Presentation on theme: "Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State Photos."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991 McKeesport, PA New Directions Program Catholic Family Service Ottawa February 24, 2010
u The Continuing Gender Debate u Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data u Explaining the ostensible contradictions u A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence u The three major types (plus one or two) u Gender differences and sampling biases u Dramatic Differences Among the Types u Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation u Health consequences u Relationship consequences u Miscellaneous other major differences u Preview of Policy Implications Screening/triage, Primary prevention/education, Intervention with perpetrators, Intervention for survivors, Custody and access issues
The Anti-feminist Backlash u Globe and Mail July 27, 2002 (Web site) u Men as likely to suffer spousal abuse, Statscan says. u Baltimore Sun July 16, 2009 u McNair tragedy underscores fact that men are often victimized by wives u Pittsburgh Post Gazette July 26, 2009 u Feminist ideologues ignore research that shows domestic violence is just as often started by women as by men u The Men’s Project. February Submission to Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General u … the Ontario Government may be in violation of their obligations… [because] the existing network of shelters for victims of family violence exclude men….
Heterosexual intimate partner violence by gender Data SourceMenWomen U.S., NFVS, 1975—the beginning51%49% U.S., NSFH, %47% North Carolina, 8 th & 9 th Grade, %65% U. of Maine, students, %61% New Zealand, young adults, %61% Canada, GSS, %46% General Surveys Indicate That Women Are as Violent as Men
But Agency Studies Indicate That Men Are the Batterers Heterosexual intimate partner violence by gender Data SourceMenWomen Cleveland, Divorce Court, %8% Ontario, Family Court, %6% Santa Barbara, CA, Police, %6% U.K., Emergency Rooms, %17% U.S., FBI, %25% Canada, Spousal Homicide, %18%
A Small Theory that Reconciles the Contradiction u There is more than one type of partner violence u The different types are differently gendered u Both major sampling plans are biased u General survey studies are biased toward situationally-provoked violence, which women are as likely to perpetrate as are men u Agency studies are biased toward coercive controlling violence, perpetrated almost entirely by men
Intimate Terrorism Coercive Control Violent Resistance Resisting the Intimate Terrorist Situational Couple Violence Situationally-provoked Violence Mutual Violent Control Two Intimate Terrorists Separation-instigated Violence No History of Violence or Control
Domestic Violence/Intimate Terrorism Two major subtypes: (a) Emotionally dependent; (b) Antisocial
Coercive Control Scale Thinking about your husband [yourself], would you say he [you]… u is jealous or possessive? u tries to provoke arguments? u tries to limit your contact with family and friends? u insists on knowing who you are with at all times? u calls you names or puts you down in front of others? u makes you feel inadequate? u shouts or swears at you? u frightens you? u prevents you from knowing about or having access to the family income even when you ask? *These are items from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey (Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). They should be asked regarding both partner and self (adapted as appropriate).
Gender Symmetry/Asymmetry by Type of Violence (1970s Pittsburgh: Violent husbands and wives) HusbandsWivesN Intimate terrorism 97% 3%97 Violent resistance4% 96% 77 Situational couple violence 56%44% s Britain: IT 87% male; VR 10% male; SCV 45% male
The Biases of Major Sampling Plans (Violent men: Pittsburgh & Britain) General Sample (n = 37, 73) Court Sample* (n = 34) Shelter Sample (n = 50, 41) Intimate terrorism14%, 12% 68%78%, 88% Violent resistance0%, 4%0%2%, 0% Situational couple violence 86%, 75% 29%18%, 10% *Pittsburgh only
76% severe 75% escalated 29% mutual 28% severe 28% escalated 69% mutual 1/25 couples 1/8 couples Pittsburgh data Mixed sample
43% severe 78% escalated 15% mutual 13% severe 20% escalated 87% mutual British data Mixed sample
41% frequent violence 56% feared for life 8% frequent violence 17% feared for life Canadian GSS 1999 Previous partner
57% frequent violence 60% feared for life 8% frequent violence 9% feared for life Canadian GSS 2004 Previous/current partner
Women’s Health Outcomes by Type of Male Violence SCVIT Any InjuryPittsburgh56%94%*** U.S., NVAW13%32%*** Severe injuryPittsburgh28%76%*** U.S., NVAW2%5%* General healthChicago Good to Very Good Fair to Good * Post-traumatic stress+U.S., NVAW37%79%*** + Percent above the median for female victims of partner violence *.05 **.01 ***.001
Relationship Outcomes by Type of Male Violence Situational Couple Violence Intimate Terrorism Low marital happinessPittsburgh13%50%*** Left more than oncePittsburgh26%74%*** U.S., NVAW7%29%*** Rarely a good timePittsburgh3%20%*** Sex often unpleasantPittsburgh9%23%*** ***.001
Need to Re-assess Everything Various Studies u Intergenerational “transmission” u SCV d =.11; IT d =.35 u SCV odds ratio = 2.40; IT odds ratio = 7.51 u Marriage u SCV b = -.62; IT b =.58 u Gender traditionalism or hostility toward women u Traditionalism: SCV d = -.14; IT d =.80 u Hostility: non-viol., SCV, IT, IT = 154, 153, 135, 131 u Gender, frequency, severity, escalation, mutuality, impact on victim, impact on children, etc.
u Preview of Policy Implications u Screening/triage u Primary prevention/education u Intervention with perpetrators u Intervention for survivors u Custody and access issues
We make big mistakes if we don’t make big distinctions. Different types of partner violence have… u Different causes u Different developmental trajectories u Different effects u Different successful intervention strategies
Support Your Local Women’s Shelter u Safety u Support u Information u Advocacy Philadelphia, PA shelter Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991