Presentation on theme: "1 Reproduction Unit Grade 9 Science The Cell Theory can be summarized as: 1.All living things are made of one or more cells. 2.The cell is the basic."— Presentation transcript:
1 Reproduction Unit Grade 9 Science
The Cell Theory can be summarized as: 1.All living things are made of one or more cells. 2.The cell is the basic unit of life. 3.All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Organelles are unique structures with specific functions inside the cell.
Plant cells have the all the same organelles as animal cells plus a few additional different kinds.
Plasma (cell) Membrane: flexible boundary between the cell and its environment. Allows water and food to enter and waste to leave. (semi-permeable)
Cytoplasm: clear, gelatinous fluid that fills a cell, and suspends organelles. Site of chemical reactions in the cell.
Nucleus: holds the DNA (genetic blueprints) in the centre of the cell. Manages all cellular functions.
Ribosomes: small, spheres near the nucleus that participate in protein production.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: series of tubes; stores and packages proteins from ribosomes. Ribosomes are attached to the ER. ER ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus: stack of flat membranes; sorts and modifies proteins from ER; sends them out to work. modifying membranes
Mitochondria: breaks down food for energy and stores some for later access (cellular respiration); More than one in each cell.
Cellular Respiration Mitochondria in plant and animal cells absorb oxygen gas and use it to break down food. FOOD + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Cells use the energy contained in the food, and give off Carbon dioxide gas and water as waste. ENERGY
Vacuoles: sacs used for temporary storage. Very small in animal cells, very large in plant cells. Lysosomes: small sacs; contain chemicals used to digest any waste or invading bacteria / viruses.
Centriole: small structures that help the cell divide, found only in animal cells.
* Cell Wall: rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane of plants, fungi and most bacteria. Provides extra support (shape) and protection.
* Chloroplasts: contains chlorophyll; captures energy from light and converts it into sugar to be used later (photosynthesis).
Photosynthesis Chloroplasts absorb the energy from light and use it to make a sugar molecule (glucose): Plant cells manufacture sugar (glucose) so that they can store it away to use for energy later. CO 2 + H 2 O + O 2 glucose
Nucleus Vacuoles Ribosomes Lysosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Garbage cans Generators Walls, doors, security Assembly workers Warehouse Head Office Shipping Department Pillars, floor, stairs Machines IF A CELL WERE A TOY COMPANY…
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