SPECIAL EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM By: Ashlei Wrinkles
WHAT IS SPECIAL EDUCATION? Special education is defined as: the education of physically or mentally handicapped children whose needs cannot be met in an ordinary classroom.
FACTS ABOUT SPECIAL EDUCATION Nearly 6 million children and youth with disabilities, from birth through age 21, received special education services during the 2009-2010 school year The number of children with disabilities in special education represent approximately 12 % of the school age population. Approximately twice as many males as females will receive special education. The percentage of students with disabilities has nearly doubled since its first recording in 1976-1977.
INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA) What is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)? the nations federal special education law that ensures public schools serve the educational needs of students with disabilities. IDEA requires that schools provide special education services to eligible students as outlined in a students Individualized Education Program (IEP). IDEA also provides very specific requirements to guarantee a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) for students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment (LRE). FAPE and LRE are the protected rights of every eligible child, in all fifty states and U.S. Territories.
MAJOR PRINCIPLES OF IDEA Zero Reject States that schools must educate all children with disabilities. Nondiscriminatory Evaluation States that schools must use non-biased, multi-factored methods of evaluation when screening for the disability, and if the child needs specially designed instruction to benefit from education. Free Appropriate Public Education States that all children with disabilities, regardless of type or severity, will receive a free appropriate education (FAPE), and will be received at the schools expense.
MAJOR PRINCIPLES OF IDEA (CONT.) Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) According to IDEA, students must remain in the general classroom to the maximum extent appropriate and may only be removed when the nature or severity of the disability is such that they can not receive an appropriate education in the general classroom with the use of supplemental aids or services. Procedural Safeguards States that schools must follow an extensive set of procedures to safeguard and protect the rights and interests of children with disabilities and their parents. Parent Participation and Shared Decision Making States that school must collaborate with parents and students with disabilities in the planning and implementation of special education and related services.
INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PLAN (IEP) What is an Individualized Education Plan? An individualized education plan is a written document that describes the educational plan for a student with a disability. An IEP includes: The disability What skills are needing to be learned What students will do in school throughout the year What supplemental aids and services the school will provide Where learning will take place
IEP TEAM MEMBERS Members of the IEP team include: General Education Teacher Special Education Teacher Paraprofessionals (classroom aides) Additional Members may include: School psychologists Speech-language pathologist Physical therapist
SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHER What are the roles of the special education teacher? To provide academic instruction to students based on individualized needs. To teach functional curriculum to those with more severe disabilities so that they may become a functional part of society. Skills include: Dressing Toileting Making a purchase Preparing a snack
GENERAL EDUCATION TEACHER What are the roles of the general education teacher? To work collaboratively with the IEP team members. To create curriculum modifications To provide supplemental aids and services
MOST COMMON DISABILITIES FOUND IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION What makes inclusion work? Effective Instructional Strategies Teaming and Relationship Building Vision & Attitude Professional Development Common Planning Time Administrative Support Family Involvement Accommodations & Support Systems
SUPPLEMENTAL AIDS AND SERVICES What types of supplemental aids and services are available? Supports to address environmental needs (e.g., preferential seating; planned seating on the bus, in the classroom, at lunch, in the auditorium, and in other locations; altered physical room arrangement) Levels of staff support needed (e.g., consultation, stop-in support, classroom companion, one-on-one assistance; type of personnel support: behavior specialist, health care assistant, instructional support assistant) Planning time for collaboration needed by staff
SUPPLEMENTAL AIDS AND SERVICES (CONT.) Childs specialized equipment needs (e.g., wheelchair, computer, software, voice synthesizer, augmentative communication device, utensils/cups/plates, restroom equipment) Pacing of instruction needed (e.g., breaks, more time, home set of materials) Presentation of subject matter needed (e.g., taped lectures, sign language, primary language, paired reading and writing) Materials needed (e.g., scanned tests and notes into computer, shared note-taking, large print or Braille, assistive technology) Assignment modification needed (e.g., shorter assignments, taped lessons, instructions broken down into steps, allow student to record or type assignment)
SUPPLEMENTAL AIDS AND SERVICES (CONT.) 2 Self-management and/or follow-through needed (e.g., calendars, teach study skills) Testing adaptations needed (e.g., read test to child, modify format, extend time) Social interaction support needed (e.g., provide Circle of Friends, use cooperative learning groups, teach social skills) Training needed for personnel
REFERENCES Heward, W. L. (2013). Exceptional children: An introduction to special education 10th edition. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education, Inc. Team, N. P. (2013, December 3). What is IDEA? Retrieved from National Center for Learning Disabilities: http://www.ncld.org/disability-advocacy/learn-ld- laws/idea/what-is-ideahttp://www.ncld.org/disability-advocacy/learn-ld- laws/idea/what-is-idea WETA. (2013, December 3). Brainline Kids. Retrieved from Brainline.org: http://www.brainline.org/content/2009/11/a-students-guide-to-the- iep.html?gclid=CIeygZHzlLsCFSdp7AodRC0AtQ http://www.brainline.org/content/2009/11/a-students-guide-to-the- iep.html?gclid=CIeygZHzlLsCFSdp7AodRC0AtQ