The Cell Theory can be summarized as: 1.All living things are made of one or more cells. 2.The cell is the basic unit of life. 3.All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Organelles are unique structures with specific functions inside the cell.
Plant cells have the all the same organelles as animal cells plus a few additional different kinds.
Plasma (cell) Membrane: flexible boundary between the cell and its environment. Allows water and food to enter and waste to leave. (semi-permeable)
Cytoplasm: clear, gelatinous fluid that fills a cell, and suspends organelles. Site of chemical reactions in the cell.
Nucleus: holds the DNA (genetic blueprints) in the centre of the cell. Manages all cellular functions.
Ribosomes: small, spheres near the nucleus that participate in protein production.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: series of tubes; stores and packages proteins from ribosomes. Ribosomes are attached to the ER. ER ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus: stack of flat membranes; sorts and modifies proteins from ER; sends them out to work. modifying membranes
Mitochondria: breaks down food for energy and stores some for later access (cellular respiration); More than one in each cell.
Cellular Respiration Mitochondria in plant and animal cells absorb oxygen gas and use it to break down food. FOOD + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Cells use the energy contained in the food, and give off Carbon dioxide gas and water as waste. ENERGY
Vacuoles: sacs used for temporary storage. Very small in animal cells, very large in plant cells. Lysosomes: small sacs; contain chemicals used to digest any waste or invading bacteria / viruses.
Centriole: small structures that help the cell divide, found only in animal cells.
* Cell Wall: rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane of plants, fungi and most bacteria. Provides extra support (shape) and protection.
* Chloroplasts: contains chlorophyll; captures energy from light and converts it into sugar to be used later (photosynthesis).
Photosynthesis Chloroplasts absorb the energy from light and use it to make a sugar molecule (glucose): Plant cells manufacture sugar (glucose) so that they can store it away to use for energy later. CO 2 + H 2 O + O 2 glucose