of others An FBA focuses on identifying the function or purpose behind a child’s behavior. Typically, the process involves looking closely at a wide range of child-specific factors (e.g., social, affective, environmental). Knowing why a child misbehaves is directly helpful to the IEP team in developing a BIP that will reduce or eliminate the misbehavior. For a child with a disability whose behavior impedes his or her learning or that of others, and for whom the IEP team has decided that a BIP is appropriate, or for a child with a disability whose violation of the code of student conduct is a manifestation of the child’s disability, the IEP team must include a BIP in the child’s IEP to address the behavioral needs of the child.
LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL ACCOMMODATIONS ____Yes ____No The student requires accommodations for the IEP to meet her/his linguistic and cultural needs. If yes, specify any needed accommodations: Linguistic accommodations enable ELLs to demonstrate their knowledge of test content by addressing the unique linguistic and socio-cultural needs of the students without altering the test construct. There are two types: – Direct Linguistic Support- Involve adjustments to the text of the assessment with the intent of reducing the linguistic load necessary to access the content of the test. Change the language of the test administration by using the student's native language (e.g., translation or interpretation of test directions) or changing the English (e.g., repeating directions). Can be delivered in English or the native language – In Direct Linguistic Support- Involve adjustments to the conditions under which a test is taken to allow ELLs to more efficiently use their linguistic resources (e.g., multiple test sessions, familiar examiner). They do not directly change the test language. ____Yes ____No Special education and related services will be provided in a language or mode of communication other than or in addition to English. If yes, specify any needed accommodations:
SUPPLEMENTARY AIDS, ACCOMMODATIONS, AND MODIFICATIONS Specify what aids, accommodations, and modifications are needed for the child to make progress toward annual goals, to progress in the general education curriculum, participate in extracurricular and other non-academic activities, and to be educated and participate with other children with disabilities and/or nondisabled children (e.g., accommodations for daily work, environmental accommodations, moving from class to class, etc.). Supplementary aids, accommodations, and modifications must be based upon peer-review research to the extent practicable. Supplementary aids and services are often critical elements in supporting the education of children with disabilities in regular classes and their participation in a range of another school activities. IDEA’s definition of this term (at §300.42)reads: – Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate …
SUPPLEMENTARY AIDS, ACCOMMODATIONS, AND MODIFICATIONS Sometimes people get confused about what it means to have a modification and what it means to have an accommodation. Usually a modification means a change in what is being taught to or expected from the student. Making an assignment easier so the student is not doing the same level of work as other students is an example of a modification. An accommodation is a change that helps a student overcome or work around the disability. Allowing a student who has trouble writing to give his answers orally is an example of an accommodation. This student is still expected to know the same material and answer the same questions as fully as the other students, but he doesn’t have to write his answers to show that he knows the information.
SUPPLEMENTARY AIDS, ACCOMMODATIONS, AND MODIFICATIONS Numerous states have developed IEP guides that include both the regulatory definition of “supplementary aids and services” and examples to guide IEP teams in their considerations of what a student might need. Here are some examples: – Supports to address environmental needs (e.g., preferential seating; planned seating on the bus, in the classroom, at lunch, in the auditorium, and in other locations; altered physical room arrangement); – Child’s specialized equipment needs (e.g., wheelchair, computer, software, voice synthesizer, augmentative communication device, utensils/cups/plates, restroom equipment); – Pacing of instruction needed (e.g., breaks, more time, home set of materials); – Presentation of subject matter needed (e.g., taped lectures, sign language, primary language, paired reading and writing); – Materials needed (e.g., scanned tests and notes into computer, shared note-taking, large print or Braille, assistive technology); – Assignment modification needed (e.g., shorter assignments, taped lessons, instructions broken down into steps, allow student to record or type assignment); – Self-management and/or follow-through needed (e.g., calendars, teach study skills); – Testing adaptations needed (e.g., read test to child, modify format, extend time); – Social interaction support needed (e.g., provide Circle of Friends, use cooperative learning groups, teach social skills)
SUPPORTS FOR SCHOOL PERSONNEL ____Yes ____ No Program trainings and/or supports for school personnel are needed for the student to advance appropriately toward attaining the annual goals, participate in the general curriculum, and be educated and participate with other students in educational activities. If yes, specify what trainings and/or supports are needed, including when appropriate, the information that clarifies when the trainings and/or supports will be provided, by whom, in what location, etc. – Supports are available for those who work with the child, to help them help that child be successful. Supports for school staff must also be written into the IEP. Some of these supports might include: attending a conference or training related to the child’s needs, getting help from another staff member or administrative person, having an aide in the classroom, or getting special equipment or teaching materials.
Websites The following websites were used in providing information on the above presentation: – http://www.wrightslaw.com/blog/?p=146 http://www.wrightslaw.com/blog/?p=146 – http://www.cde.state.co.us/cdesped/download/p df/blv-BrailleVIS_LawRequirements.pdf http://www.cde.state.co.us/cdesped/download/p df/blv-BrailleVIS_LawRequirements.pdf – http://nichcy.org/schoolage/accommodations http://nichcy.org/schoolage/accommodations – http://www.isbe.state.il.us/ http://www.isbe.state.il.us/