What is Fluency? Fluency is reading with: accuracy speed expression understanding
Key Elements of Fluency Recognizing and pronouncing the words accurately Reading at the right level of speed for the purpose and level of text Using the voice to express meaning, including pausing and phrasing in line with the punctuation
Problems with Fluency Student reads: slowly in a monotone ignoring punctuation with a choppy " start and stop" rhythm without monitoring understanding without self-correcting
How Does Fluency Help Students? Supports the building of foundational skills Helps with both oral and silent reading Contributes to text comprehension Helps students self-monitor and correct errors
Discussion Questions 1 1.What challenges do your struggling students face in terms of developing fluency? 2.In what ways can building fluency skills support reading comprehension?
Use of Evidence-Based Practices Provide Clear Explanations Give Students Strategies and Models Provide Opportunities for Practice
Differentiated Instruction Plan instruction that considers students' readiness, learning needs, and interests. Use a range of technology tools to: –engage learners at varying levels –engage learners in multiple ways. –offer students options for demonstrating understanding and mastery
Teacher-Dependent Ways to Differentiate By Content – Different levels of reading or resource materials, reading buddies, small group instruction, curriculum compacting, multi- level computer programs and Web Quests, audio materials, etc. By Product – Activity choice boards, tiered activities, multi-level learning center tasks, similar readiness groups, choice in group work, varied journal prompts, mixed readiness groups with targeted roles for students, etc. By Process – Tiered products, students choose mode of presentation to demonstrate learning, independent study, varied rubrics, mentorships, interest-based investigations
Student-Dependent Ways to Differentiate By Readiness – Options in content, topic, or theme, options in the tools needed for production, options in methods for engagement By Profile – Consideration of gender, culture, learning styles, strengths, and weaknesses By Interests – Identification of background knowledge/gaps in learning, vary amount of direct instruction, and practice, pace of instruction, complexity of activities, and exploration of a topic
Discussion Questions 2 1.In what ways could you differentiate instruction to help students develop their fluency skills? 2.How could you vary the materials or content your students use to develop fluency? 3.What role could your students’ interests play in building fluency skills?
Provide Clear Explanations Explain that fluency involves accuracy, speed, expression, and understanding. Explain the different strategies that can help them build fluency (e.g., repeated reading, readers theater, performances).
Give Students Strategies and Models Model how to: –read fluently and expressively –address different types of oral reading issues (e.g., stopping to think aloud about what isn't working) –self-assess fluency using tracking tools
Provide Opportunities for Practice Teach students how to select texts that are at the appropriate instructional level. Use assisted reading and paired reading (e.g., reading aloud together, alternating reading, echo reading). Engage students in performing text.
Technology Suggestions for Building Fluency Audio and video recording device Tools for tracking progress Tools for marking text (e.g., highlighting, underlining, changing font size, color coding, adding comments) eBooks Audio books
Discussion Questions 3 1.How do you explain that fluency involves accuracy, speed, expression, and understanding? 2.What types of materials (e.g., story, poem) would you use to model fluent reading? 3.Which technology tools can support differentiated instruction?
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