Presentation on theme: "Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State Photos."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991 McKeesport, PA New Directions Program Catholic Family Service Ottawa February 24, 2010
u The Continuing Gender Debate u Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data u Explaining the ostensible contradictions u A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence u The three major types (plus one or two) u Gender differences and sampling biases u Dramatic Differences Among the Types u Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation u Health consequences u Relationship consequences u Miscellaneous other major differences u Preview of Policy Implications Screening/triage, Primary prevention/education, Intervention with perpetrators, Intervention for survivors, Custody and access issues
The Anti-feminist Backlash u Globe and Mail July 27, 2002 (Web site) u Men as likely to suffer spousal abuse, Statscan says. u Baltimore Sun July 16, 2009 u McNair tragedy underscores fact that men are often victimized by wives u Pittsburgh Post Gazette July 26, 2009 u Feminist ideologues ignore research that shows domestic violence is just as often started by women as by men u The Men’s Project. February 2009. Submission to Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General u … the Ontario Government may be in violation of their obligations… [because] the existing network of shelters for victims of family violence exclude men….
Heterosexual intimate partner violence by gender Data SourceMenWomen U.S., NFVS, 1975—the beginning51%49% U.S., NSFH, 198853%47% North Carolina, 8 th & 9 th Grade, 199435%65% U. of Maine, students, 199739%61% New Zealand, young adults, 200239%61% Canada, GSS, 200454%46% General Surveys Indicate That Women Are as Violent as Men
But Agency Studies Indicate That Men Are the Batterers Heterosexual intimate partner violence by gender Data SourceMenWomen Cleveland, Divorce Court, 196692%8% Ontario, Family Court, 198294%6% Santa Barbara, CA, Police, 198394%6% U.K., Emergency Rooms, 198883%17% U.S., FBI, 1996-200175%25% Canada, Spousal Homicide, 1995-200582%18%
A Small Theory that Reconciles the Contradiction u There is more than one type of partner violence u The different types are differently gendered u Both major sampling plans are biased u General survey studies are biased toward situationally-provoked violence, which women are as likely to perpetrate as are men u Agency studies are biased toward coercive controlling violence, perpetrated almost entirely by men
Intimate Terrorism Coercive Control Violent Resistance Resisting the Intimate Terrorist Situational Couple Violence Situationally-provoked Violence Mutual Violent Control Two Intimate Terrorists Separation-instigated Violence No History of Violence or Control
Domestic Violence/Intimate Terrorism Two major subtypes: (a) Emotionally dependent; (b) Antisocial
Coercive Control Scale Thinking about your husband [yourself], would you say he [you]… u is jealous or possessive? u tries to provoke arguments? u tries to limit your contact with family and friends? u insists on knowing who you are with at all times? u calls you names or puts you down in front of others? u makes you feel inadequate? u shouts or swears at you? u frightens you? u prevents you from knowing about or having access to the family income even when you ask? *These are items from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey (Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). They should be asked regarding both partner and self (adapted as appropriate).
Gender Symmetry/Asymmetry by Type of Violence (1970s Pittsburgh: Violent husbands and wives) HusbandsWivesN Intimate terrorism 97% 3%97 Violent resistance4% 96% 77 Situational couple violence 56%44% 146 2000s Britain: IT 87% male; VR 10% male; SCV 45% male
The Biases of Major Sampling Plans (Violent men: Pittsburgh & Britain) General Sample (n = 37, 73) Court Sample* (n = 34) Shelter Sample (n = 50, 41) Intimate terrorism14%, 12% 68%78%, 88% Violent resistance0%, 4%0%2%, 0% Situational couple violence 86%, 75% 29%18%, 10% *Pittsburgh only
76% severe 75% escalated 29% mutual 28% severe 28% escalated 69% mutual 1/25 couples 1/8 couples Pittsburgh data Mixed sample
43% severe 78% escalated 15% mutual 13% severe 20% escalated 87% mutual British data Mixed sample
41% frequent violence 56% feared for life 8% frequent violence 17% feared for life Canadian GSS 1999 Previous partner
57% frequent violence 60% feared for life 8% frequent violence 9% feared for life Canadian GSS 2004 Previous/current partner
Women’s Health Outcomes by Type of Male Violence SCVIT Any InjuryPittsburgh56%94%*** U.S., NVAW13%32%*** Severe injuryPittsburgh28%76%*** U.S., NVAW2%5%* General healthChicago Good to Very Good Fair to Good * Post-traumatic stress+U.S., NVAW37%79%*** + Percent above the median for female victims of partner violence *.05 **.01 ***.001
Relationship Outcomes by Type of Male Violence Situational Couple Violence Intimate Terrorism Low marital happinessPittsburgh13%50%*** Left more than oncePittsburgh26%74%*** U.S., NVAW7%29%*** Rarely a good timePittsburgh3%20%*** Sex often unpleasantPittsburgh9%23%*** ***.001
Need to Re-assess Everything Various Studies u Intergenerational “transmission” u SCV d =.11; IT d =.35 u SCV odds ratio = 2.40; IT odds ratio = 7.51 u Marriage u SCV b = -.62; IT b =.58 u Gender traditionalism or hostility toward women u Traditionalism: SCV d = -.14; IT d =.80 u Hostility: non-viol., SCV, IT, IT = 154, 153, 135, 131 u Gender, frequency, severity, escalation, mutuality, impact on victim, impact on children, etc.
u Preview of Policy Implications u Screening/triage u Primary prevention/education u Intervention with perpetrators u Intervention for survivors u Custody and access issues
We make big mistakes if we don’t make big distinctions. Different types of partner violence have… u Different causes u Different developmental trajectories u Different effects u Different successful intervention strategies
Support Your Local Women’s Shelter u Safety u Support u Information u Advocacy Philadelphia, PA shelter Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991