Presentation on theme: "Chapter Issue: To what extent can nationalism lead to ultranationalism?"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Issue: To what extent can nationalism lead to ultranationalism?
How Does Ultranationalism Develop? Text p. 141, FYI, fig., 6-6 Various factors and events Social economic conditions/crises Emergence of charismatic and authoritarian leaders National traditions and feelings that promote feelings of superiority
Countries in Crisis World wide Great Depression of 1930’s New York stock exchange crashed Run on banks Economic turmoil People lost all savings Unemployment skyrockets No work … no money … no food … no place to live!!
Germany after WW I Germany becomes a republic 1929 … still rebuilding after WWI In BIG debt! Lack of trade with neighbors Rising cost of living Economic conditions were desperate People wanted a strong leader After several failed attempts Hitler elected 1933
Germany after WW I Hitler’s first acts … He dissolved parliament, started Nazi Reich, and made himself dictator State ruled all matters … Economic Social Political Military And cultural
Germany after WW I Freedom of press and assembly disappeared Postal, telegraph and telephone no longer private … became state controlled Young people were indoctrinated FYI … read about value of German mark
Japan after WW I Also affected by Great Depression Crop failure and famine among people Other countries refusing Japanese immigrants Invaded China’s Manchuria for raw materials for its industries A way to create jobs and produce goods 1937 military controlled government At war with China
Japan after WW I Military leaders brought back … Traditional warrior values Obedience to emperor and state Created a cult around the emperor Hirohito became leader of the military Fig. 6-7 Hirohito worshipped as arahitogami … a god who is human, a demigod!
Charismatic Leaders Text, p. 145, fig. 6-8,6-9 Ultranationalistic leaders emerged in … USSR – Stalin Italy – Mussolini Germany – Hitler Japan – Hirohito Each inspired enthusiasm and devotion in followers, and, Fear in anyone who questioned their leadership
Adolph Hitler in Germany Restore people’s national pride Make Germany the leading country on earth Promised … Refusing to recognize the Treaty of Versailles Rebuild armed forces and reclaim lost territories Restoring the superiority of the ‘Aryan Race’ … ‘Pure race of people’ Propaganda through … radio, posters, newspapers, organized mass meetings “Today Germany, tomorrow the world” crowds chant
Hirohito and Tojo in Japan Hirohito, Son of Heaven … revered, but not in politics Military decided on most of national interests Military took Japan in WWII Expanded into China and other territories 1941, Tojo became PM Military dictator Aggressive ultranationalist Promised to dominate Asia through military might
Instilling Ultranationalist Values Text, p. 147, fig 6-12, 6-13 Dictatorships promote extreme values Military and police strengthened to enforce values Education for the young (indoctrination) Culture, art and media promoted and competition was drowned out
Ultranationalist Values in Germany Focused and promoted past greatness Rewrote German history books of past greatness The Master Race and Third Reich To achieve this meant getting rid of … Socialists Jews Homosexuals Disabled people Nazi gangs destroyed Jewish synagogues, businesses and laws passed to take away rights
Ultranationalist Values in Japan Text p. 148, fig., 6-14, Voices Similar to Germany – military took control Emperor Hirohito was a demigod Japanese people were a superior race Foreign policy was to promote peace, meanwhile at home military was planning war
Ultranationalist Values in Japan Japan’s education system promoted … Idealize the past Take pride in race and culture Practice obedience and duty as highest virtues Fanatic militarists preached … Contempt for death Exaltation of victory Blind obedience Shinto, Japanese religion used to unite nation Kami … warriors and soldiers remembered and worshipped Their spirits have become gods
Conclusions Reflect and Respond Text, p. 148 Prepare a short essay in response to the “Reflect and Respond” Read carefully and follow directions for three paragraphs If necessary, complete the Venn Diagram In-class