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Types of Domestic Violence Implications for Policy Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Domestic Violence Implications for Policy Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Domestic Violence Implications for Policy Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991 McKeesport, PA New Directions Program Catholic Family Service Ottawa February 24, 2010

2 u Primary prevention/education u Screening/triage u Law enforcement u Intervention with perpetrators u Intervention for survivors u Custody and access issues Types of Domestic Violence Implications for Policy

3 Intimate Terrorism Coercive Control Violent Resistance Resisting the Intimate Terrorist Situational Couple Violence Situationally-provoked Violence Mutual Violent Control Two Intimate Terrorists Separation-instigated Violence No History of Violence or Control

4 Primary Prevention/Education u Programs for young people u Most offered through shelters and women’s groups u Middle school and high school F u Programs for adults u Offered by churches, government funded programs, and public health agencies u Marriage preparation courses F u Healthy “marriage” programs F u Public health approaches F

5 Primary Prevention/Education u Intimate terrorism u Equality and respect u Violent resistance u Dangers of violent resistance u Safety planning u Entrapment/escape issues u Situational couple violence u Sources of conflict u Communication and conflict management u Anger management tactics u Substance abuse

6 Screening/Triage u Different models for different clients u Screening for types requires information on control and violence for both partners u Safety first! u Initially assume intimate terrorism and focus on safety planning u If SCV seems likely, try individual application of other approaches u If SCV and safety become clear, move to couple approaches with protections in place

7 Coercive Control Scale Thinking about your husband [yourself], would you say he [you]… u is jealous or possessive? u tries to provoke arguments? u tries to limit your contact with family and friends? u insists on knowing who you are with at all times? u calls you names or puts you down in front of others? u makes you feel inadequate? u shouts or swears at you? u frightens you? u prevents you from knowing about or having access to the family income even when you ask? *These are items from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey (Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). They should be asked regarding both partner and self (adapted as appropriate).

8 Danger Assessment 1. Has the physical violence increased in severity or frequency over the past year? 2. Does he own a gun? 3. Have you left him after living together during the past year? 4. Is he unemployed? 5. Has he ever used a weapon against you or threatened you with a lethal weapon? 6. Does he threaten to kill you? 7. Has he avoided being arrested for domestic violence? 8. Do you have a child that is not his? 9. Has he ever forced you to have sex when you did not wish to do so? 10. Does he ever try to choke you? 11. Does he use illegal drugs? 12. Is he an alcoholic or problem drinker? 13. Does he control most or all of your daily activities? 14. Is he violently and constantly jealous of you? 15. Have you ever been beaten by him while you were pregnant? 16. Has he ever threatened or tried to commit suicide? 17. Does he threaten to harm your children? 18. Do you believe he is capable of killing you? 19. Does he follow or spy on you, leave threatening notes or messages, destroy your property, or call you when you don’t want him to? 20. Have you ever threatened or tried to commit suicide? Campbell, J. C., Webster, D. W., & Glass, N. (2009). The Danger Assessment: Validation of a lethality risk assessment instrument for intimate partner femicide. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(4),

9 DOVE Scale Ellis, D., & Stuckless, N. (2006). Domestic violence, DOVE, and divorce mediation. Family Court Review. Special Issue: The Family Law Education Reform Project, 44(4),

10 Law Enforcement u The law u Coercive control as a liberty crime u Arrest u Identifying types on the scene u Bail u Risk level for different types u Credibility of different types u Prosecution u Trust the victim’s decision? u Sentencing u Alternative sentencing for different types

11 Intervention with Perpetrators Hold them all accountable in the criminal justice system to provide an essential motivation for change u PAR u Control-focused education u More eclectic and more effective than often acknowledged u Couples counseling (screened) u Communication and conflict management u Some curricula add a specific violence focus u Restorative justice (screened) u Healing, not retribution u Broad inclusion of stakeholders u Substance abuse u Combined violence/substance abuse approach

12 Success of Intervention by Type SCV Dependent IT Antisocial IT Completed program77%38%9% No re-arrest82%62%54% No re-assault45%38%12% Outcomes of Duluth-type Batterer Intervention Program (Thirteen Months Post-adjudication) Adapted from Eckhardt, C. I., Holtzworth-Munroe, A., Norlander, B., Sibley, A., & Cahill, M. (2008). Readiness to change, partner violence subtypes, and treatment outcomes among men in treatment for partner assault. Violence and Victims, 23(4),

13 A Better Criterion? No Re-assault Ever No Re-assault in Previous Year 30 months55%80% 48 months52%90% Outcomes of Four Duluth-type Batterer Intervention Programs Adapted from pp. 115, 122 of Gondolf, E. W. (2002). Batterer Intervention Systems: Issues, Outcomes, and Recommendations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

14 Intervention with Perpetrators u Intimate terrorism u Individual control-focused education u Perhaps different interventions for sub-types u Violent resistance u Alternatives to violence u Safety planning u Neutralize entrapment u Situational couple violence u Anger management individual counseling u Substance abuse individual counseling u Couple sources of conflict u Couple communication and conflict management

15 Differential Success of Intervention Strategies by IT Sub-type (Percent non-violent two years after completing treatment) DependentAntisocial Feminist cognitive-behavioral48% 65% Process-psychodynamic 67% 49% Adapted from Saunders, D. G. (1996). Feminist-cognitive-behavioral and process-psychodynamic treatments for men who batter: Interactions of abuser traits and treatment model. Violence and Victims, 4(4),

16 Couples Counseling Comparison group Individual couples Groups of couples Six months33%67%75% Two years50%100%87% No re-assault Adapted from Stith, S. M., Rosen, K. H., McCollum, E. E., & Thomsen, C. J. (2004). Treating intimate partner violence within intact couple relationships: Outcomes of multi-couple versus individual couple therapy. Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. Special Issue: Implications of Research with Diverse Families, 30(3),

17 Intervention for Survivors u Intimate terrorism u Long-term support u Alternatives to violent resistance u Empowerment to leave u Transitional support u Situational couple violence u Sources of conflict u Anger management u Communication counseling u Substance abuse rehab u Empowerment to leave

18 Custody and Access Issues u Separation-instigated violence u Manipulative accusations u Resources for thorough evaluation u Custody/access options u Joint custody/Co-parenting u Parallel parenting, minimal couple contact u Supervised exchanges u Supervised access u No contact

19 We make big mistakes if we don’t make big distinctions. Different types of partner violence have… u Different causes u Different developmental trajectories u Different effects u Different successful intervention strategies

20 Support Your Local Women’s Shelter u Safety u Support u Information u Advocacy Philadelphia, PA

21 Fals-Stewart, W., & Clinton-Sherrod, M. (2009). Treating intimate partner violence among substance-abusing dyads: The effect of couples therapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(3), Fals-Stewart, W., Klostermann, K., & Clinton-Sherrod, M. (2009). Substance abuse and intimate partner violence. In K. D. O'Leary (Ed.), Psychological and physical aggression in couples: Causes and interventions. (pp ). Washington, DC American Psychological Association. Gondolf, E. W. (2002). Batterer Intervention Systems: Issues, Outcomes, and Recommendations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Gondolf, E. W. (2007). Theoretical and research support for the Duluth Model: A reply to Dutton and Corvo. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12(6), Gondolf, E. W. (2008). Implementation of case management for batterer program participants. [Peer Reviewed]. Violence Against Women, 14(2), doi: / Mills, L. G. (2008). Violent Partners: A Breakthrough Plan for Ending the Cycle of Abuse. New York, NY: Basic Books. Stith, S. M., & McCollum, E. E. (2009). Couples treatment for psychological and physical aggression. In K. D. O'Leary (Ed.), Psychological and Physical Aggression in Couples: Causes and Interventions (pp ). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Stith, S. M., McCollum, e. E., Rosen, K. H., & Locke, L. D. (2002). Multicouple group therapy for domestic violence. In F. W. Kaslow (Ed.), Comprehensive Handbook of Psychotherapy: Integrative/eclectic (Vol. 4, pp ). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Stith, S. M., Rosen, K. H., McCollum, E. E., & Thomsen, C. J. (2004). Treating intimate partner violence within intact couple relationships: Outcomes of multi-couple versus individual couple therapy. Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. Special Issue: Implications of Reseach with Diverse Families, 30(3), Fals-Stewart, W., Klostermann, K., & Clinton-Sherrod, M. (2009). Substance abuse and intimate partner violence. In K. D. O'Leary (Ed.), Psychological and physical aggression in couples: Causes and interventions. (pp ). Washington, DC American Psychological Association. Gondolf, E. W. (2002). Batterer Intervention Systems: Issues, Outcomes, and Recommendations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Gondolf, E. W. (2007). Theoretical and research support for the Duluth Model: A reply to Dutton and Corvo. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12(6), Hilton, N. Z., Harris, G. T., & Rice, M. E. (Eds.). (2010). Risk assessment for domestically violent men: Tools for criminal justice, offender intervention, and victim services. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Jaffe, P. G., Johnston, J. R., Crooks, C. V., & Bala, N. (2008). Custody disputes involving allegations of domestic violence: Toward a differentiated approach to parenting plans. Family Court Review, 46(3), Johnson, M. P. (2008). A Typology of Domestic Violence: Intimate Terrorism, Violent Resistance, and Situational Couple Violence. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Mills, L. G. (2008). Violent Partners: A Breakthrough Plan for Ending the Cycle of Abuse. New York, NY: Basic Books. Strang, H., & Braithwaite, J. (Eds.). (2002). Restorative Justice and Family Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stanley, Scott. (nd). Overview of PREP. Stark, E. (2007). Coercive Control: The Entrapment of Women in Personal Life. New York: Oxford University Press. Stith, S. M., & McCollum, E. E. (2009). Couples treatment for psychological and physical aggression. In K. D. O'Leary (Ed.), Psychological and Physical Aggression in Couples: Causes and Interventions (pp ). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. A Few Useful References


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