Presentation on theme: "Mental Exercise ANIMALS and BIRDS: In Hiding Find the name of the animal hidden between the following sentences. Example: Do not criticize bravado too."— Presentation transcript:
Mental Exercise ANIMALS and BIRDS: In Hiding Find the name of the animal hidden between the following sentences. Example: Do not criticize bravado too readily. Answer: Do not criticize bravado too readily.
Mental Exercise 1. Small boys tag after their elder brothers. 2. Those who do good may be rewarded. 3. It was an enormous entrance. 4. Bootleggers hijack all trucks. 5. He seemed to be a veritable glutton over plum pudding.
Mental Exercise 1. Small boys tag after their elder brothers. 2. Those who do good may be rewarded.
Mental Exercise 3. It was an enormous entrance. 4. Bootleggers hijack all trucks. 5. He seemed to be a veritable glutton over plum pudding.
Free Powerpoint Templates CHARACTERISTIC S OF LIVING ORGANISMS
Living things feed. They need food for energy, growth and repair. Nutrition
Plants make their own food through photosynthesis. It needs light, water, carbon dioxide and green chemical called chlorophyll. Animals take infood in complex form and digest them into simpler compound that the body can absorb. Nutrition
All living organisms respire because they need energy. Respiration is the oxidation of food substances to release energy for cell activities. Respiration
There are two types of respiration : aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration can be summarised by the equation : Glucose + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy Respiration
Movement Living things move on their own.
Movement Most animals move from one place to another and it’s called locomotion.
Reproduction Organisms reproduce their own kind. This process ensures the survival of the species. Organisms produce offspring which resemble their parents.
Two types of reproduction : Asexual reproduction does not involve sex cells Ex : bacteria, amoeba, fungi Asexual reproduction Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction involves male and female sex cells joining togeher. Examples: plants and animals Reproduction
Growth and Development Growth is the permanent increase in the mass and the volume of an organism. Growth is accompanied by series of changes in form and function. These series of changes is called development. Ex : metamorphosis of a butterfly and growth of tadpole to adult frog.
Excretion Excretion is the process where an organism removes metabolic waste products.
Numerous chemical reactions occur in the cell of living organisms, they are called biochemical reactions. Metabolism is all the reactions that occur in an organism. Excretion
Homeostasis Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal environment. Regulating blood glucose concentration in the body Normal human blood pH value is 7.35-7.45 Normal human body temperature is 37° C
Sensitivity/ Irritability Sensitivity is the ability of organism to respond to stimuli Stimulus (stimuli) is any condition or change in the environmnet (light, heat, temperature). Example : closing leaves of Mimosa pudica when touched.
Adaptability Adaptation is any characteristic of an organism that improves its chances of surviving in its environment.
Adaptability Structural adaptation –having body parts that allow an organism to become better suited to its environment. Ex : cactus has few leaves and fleshy stems.
Behavior adaptation is an adaptation by adjusting behavioral patterns and biological clock to the changing conditions of the environment. Examples : birds migrate to places where more favourable, polar bear hibernate during winter. Adaptability
Organisms are made up of cells. Organisms gain energy through the process of nutrition. Organisms respire, that release energy through breakdown of food substances such as glucose. Organisms remove metabolic waste products through excretion Organisms are able to control their internal conditions which is known as homeostasis. Organisms grow. The growth of an organisms is a permanent increase in the mass and volume. Organisms can move by themselves in a directed and controlled way. Organisms reproduce their own kind. Organisms adapt to increase their chances of survival. Organisms are able to detect and respond to changes in their environment. This is called sensitivity. The characteristics of life are as follows:
What are cells?
Living organisms are made up of small building units of life called cells Cells come in different size and shapes
Unicellular cells made up of one or single cell only, ex: bacteria, amoeba amoeba Multicellular cells made up of two or more cells, ex: plants, animals.
What is inside of cell? A cell is made up of a tiny mass of living matter called protoplasm Protoplasm is made up of a nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane
Questions ? Let’s move on with animal cell
ANIMAL CELL Nucleus Largest structure Spherical in shape Cell reproduction Control cell activities Needed for cell to stay alive Contains chromosomes Vacuole Clear fuild sacs that act as storage areas for food, minerals and waste Store water and other nutrients Many tiny vacuoles, small, numerous and temporary in animal cell Lysosome mall structures that contain enzymes which are used in digestion Nucleolus is found in the nucleus Contains more genetic information (RNA)
ANIMAL CELL Mitochondria The “powerhouse” Centre of respiration of the cell Release energy for cell functions. Golgi Bodies Tube like structures that have tiny sacs at their ends Help package proteins Ribosomes Tiny spherical bodies that help make proteins Found in the cytoplasm or attached to the endopasmic reticulum Cell membrane thin membrane surrouding the cell Partially membrane
Cell wall Thick layer surrouding the cell membrane Made of cellulose Support cell Regular shape Cell membrane Thin membrane surrouding the cell Partially permeable Serces as a boundary between cell and the external Control subtances entering and leaving the cell. Vacoule Single large space Contains a liquid called cell sap
Chloroplast Contains the green pigment chlorophyll photosynthesis Cytoplasm Jelly-like substance Contains chemicals and other tiny structures that carry out special functions Many chemical reactions take place here Nucleus Spherical in shape Responsible for cell reproduction Control most cell activities Needed for cell to stay alive Contains chromosomes which are genetic material
How can we study about cell and its part? We need MICROSCOPES
Simple microscope -contains only one lens Compound microscope -contains two or more lens
Binocular microscope Monocular microscope
Electron microscope Light microscope It can magnify objects up tp 1,000x It can be magnify objects up to 10,000x
Eyepiece Lens: the lens at the top that you look through. They are usually 10X or 15X power. Tube: Connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses Arm: Supports the tube and connects it to the base
Base: The bottom of the microscope, used for support Stage: The flat platform where you place your slides. Stage clips hold the slides in place.
Revolving Nosepiece or Turret: This is the part that holds two or more objective lenses and can be rotated to easily change power Objective Lenses: Usually there are 3 or 4 objective lenses on a microscope. They almost always consist of 4X, 10X, 40X and 100X powers.
Diaphragm : The diaphragm has different sized holes and is used to vary the intensity and size of the cone of light that is projected upward into the slide.
Magnification Microscope has 3 magnifications: Scanning, Low and High. Each objective will have written the magnification. In addition to this, the ocular lens (eyepiece) has a magnification. The total magnification is the ocular x objective
Magnification Magnifi cation Ocular Lens Total magnifi cation Scanning 4x10x40x Low power 10x 100x High power 40x10x400x