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Welcome & Performance Primer March 10 th 2011, OSG All Hands Workshop - Network Performance Jason Zurawski, Internet2
2 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2 Who am I, Who are you?
Welcome and Thanks – Tutorial Agenda: – Network Performance Primer - Why Should We Care? (15 Mins) – Getting the Tools (10 Mins) – Use of the BWCTL Server and Client (30 Mins) – Use of the OWAMP Server and Client (30 Mins) – Use of the NDT Server and Client (30 Mins) – Diagnostics vs Regular Monitoring (30 Mins) – Network Performance Exercises (1 hr 30 Mins) Agenda 3 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
What are your goals for this workshop? – Experiencing performance problems? – Responsible for the campus/lab network? – Learning about state of the art, e.g. ‘What is perfSONAR’? – Developing or researching performance tools? Is there a Magic Bullet? – No, but we can give you access to strategies and tools that will help – Patience and diligence will get you to most goals This workshop is as much a learning experience for me as it is for you – What problem/problems need to be solved – What will make networking a less painful experience – How can we improve our goods/services Your Goals? 4 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
How can your users effectively report problems? How can you users and the local administrators effectively solve multi-domain problems? Components: – Tools to use – Questions to ask – Methodology to follow – How to ask for (and receive) help Problem: “The Network Is Broken” 5 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
Most network design lends itself to the introduction of flaws: – Heterogeneous equipment – Cost factors heavily into design – e.g. Get what you pay for – Design heavily favors protection and availability over performance Communication protocols are not advancing as fast as networks – TCP/IP is the king of the protocol stack Guarantees reliable transfers Adjusts to failures in the network Adjusts speed to be fair for all User Expectations Big Science is prevalent globally “The Network is Slow/Broken” – is this the response to almost any problem? Hardware? Software? Empower users to be more informed/more helpful 6 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2 Why Worry About Network Performance?
User and resource are geographically separated Both have access to high speed communication network – LAN infrastructure - 1Gbps Ethernet – WAN infrastructure – 10Gbps Optical Backbone 7 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2 Motivation – A Typical Scenario
User wants to access a file at the resource (e.g. ~600MB) Plans to use COTS tools (e.g. “scp”, but could easily be something scientific like “GridFTP” or simple like a web browser) What are the expectations? – 1Gbps network (e.g. bottleneck speed on the LAN) – 600MB * 8 = 4,800 Mb file – User expects line rate, e.g. 4,800 Mb / 1000 Mbps = 4.8 Seconds – Audience Poll: Is this expectation too high? What are the realities? – Congestion and other network performance factors – Host performance – Protocol Performance – Application performance 8 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2 Motivation – A Typical Scenario
Real Example (New York USA to Los Angeles USA): 1MB/s (8Mb/s) ??? 10 Minutes to transfer??? Seems unreasonable given the investment in technology – Backbone network – High speed LAN – Capable hosts Performance realities as network speed decreases: – 100 Mbps Speed – 48 Seconds – 10 Mbps Speed – 8 Minutes – 1 Mbps Speed – 80 Minutes How could this happen? More importantly, why are there not more complaints? Audience Poll: Would you complain? If so, to whom? Brainstorming the above – where should we look to fix this? 9 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2 Motivation – A Typical Scenario
Expectation does not even come close to experience, time to debug. Where to start though? – Application Have other users reported problems? Is this the most up to date version? – Protocol Protocols typically can be tuned on an individual basis, consult your operating system. – Host Are the hardware components (network card, system internals) and software (drivers, operating system) functioning as they should be? – LAN Networks Consult with the local administrators on status and potential choke points – Backbone Network Consult the administrators at remote locations on status and potential choke points (Caveat – do you [should you] know who they are?) 10 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2 Motivation – A Typical Scenario
Following through on the previous, what normally happens … – Application This step is normally skipped, the application designer will blame the network – Protocol These settings may not be explored. Shouldn’t this be automatic (e.g. autotuning)? – Host Checking and diagnostic steps normally stop after establishing connectivity. E.g. “can I ping the other side” – LAN Networks Will assure “internal” performance, but LAN administrators will ignore most user complaints and shift blame to upstream sources. E.g. “our network is fine, there are no complaints” – Backbone Network Will assure “internal” performance, but Backbone responsibilities normally stop at the demarcation point, blame is shifted to other networks up and down stream * Denotes Problem Areas from Example 11 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2 Motivation – A Typical Scenario
Stumbling Blocks to solving performance problems – Lack of a clear process Knowledge of the proper order to approach problems is paramount This knowledge is not just for end users – also for application developers and network operators too – Impatience Everyone is impatient, from the user who wants things to work to the network staff and application developers who do not want to hear complaints – Information Void Lack of a clear location that describes symptoms and steps that can be taken to mitigate risks and solve problems Lack of available performance information, e.g the current status of a given network in a public and easily accessible forum – Communication Finding whom to contact to report problems or get help in debugging is frustrating 12 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2 Motivation – A Typical Scenario
Finding a solution to network performance problems can be broken into two distinct steps: – Use of Diagnostic Tools to locate problems Tools that actively measure performance (e.g. Latency, Available Bandwidth) Tools that passively observe performance (e.g. error counters) – Regular Monitoring to establish performance baselines and alert when expectation drops. Using diagnostic tools in a structured manner Visualizations and alarms to analyze the collected data Incorporation of either of these techniques must be: – ubiquitous, e.g. the solution works best when it is available everywhere – seamless (e.g. federated) in presenting information from different resources and domains 13 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2 Motivation – Possible Solutions
Find a measurement server “near me” – Why is this important? – How hard is this to do? Encourage user to participate in diagnosis procedures Detect and report common faults in a manner that can be shared with admins/NOC – ‘Proof’ goes a long way Provide a mechanism for admins to review test results Provide feedback to user to ensure problems are resolved Diagnosis Methodology 14 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
Networking is increasingly: – Cross domain – Large scale – Data intensive Identification of the end-to-end path is key (must solve the problem end to end…) Discover measurement nodes that are “near” this path Provide proper authentication or receive limited authority to run tests – No more conference calls between 5 networks, in the middle of the night Initiate tests between various nodes Retrieve and store test data for further analysis Partial Path Decomposition 15 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
Having tools deployed (along the entire path) to enable adequate troubleshooting Getting end-users involved in the testing Combining output from multiple tools to understand problem – Correlating diverse data sets – only way to understand complex problems. Ensuring that results are adequately documented for later review Systematic Troubleshooting Procedures 16 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
On-Demand testing can help solve existing problems once they occur Regular performance monitoring can quickly identify and locate problems before users complain – Alarms – Anomaly detection Testing and measuring performance increases the value of the network to all participants On Demand vs Scheduled Testing 17 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
To spread the word that today’s networks really can, do, and will support demanding applications – Science Physics Astronomy Biology and Climate – Arts and Humanities – Computational and Network Research To increase the number of test points – Instrumenting the end to end path is key – Spread the knowledge and encourage adoption Our Goals 18 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
See a talk from the recent Joint Techs Conference: metzger-whatnext.pdf metzger-whatnext.pdf Take home points: Close to $1 Billion USD spent on networking at all levels (Campus, Regional, Backbone) in the next 2 years due to ARRA Funding Unprecedented access and capacity for many people Ideal View: Changes will be seamless Completed on time Bandwidth will solve all performance problems Realistic View: Network ‘breaks’ when it is touched (e.g. new equipment, configs) Optimization will not be done in a global fashion (e.g. backbone fixes performance, but what about regional and campus?) Bandwidth means nothing when you have a serious performance problem Other Thoughts 19 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
Welcome & Performance Primer March 10 th 2011, OSG All Hands Workshop – Network Performance Jason Zurawski – Internet2 For more information, visit 20 – 4/26/2015, © 2011 Internet2
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