Presentation on theme: "Monitoring of Child Progress Shelby County (AL) Early Childhood SPED Services Professional Development Monday March 22, 2010 William McInerney / Laurie."— Presentation transcript:
Monitoring of Child Progress Shelby County (AL) Early Childhood SPED Services Professional Development Monday March 22, 2010 William McInerney / Laurie Dinnebeil Judith Herb College of Education University of Toledo Support provided by Margie Spino, M.A.
Assessment One of the purposes of assessment is intervention planning – What do we need to teach this child? What are appropriate instructional goals & objectives? What is rationale for these goals & objectives? – What are the child’s strengths relative to the demands or expectations of skills in the natural environment? – How will we teach this child? – How should we arrange the environment (classroom and peer interaction) to facilitate the acquisition and practice of these skills?
Assessment Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System for Infants and Children (AEPS), 2nd Edition (Bricker, 2002) ◦ Assesses fine motor, gross motor, adaptive, cognitive, social-communication, social functioning ◦ Curriculum volume offers a complete set of learning activities to facilitate children’s acquisition of functional skills ◦
Assessment Curriculum Aligned with Head Start Outcomes: – The Creative Curriculum for Preschool, Fourth Edition (Trister Dodge, Colker, & Heroman, 2003) – Preschool Child Observation Record (COR), Second Edition (High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 2003)
Questions to consider when developing goals from criterion- and curriculum-referenced test results: 1.What SKILLS were the items that the child failed designed to measure? 2.Do the items that the child failed reflect important concepts or skills that the child needs to acquire? 3.Do separate items that the child failed represent classes of important behaviors?
Questions….. cont. 4. What do the failed items say about the child’s overall competence in the across skill areas? 5. Why are these skills important to this child? 6. Is this an essential skill for the child to function in his present and future environments? 7. Are there prerequisites for this skill ? If so, can the child perform these prerequisite skills?
Questions…. cont. 8. How does the performance of this skill relate to other skills in this domain or other developmental domains? Is this skill an important prerequisite to other skills? Should the focus of instruction for this skill be on acquisition, fluency, maintenance, or generalization? Wolery, 2004
Alternative Assessment Ecological Assessment ◦ Process for generating goals and objectives, identifying instructional strategies, and devising methods of data collection ◦ Can be implemented in classroom, at home, childcare setting, or the community before or immediately after the child is placed in the setting Noonan & McCormick, 2006
Ecological Assessment Process 1. List daily activities and routines 2. List important behavioral expectations 3. Rate as “can do” or “needs to learn” 4. Formulate goals and objectives 5. Plan instruction 6. Plan how to monitor child progress Noonan & McCormick, 2006
Ecological Assessment - Example Activities/Routines & Expectations Can DoNeeds to Learn CommentsObjectives Activity/Routine: Arrival/free play Say “Hi” and respond to “How are you?” √ No response – does not look at teacher, just goes inside Greet teacher (eye contact + verbalization) at the door Put belongings in cubby √ Looks for his photo and pushes his backpack into his cubby Select toy, play table or center √ Just wanders around the room Select a toy, play table or center Noonan & McCormick, 2006
Goal vs. Objectives Goals ◦ Broad & general statements identifying the desired outcome of intervention/instruction ◦ Describe behaviors child can accomplish during a 9-12 month period Objectives – Precise and specific statements that child can reasonably accomplish in 3-6 months
Goals……Examples Jared will participate in the morning circle routine. Anisa will eat and drink, independently, at snack time and at lunch. Anthony will play on the wheel toys and the playground equipment. Noonan & McCormick, 2006
I. Functionality Will the skill improve the child’s ability to participate, independently or with assistance, in all or most natural environments? Will the skill increase appropriate interactions with peers and materials in the natural environments? Notari-Syverson & Shuster, 1995
Use of Functional Verbs in IEP Planning Use actions that can be observed Examples of Functional Verbs: – point to, name, write, say, share, sing, put away Examples of NON-functional Verbs: – improve, understand, increase, exhibit, identify … will improve his communication skills … will identify her name … Mcwilliam & Casey, 2008
Functional Verbs Kai will identify colors …
Functional Verbs To change a nonfunctional to a functional verb ask what the behavior should look like. Nonfunctional: … will become involved in circle time … What does ‘being involved in circle time’ look like? Functional: … during circle time, Aaron will choose a song from the choice board and sing song with peers … McWilliam & Casey, 2008
Functionality True test of functionality is to ask WHY the child is working on the given goal/objective. If skill is functional, the answer will be immediately apparent. Helps to add a rationale statement … skill is necessary so that … … skill is necessary in order to … … if child could not perform this skill, adult or peer would need to do so
Where in the World is the “Functional” objective: 1. 5 year old Robin will string 5, 1” beads on a string, by herself year old Traci will verbally respond to another child who asks her a question year old Justin will follow 2-step directions provided by a familiar adult year-old Rannon will stack 6,1.5 “ blocks, by himself. Material taken from Project Open House, Drs Dinnebeil and McInerney
Is That Your Final Answer? If you think that objectives “2” and “3” are functional, you’re right! – Responding to another person who asks a question is an important skill that will help Traci interact with her peers and be part of the group. Traci will verbally respond to another child who asks her a question …..RATIONALE…..so that she can interact with her peers and be part of the group. – Following multi-step directions is an important skill for Justin to learn because he’s going to need to do that when he goes to kindergarten. Justin will follow 2-step directions provided by a familiar adult …..RATIONALE….. in order to be prepared for kindergarten. Material taken from Project Open House, Drs Dinnebeil and McInerney
What About Stringing Beads and Stacking Blocks? Let’s talk about Robin’s and Rannon’s objectives. Can Robin be successful in preschool or kindergarten if she can’t string beads? Will Rannon get along OK if he can’t stack blocks? In isolation, string beads or stacking blocks, are not critical skills or behaviors. Material taken from Project Open House, Drs Dinnebeil and McInerney
The Important Question: What are the skills “behind” stringing beads or stacking blocks? Stringing beads or stacking blocks depends on the ability to use your hands to accomplish a task requiring good fine- motor control. These are important skills that allow children to be successful in other settings and are linked to more mature skills (e.g. dressing, printing, use of utensils). How could we rewrite objectives for Robin or Rannon so that they are functional? Material taken from Project Open House, Drs Dinnebeil and McInerney
What are other activities that require similar fine motor skills? Instead of “stringing beads”… …Robin will use both hands to complete a task … Such as? ………………………… Instead of “stacking blocks…… Rannon will …………? Material taken from Project Open House, Drs Dinnebeil and McInerney
II. Generality Can the skill be ‘generalized’ or demonstrated across a variety of people, activities, materials, and settings/environments? Examples: – …will manipulate puppets, block, spoons, and zippers using both hands … – … during circle time, snack, and outside play … – … with the teacher, peer, or Mom … Notari-Syverson & Shuster, 1995
III. Integration of Skills Do the child’s peers demonstrate this skill within a variety of daily activities and routines? Are there naturally occurring antecedents and logical consequences for the skill in the child’s daily activities and routines? Can the skill be taught and practiced in a variety of activities and settings? Examples: – … will request help bathroom..accessing materials – … will clean up…. after building center… snack … Notari-Syverson & Shuster, 1995
IV. Hierarchical Relationship Is mastering the learning objective necessary in achieving the learning goal? Example: ◦ Goal: Jackie will participate in morning circle routine. ◦ Objective necessary to reach that goal: In morning circle, Jackie will say “I’m here” when her name is called in attendance roll, on 3 consecutive days. Notari-Syverson & Shuster, 1995
V. Measurability and Monitoring Can the skill be seen and/or heard so that it can be counted? Can an example of the skill be recorded? Purpose of monitoring is to let the team, including the family, know when the objective has been accomplished. Notari-Syverson & Shuster, 1995
Challenges of Measurability 1. Does the objective measure an appropriate aspect of the target skill or behavior? WHAT’S WRONG with this Objective? Jackie will respond to 3 routine questions (roll call, weather, day of the week) in morning circle by pointing to the appropriate picture on her communication device, 80% of the time for a week. Noonan & McCormick, 2006 WHAT’S WRONG with this Objective?
Challenges of Measurability 1. Does the objective measure an appropriate aspect of the target skill or behavior? BETTER: Jace will respond to 3 routine questions every day for a week (roll call, weather, day of the week) in morning circle by pointing to the appropriate picture on his communication device 80% of the time for a week. without a prompt. Noonan & McCormick, 2006
Challenges of Measurability 2. Is it clear how to elicit the target skill or behavior ? WHAT’S WRONG with this objective? When shown any 2 letters or small pictures and asked to say “same” or “different,” Jessie will respond correctly, 9 of 10 trials. Noonan & McCormick, 2006
“Trials” are for Lawyers and Rats…. not Kids.
… using “opportunities” or “observations” or “attempts” How about…
Challenges of Measurability 2. Is it clear how to elicit the desired skill or behavior? BETTER: When shown any 2 10 pairs of 2” lower case letters or small pictures with minimal differences and asked to say “same” or “different,” Jessie will respond correctly 6 of 7 trials opportunities. Noonan & McCormick, 2006
Challenges of Measurability 3. Can performance of the behavior be measured within the context of daily routines and activities? WHAT’S WRONG with this objective? When shown 10 pairs of 2” letters or small pictures with minimal differences and asked to say “same” or “different,” Jessie will respond correctly 6 of 7 opportunities. Noonan & McCormick, 2006
Challenges of Measurability 3. Can performance of the behavior be measured within the context of daily routines and activities? BETTER: When shown 10 pairs of two-inch letters or small pictures small objects with minimal differences variation in color, shape, size, and function (3 to 5 a day in the context of ongoing activities) and asked to say “same” or “different,” Jessie will respond correctly 6 of 7 opportunities. Noonan & McCormick, 2006
Activity: Improve the Quality of these IEP Objectives 1. Sam will exhibit improved ability to express her wants and needs at least 80% of the time. 2. Desmond will manipulate classroom objects 7 out of 10 trials, for 5 consecutive data collection days. 3. Kelly will socialize with his peers appropriately in 3 out of 5 trials.
Activity: Improved IEP Objectives 1.During daily activities (e.g., small group, center time, snack time), when asked “What do you want?” Sam will use 2- or 3-word (agree on 2 or 3, not both) constructions to request items, at least once during 3 different activities, within a 5 day period. In doing so, she will become more independent and others will be able to meet her needs.
Activity: Improved IEP Objectives 2.During snack time, free play time, or small group time, Desmond will manipulate (e.g. twist open, screw on lid, etc.) 3 different objects or materials that require the use of both hands at the same time, ONCE a day, 4 consecutive observations. 3.Kelly will move toward and remain within 1’ of another children for at least 2 minutes, 3 different times during free-choices times (such as centers), over 3 consecutive days, so that he can participate socially during these routines.
Prioritizing IEP Objectives 1. Some skills may require direct and consistent intervention by EC partner teacher or classroom teacher 2. Effects of maturation and peer interactions should be considered 3. Some skills may be preferred by parent and/or ECE partner vs. other skills 42
4. Some skills or behaviors may be ‘essential’ to success in the ‘Next Environment’ (e.g. K- garten) 5. Some skills or behaviors may develop as a result of peer acceptance and interaction 6. Some skills or behaviors may be acquired via incidental teaching 43 Prioritizing of IEP Objectives
Prioritizing IEP Objectives - Factors to Consider (MEPI) M aturation/experience of child E xpectations and demands of ECE environment P eer expectations and intentional peer interaction (planned by ECE/IECSE) Need for immediate and intensive I ntervention 44
M = Maturation / Biology Evaluate learning objective to determine if ‘target’ behavior / skill is likely to improve as child develops without significant teacher or peer involvement (e.g. minor articulation problems, grasping of objects, dressing skills) 45
E = Environmental Support Evaluate learning objective to determine if ‘target’ behavior / skill is likely to improve as a result of child access to materials or teacher ‘engineering’ of learning (or home) environment’. Will securing items in a variety of containers and placing out of child’s reach result in increased opportunities for fine motor skill development and communication (e.g. seeking desired toy/item with or w/o request for assistance) 46
P = Peer Intervention / Support Evaluate learning objective to determine if ‘target’ behavior / skill is likely to improve as a result of child interaction with competent peers. Teacher organization of ‘peer buddies’ and cooperative activity groups will increase opportunities for imitation learning (via peer modeling). Also peer ‘expectations’ for social interaction and communication may provide ‘motivation’ to target child to improve skill or behavior. 47
I = Intensive / Direct Intervention Evaluate learning objective to determine if ‘target’ behavior / skill is of IMMEDIATE use or will enhance child’s acceptance in learning community. Examples would include aggressive behavior, very limited communication skills, very limited personal mobility, toilet training (if developmental indicators present). Child would not be expected to make reasonable progress toward acquisition of this skill/behavior without DIRECT and consistent teacher intervention. 48
Prioritizing IEP Objectives MEPI Activity 49 Help ECE teacher understand that they don’t have to address EACH IEP objective with the same level of intensity Use MEPI Model for making rational decisions about how IEP objectives can be addressed
Use the MEPI……… 1. During snack time, free play time, or small group time, Desmond will manipulate 3 different objects or materials that require the use of both hands at the same time one time a day for 2 consecutive weeks. 2. Emily will use /k/ sounds in the initial position of words, one observation during 5 min. of play/snack/group sessions in 5 consecutive observations. 3. Kelly will move toward and stay within 1’ of other children for at least 15 seconds, 5 different occasions during free-choices times (such as centers), over 3 days, so that he can participate socially during these routines.
Progress Monitoring Direct Measurement Indirect Measurement
Progress Monitoring Direct Measurement provides the most accurate representation of a child’s behavior or skill acquisition and is the preferable approach to use to measure change. However, the use of direct measurement by busy families and providers is not often possible. Indirect measurement may offer a more user- friendly approach.
Direct Measurement Event recording Percentage Rate Interval Recording (Time Sampling) ◦ Momentary Time Sampling Duration Latency Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
Event (Frequency) Recording Measured by counting the number of times a behavior occurs. It is important that a specific behavior has a clear beginning and ending point in order to ensure accurate measurement. Example: recording the number of times a child leaves the table in a 20-minute snack time Ms. Rita makes a mark on a record form posted on the cabinet near the art area each time Lilly asks for materials during project time. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention Hojnoski, Gischlar, & Missall, 2009
Event Recording Week ofMondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday 3/1/10 3/8/10 3/15/10 Frequency of Shaking or Banging a Toy for 3 Seconds or More – During Snack Time
Event Recording Learning Opportunities Child’s response Feedback Data CorrectIncorrect No response Provide objects Tony is interested in or model how to manipulate objects that are part of the activity Target behavior 1: Holds object with one hand while other hand manipulates Comment on how Tony is manipulating the objects and provide physical support if necessary |||||| Encourage Tony to find various written letters using the magnifying glass Target behavior 2: Identifies letter names Affirm when Anthony correctly identifies letters and letter names when needed ||||||| Numerical summaries Target behaviorTotal
Percentage Determine the percentage of time during which a behavior occurs. Identify the number of times a behavior occurs, divide it by the total number of chances the child had to perform the behavior, and multiply by 100. For example, if a child is given 10 chances to stack three blocks and successfully stacks 3 blocks seven times, the percentage would be 70%. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
Rate Measuring the number of times a behavior occurs relative to a specific period of time. Calculated by measuring the number of occurrences divided by a number of time units. For example, a teacher using rate measurement might calculate the number of times per minute a boy ‘gums’ his hand. Although a useful tool, this can be difficult to track when measuring behaviors that occur frequently. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
Interval Recording/Time Sampling Specific time intervals (e.g., I min, 2 min) are selected and used in observing and recording the target behavior Behaviors can be scored as occurrences if they occur at least once at any time during the interval (i.e., partial interval recording) or if they occur for the entire duration of an observation interval (i.e., whole interval recording). ◦ partial interval recording is most often used to measure behaviors that are likely to be short in duration (e.g., hitting, biting) ◦ whole interval recording is most often used to measure behaviors that are expected to occur continuously for a period of time (e.g., sitting in seat).
Interval Recording / Time Sampling At the end of the interval period, the observer makes a check mark in the corresponding area to mark the occurrence of a behavior. The observation continues to the end of the next interval, and another mark is made if the behavior recurs. Scores for interval recording are calculated as a percentage—the number of occurrences are divided by the number of opportunities, and then multiplied by 100. Yields an approximation of the frequency of behavior as opposed to a precise recording of actual frequency. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention Hojnoski, Gischlar, & Missall, 2009
Interval Recording / Time Sampling Partial-Interval Example: Mr. Tom observes during circle time to see if Jay is actively engaged. Because it is difficult to observe and conduct circle time, he uses intervals that correspond to each circle time activity, which are approximately 3 min. Mr. Tom marks “yes” or “no” on a clipboard in the circle area if he observes Jay as actively engaged during any part of the specific activity or interval. Whole-Interval Example: All the same except, “if he observes Jay as actively engaged during the entire activity or interval. Hojnoski, Gischlar, & Missall, 2009
Observation Forms - Classroom Samples of generic classroom monitoring tools to assess: Engagement / On-Task Behavior Child Preferences for Centers Child Preferences for Peers Guidelines for use……
Momentary Time Sampling Interval is divided into a “rest” part and “watch” part. The behavior is only looked for during the “watch” part – at the end of a interval of time (e.g., during the last minute of a 10 minute interval). The target behavior is recorded as occurring only if it occurs during the “watch” part (e.g., during the last 5 sec of a 15 sec interval) Scores are calculated as % s of the total number of observed intervals. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention Hojnoski, Gischlar, & Missall, 2009
Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
Duration The total time a behavior occurs during an observation period (e.g., the amount of time the child sits at the table to eat). Unlike the previous measures, duration is a measure that is useful for measuring how long a continuous, ongoing behavior lasts. Like event recording, duration is a direct measure of the actual behavior, not an estimate like interval recording. Also, very labor intensive. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
Duration The most precise way to observe and record duration of a behavior is to use a stopwatch or, if this is not possible, a watch with a second hand. Is important that the behavior being measured have a clear beginning and end so that the observer knows when the record should begin and when it should end. Example: Ariel has difficulty choosing and staying with an appropriate activity during independent exploration. Ms. Tina starts her watch when Ariel begins to wander and stops it when Ariel chooses/begins an activity. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention Hojnoski, Gischlar, & Missall, 2009
Latency The elapsed time between the instruction and the time the child initiates the behavior (e.g., how quickly the child initiates playing with a toy once it is presented). Measured by beginning timing once a cue is presented and stopping timing when the child begins to correctly respond to the cue. Best used with behaviors that have a clear beginning and are signaled by some type of prompt (e.g., compliance) Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention Hojnoski, Gischlar, & Missall, 2009
Latency Example: Mr. Andre start his watch when he gives Leon a direction to line up at the door and stops his watch when Leon complies with the request and has lined up behind his peers. Hojnoski, Gischlar, & Missall, 2009
Progress Monitoring Indirect Measurement informal data collection strategies; not as precise as direct measurement, but often useful in helping a child’s team monitor outcomes. In many instances, these strategies are easier to use and can be implemented throughout the day even by the busiest of individuals (e.g. teachers Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
Indirect Measurement Daily Log Permanent Product Task Analysis Recording Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
Daily Log Although there is a wide variety, daily logs are general estimates of the child’s performance over a prolonged period of time (e.g., the morning, the entire day). May note child’s performance along a 5- point scale, using range of face icons. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
Permanent Products Samples of a child’s work ◦ Writing samples, artwork (e.g., drawings, sketches, constructions, sculptures), diagrams, a worksheet, or something the child creates Could be the actual product or a photograph, audio or video recording. ALWAYS initial and DATE. When collected together, permanent products allow a support team to observe a child’s progress toward developing particular skills such as those specified in a curriculum. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
One child’s writing/drawing samples 3 years4 years5 years
Task Analysis Recording Used when measuring a child’s accuracy for each step of a skill sequence (e.g., brushing teeth, getting dressed, putting toys away, completing an academic task). The measurement process begins by constructing a task analysis or listing the individual behaviors that constitute the entire skill sequence. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention
Task Analysis Recording The data collection form that is used is based on the task analysis and includes all of the steps of the behavior and spaces for recording the child’s performance, as well as coding for level of assistance provided (e.g. complete physical assistance, partial prompt, modification of materials). Scores are expressed as the percentage of steps completed successfully. Progress also can be seen in reduction in levels of assistance
Task Analysis Recording Example: Washing hands 1.Turn on water 2.Place hands in water 3.Pump soap onto hands 4.Rub hands together 5.Rinse hands 6.Turn off water 7.Dry hands on towel
1. Turn on water. 2. Place hands in water. 3. Pump soap onto hands. 4. Rub hands together.
6. Turn off water. 7. Dry hands on towel. 5. Rinse hands. 6 out of 7 steps completed successfully = 86%
Selecting a Measurement System Need clear, specific, precise definitions of the target behavior so that everyone recognizes the behavior when they see it Which measurement system depends on the way you wrote the objective (the criterion)
Be creative! To collect frequency data, put specific number of rubber bands on one wrist and transfer one rubber band to the other wrist each time the behavior is observed. ◦ Or can transfer objects (paper clips, slips of paper) from one pocket to another At a later time, record these on a data sheet.
Use of Everyday Items in Support Learning Or.. “What to do when the Toys Go Bye-Bye”