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Portuguese decline in Asia opened trade for the BEIC in India, while the Mughals’ decline forced it to defend itself with natives trained like European.

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Presentation on theme: "Portuguese decline in Asia opened trade for the BEIC in India, while the Mughals’ decline forced it to defend itself with natives trained like European."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Portuguese decline in Asia opened trade for the BEIC in India, while the Mughals’ decline forced it to defend itself with natives trained like European troops (sepoys), who defeated both French and Bengali armies in India. Although the climate killed many BEIC employees, others made personal fortunes at the expense of BEIC, leading to greater British control of the BEIC. While some British respected Indian culture, others’ arrogant efforts to modernize India and convert it to Christianity upset many Indians, causing the Great Indian Mutiny (1857), after which the British government took control from BEIC. Britain established an efficient, but segregated, bureaucracy, continued building railroads, and developed cotton, tea, coal and iron production largely to meet its own needs. Britain, needing help in both world wars, kept promising more freedoms, which only increased Hindu efforts for independence and efforts by Muslims for their own state separate from a Hindu dominated India. As Gandhi’s non-violent tactics pushed for independence, Hindu/Muslim violence grew until Britain granted freedom to India and a separate Muslim state, Pakistan in FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Gandhi’s non- violent movement Muslim/Hindu clashes worsen Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) Br. grants indep. (1947), but to separate Hindu India & Muslim Pakistan India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

4 A Quick Review of some Indian Culture

5 Thugs and Thuggees Several words in our language reflect Indian influence from the time of the Raj (British rule). Among them are Cigar, polo, shower, bungalow, punch, dungarees, and thug.

6 Thugs and Thuggees The English word thug comes from Hindi word meaning thief or con-man, but also refers to a group known as the Thuggees who infiltrated caravans, winning their confidence, sometimes over hundreds of miles of travel, before strangling them with yellow scarves (possibly from their turbans) and robbing them. Groups of Thuggees could be fairly large and last for generations, with rites of initiation for new members. Many or most groups seem to have been devoted to the Hindu goddess, Kali, their victims supposedly being seen as sacrifices to the deity.

7 Thugs and Thuggees The English word thug comes from a Hindi word meaning thief or con-man, but also refers to a group known as the Thuggees who infiltrated caravans, winning their confidence, sometimes over hundreds of miles of travel, before strangling them with yellow scarves (possibly from their turbans) and robbing them. Groups of Thuggees could be fairly large and last for generations, with rites of initiation for new members. Many or most groups seem to have been devoted to the Hindu goddess, Kali, their victims supposedly being seen as sacrifices to the deity. Sometimes large groups would infiltrate caravans bit by bit to avoid alarming travelers. By the same token, the Thuggees needed to kill all the travelers quickly to keep word of their existence from getting out. The Thuggee movement lasted from the 1600s to the 1830s when the British systematically eliminated it. Estimates of the numbers of their victims vary from 40,000 to 2,000,000.

8 Before the British came, India had been under the Mughal Dynasty, which had overseen a blending of Muslim and Hindu culture Mughal Dyn. (1526-c.1700) rules most of India w/wise policies Use Hindu rajputs as allies & officials Religious tolerance & intermarriage Further blending of cultures: Art, architecture, & music Persian + Ind. Lang’s  Urdu Akbar, his son Jahangir, & his grandson, Jahan, whose tolerant policies toward Hindus helped maintain peace & stability in the Mughal Empire.

9 Mughal art was a blending of Persian & Indian styles. Persian art, and Muslim art in general, excelled in incorporating floral and geometric designs into its paintings and architecture. This was especially apparent in Persian miniature painting which flourished during the Safavid Dynasty. Left: Persian Miniature of the court of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna

10 Persian miniature of the court of Gayumarth with a detail on the right.

11 Persian miniature of a hunting scene. Notice how Persian artists liked to give animals’ faces humanlike expressions.

12 Persian miniatures: Barbad The Concealed Musician (l.) & Majnun Eavesdrops On Layla's Camp (r)

13 Persian miniatures: Left: Yusuf entertained at court Right: A city dweller desecrates a garden

14 Under the Mughals, Persian miniature painting blended with the more fluid style of Indian art to create a dynamic variation on miniature painting. Below: A painting of a fable of an ape outsmarting thieves (l) & an 18th century miniature of a lady with an exotic bird

15 Mughal paintings of Peafowl & a Shamsa (sunburst)

16 The Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan’s tomb for his beloved wife. Shah Jahan’s original plan was to create a duplicate tomb for himself opposite this one, except in black marble.

17 The Taj Mahal’s dome

18 The main entrance & a marble screen in the Taj Mahal

19 Detail of one of the Taj Mahal’s windows (l.) & carved marble flowers (r.)

20 The Taj Mahal’s sanctuary where Shah Jahan’s wife’s cenotaph (memorial) occupied the central spot. To its side is Shah Jahan’s cenotaph, since he never built his own planned tomb.

21 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) British conquest of India said to be done in a fit of absence of?

22 British conquest of India said to be done in a fit of absence of mind FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c )

23 Situation in India & the Portuguese Empire when the British showed up?

24 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) A FC.82 THE PORTUGUESE EMPIRE IN EAST ASIA (1498-c.1600) Costly shipwrecks Costly & hard to maintain Asian forts & fleet from Europe Portugal controls much of Asian spice & silk trade, but at huge cost: Decline of Portuguese Emp. B y 1600  Dutch take over Far East trade (FC.93) Expensive wars & hostility of Muslim Mughal Emp. in India Huge drain on Portugal’s ltd. popul. & resources Portugal expels Jews  No MC to handle $  Spices go to Antwerp Drastic cost-cutting measures: Cut corners by not maintaining their ships Hire half-trained Native crews to replace lost Eur. sailors Overpack ships with spices to make more $ Remember this? You’d better!!

25 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) is founded (1599) for what purpose?

26 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) seeks peaceful trade

27 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) seeks peaceful trade What did it end up having to do?

28 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82)

29 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) A

30 Spices as Medicine When Elizabeth I chartered The British East Indies Company (BEIC) in 1599 spices were used as much for medicine as for food. Nutmeg (left) was used to treat rheumatism, while cloves (right) supposedly would relieve toothaches and bad breath. Suppliants at the Chinese were required to chew cloves to clear their breaths before gaining an audience with the emperor. Peppers imported from India would be mixed with wine to ease stomach pain. The warming qualities of peppers could also supposedly relieve the symptoms of excessive cold humors, such as too much phlegm (as in a cold). Other exotic spices, such as ginger, cinnamon, pepper, frankincense, myrrh and saffron, would be used in various combinations against venomous bites. In addition, cardamom, cloves, ginger, mace, nutmeg, pepper, saffron, and vanilla reportedly had aphrodisiacal properties. Even today, such spices are used in massage oils and incense for therapeutic purposes under the modern title of aromatherapy.

31 Cities of the Raj Among other things, the British had a significant impact on India’s urban landscape, in particular the cities of Bombay (modern Mumbai), Calcutta, and Madras (modern Chennai), all three having humble beginnings as Company outposts. Bombay was originally a barren island leased in 1661 from Charles II for £10 a year. (Charles had gotten it as part of the dowry for his Portuguese wife, Elizabeth Braganza.) It is currently India’s largest city and the world’s fourth largest, with a metropolitan population of around 20.5 million. Calcutta, a forsaken Bengali mudflat, had a harbor with a treacherous approach by way of the Hooghli River. Originally known as Ft. William, it would grow into a city of 10 million. In 1639 the company acquired Madras, which was then a five-mile long strip of coast with no harbor.

32 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) A How did they defend themselves?

33 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) A

34 Sepoys As the Mughal Empire fell apart and India destabilized, European traders increasingly had to defend themselves and their interests. Given the small capacity of sailing ships and the high mortality rate among those making the long voyage between Europe and India, it was impractical to try bringing European recruits to India, since so many would die on the way (and many or most of the survivors would die from India’s tropical conditions). The solution, first tried by the French, was the use of sepoys, (a corruption of sip-ah, the Persian word for army) who at this time were any Indian soldiers in the employ of a European power. (Today it is the designation for the rank of private in the Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi armies.)

35 In addition, the French equipped these native Indian recruits with muskets and trained them in the drill- and-march that had made European armies so deadly. As it turned out, Indian sepoys proved as effective as Europeans using these weapons and tactics, were cheaper (especially since they didn’t have to be imported from Europe), and didn’t drop dead from scurvy or heat stroke before even making it to the battlefield.

36 The success of this French innovation quickly convinced the British East Indies Company to do the same, and sepoys became the backbone of British forces in India. In addition they would be used in other colonial wars (such as the Second Opium War) and even World War I, when over 500,000 Indian troops would serve the British Empire on the Western Front and elsewhere.

37 The Battle of Plassey (6/23/1757) was the first major test of British sepoys and is generally seen as the beginning of the British Empire in Asia. The British commander, Robert Clive had 950 Europeans and 2100 sepoys against 50,000 troops of Siraj Ud Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal. However, Mir Jafar, commanding 16,000 of the Nawab’s cavalry, had been bribed with a promise of the Nawab’s throne if he would defect. So he didn’t take part in the battle, leading to the rest of the Nawab’s army being demoralized. So it was actually 3,100 vs. 34,000, less than 9 to 1 odds. Causing further confusion in the Nawab’s army was the death of his chief general, Mir Madan.

38 When a heavy rainstorm hit, the British covered their powder, but the Nawab’s troops didn’t. Therefore, when the rain stopped, the British had all the firepower and used it to drive the Nawab’s forces from the field. Siraj Ud Daulah was replaced by Mir Jafir, who later brought the Dutch in to drive out the British, but was defeated and deposed. The British East Indies Company received £2.5 million, while Clive earned £234,000. By comparison, a British noble could live a life of luxury back home on £800 a year.

39 Robert Clive meets his ally, Mir Jafir, after his decisive victory at Plassey (1757)

40 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) A

41 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A

42 Shaking the Pagoda tree Thanks to Plassey, opportunities opened up for making vast fortunes, a practice referred to as shaking the pagoda tree. Company employees developed extravagant and regal tastes. For example ice for cooling drinks was packed in straw and sent by sailing ship from Maine. An extreme example of the luxurious lifestyle was that of the governor of Bombay who would emerge from his private quarters carried on a palanquin with forty servants led by underlings waving silver wands. A fanfare of trumpets would announce each course at dinner, with some state dinners having as many as 600 dishes. Even if you didn’t die from overeating, you still might go deaf. Below: A British party, c It was wild partying like this rather instead of taking care of Company business that drove the BEIC into debt.

43 Griffins, as British newcomers were known, adapted poorly to India’s hostile and less than comfortable surroundings. Their daily work schedule commonly went from 9AM to Noon. Afternoons were spent in eating, napping, gambling, drinking, and more drinking. Nights were spent with dancing girls, drinking, and smoking hookahs (some with opium).

44 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A

45 “Two monsoons are the age of a man” “Two monsoons are the age of a man” was an English proverb describing the downside of living in India, for the risks were as high as the rewards. Such things as heat stroke, malaria, cholera, snakebites, and jungle fever finished off many British in their first six months after arriving from Britain. Many others turned to heavy drinking to drown their sorrows and homesickness. Consequently, liver disease was one of the most commonly suffered afflictions. Below left: A company employee, in ridiculously heavy clothing, is hosed down. Below right: Griffins, as British newcomers were known, relax after a ball.

46 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A

47 Going native. Some British adapted to Indian culture and conditions better than others, adopting local dress and diet and even taking local wives. Left: Sir David Ochterlony (r.) watches dancing girls while smoking a hookah beneath portraits of his Scottish ancestors in his Dehli residence. Below: Major William Palmer and his two Indian wives, a good example of how many British adapted to native Indian culture.

48 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  Problem BEIC got into & who got involved? A

49 A FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

50 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

51 Warren Hastings was the first governor general of the company’s Indian possessions from 1772 to He rode eight miles a day, drank only tea, took cold baths, and was in bed by 10 PM. He ruled the company strictly but fairly, raising employee salaries, while restricting their personal business dealings. Hastings hired young men willing to study and respect local languages and traditions and who were more devoted to king and country than to their own personal profits. He also incorporated Indians into the company bureaucracy, thus laying the foundations of the Indian Civil Service. Hastings, who knew both Persian and Bengali, believed in treating Indian civilization with respect. In a sense, he was the father of Indian historiography, in that he first treated the history of the subcontinent as a unified whole instead of as a bunch of regional histories. He helped scholars introduce Indian civilization to the rest of the world. As a result, he was able to persuade Indian princes to ally with the company.

52 By the same token, Hastings worked to create a bit of Britain in the middle of India, except intensified and exaggerated by the long distance from home. Well-heeled nobles replaced old rough and ready merchants living like Indian princes. He replaced tom- toms with a fife and drum corps, curried dishes with English recipes, local clothing with London fashions, and Indian style homes with country houses complete with tidy gardens, such as Hastings’ Calcutta home below. For entertainment, the British could go to places like the Bread and Cheese Bungalow, Jockey Club, and Eden Gardens.

53 Just as in England, the days would pass in a long round of social calls, afternoon naps, evening card games, music recitals, balls, and dinner parties complete w/sherbet. Of course, to maintain all this British culture and decorum, they needed real British ladies, so each October English women arrived in the “Fishing” fleet looking for husbands. Those disappointed in these hopes would return to England with the spring monsoon next spring. The cartoon below, “The Sale of English Beauties”, is a satirical comment on the fate of those women.

54 Despite this influx of British culture, many company employees still chose to live in gilded extravagance. One captain going to war in 1780 took a steward, a cook, a "boy", a horse keeper, a grass cutter, a washer man, his mistress, plus 15 coolies to transport his tent and large bed, camp stools, folding table, up to 6 trunks full of tableware, cases of wine, a hamper of live poultry, a goat, and an extra tent for supplies. Not surprisingly, disgruntled employees resented Hastings’ reforms and had charges of corruption brought against him back home. After a long trial, he was acquitted, but also replaced as governor. The cartoon below satirizes those attacking Hastings as bandits while portraying him as the “Saviour of India.”

55 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  The other view?

56 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A

57 Lord Cornwallis, governor-general , reversed many of Hastings’ policies, firing all but one Indian employee and creating a growing gap between The British ruling class and Indian subjects

58 Sir Richard Wellesley, governor- general , expanded British holdings out of fear of France, especially after Napoleon invaded Egypt in At this time, India still consisted of 562 states. Wellesley’s brother was Arthur, (AKA Duke of Wellington) who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.

59 Opposing views on British policy toward India "Our dominion in India is by conquest. It is naturally disgusting to the inhabitants & can only be maintained by military force. It is our positive duty to render them justice, to respect & protect their rights." "These [Indian] people, if they have the virtues of slaves, have their vices also. They are cunning & incapable of truth; they disregard the imputation of lying & perjury & would consider it folly not to practice them for their own interest."--Mrs. Graham from her Journal of a Residence in India, 1809

60 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

61 The First Burmese War (1824-6) British expansion continued after Wellesley’s governorship. Much of this was caused by raids by Burmese pirates operating in long fast war canoes that sailing ships could not catch. Then the British showed up with an entirely new type of ship, one powered by steam that chased the Burmese canoes up their river. Although the steamship couldn’t outrun the canoes, it could outlast them until the Burmese rowers collapsed from exhaustion and were killed or captured. Eventually, the British won this First Burmese War and annexed part of Burma. They would annex the rest of it in 1886 after two more wars.

62 The hairy family of Mandalay, found during the First Burmese War

63 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A Religious issue that upset many Indians?

64 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A What else did Eur’s do that upset many Indians?

65 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A

66 The Great India Mutiny & Beginning of the Raj

67 Rising tensions: The BEIC’s policies and their impact on India’s economy When the British first came to India, their goods were not in demand, leading to a poor Balance of trade. However, as the BEIC expanded its power and control in parts of India, it could force exchanges of goods for bargain prices. Artisans were forced to work in company factories and forbidden to leave until they had made their quota. As a general rule they could only work only for the BEIC, making them virtual slaves. This company monopoly meant Indian merchants couldn't trade directly with Indian artisans, but had to buy from the BEIC at its prices. More and more they also found themselves working as underlings for the BEIC or changing jobs, which ruined many flourishing areas and market towns. If Indians were caught dealing directly with the artisans, their goods were confiscated and they might even be beaten. The BEIC could also trade freely without paying customs duties, which hurt the finances of Indian princes, especially those in Bengal.

68 When company imports to Britain, especially the lighter more comfortable cotton fabrics, started hurting British textile industries, the government, influenced by Adam Smith’s ideas on free trade, abolished the company monopoly in Even then, Britain still couldn't compete against the superior Indian textiles, so it put huge customs on Indian imports and forcibly flooded Indian Markets with British textiles. In 1826,when the BEIC turned its interests toward China and the tea trade, it forcibly converted many Indian cotton fields to raise opium, which also drastically cut India’s competitive edge in textiles.

69 The Afghan disaster (1842) "When you're left for dying on Afghanistan's plains And the women come out to cut up what remains Just roll to your rifle and blow out your brains.” --Rudyard Kipling “Last stand of the 44 th ”

70 Afghanistan has always been a problem to control. Alexander the Great conquered it, but needed three years of the most prolonged and vicious fighting of his career to do it. Not much of anyone else has succeeded since. The Russians tried and failed in the 1980s and the Americans’ longest war has still to see victory. Lady Butler’s depiction of the lone survivor of the Afghan disaster In 1842, the British tried to conquer it, largely as a buffer against Russian expansion, and failed miserably as their whole army was wiped out except for one survivor to take the news back to India. Even worse, the disastrous defeat of British forces in Afghanistan in 1842 broke the spell of British invincibility in the region and helped trigger the Great India Mutiny.

71 Right: areas affected by the Great Indian Mutiny The Great India Mutiny (1857-8) Things came to a head with the Great India Mutiny. Sparking it was a misunderstanding about what kind of grease was used on the bullets for the sepoys' new Enfield rifles. Muslim troops thought pig grease, which they abhor, was being used, while Hindu troops thought the British were using grease from cows, which they hold sacred. Britain may very well have been sensitive to Hindu and Muslim feelings about cow and pig grease and ordered the bullets to be treated with vegetable oil, although the orders may have gotten confused or distorted. As a result 85 sepoys refused to accept the guns with the new cartridges and were arrested, causing their enraged comrades to storm the prison and then set out to kill every foreigner. From there the mutiny rapidly spread, although most of India stayed calm in spite of company employees largely mishandling the situation.

72 As is typical of such rebellions, atrocities abounded out of frustration from extended misrule. One British force was massacred under truce. At Cawnpore (Kanpur), hundreds of European women and children surrendered and were promptly and brutally massacred despite a promise of safe passage. The most notorious event was the Black Hole of Calcutta, where reportedly 123 of 146 prisoners suffocated from being crammed into an area so tightly they could not breathe. There is controversy over the number of victims listed. Below left: Depiction of the Cawnpore massacre, although soldiers, women, and children were killed at different times over a period of two weeks.

73 Despite initial successes, prolonged sieges and disunity within the mutiny’s disparate elements led to its eventual collapse. One decisive event was the surrender and disarming of 36,000 restive sepoys in the Punjab and replacing them with loyal Sikhs, followed by the brutal storming and sacking of Dehli and other Indian cities. Below: British and loyal Indian troops fight their way through Delhi

74 Only four months after its start and before British reinforcements could arrive, the back of the rebellion was broken, although fighting and guerrilla warfare would continue until late Below: British forces relieve Lucknow during the Great India Mutiny (3/19/1858)

75 In revenge, the British staged mass hangings and bayoneted mutinous sepoys on sight. At Amristar, the incident of the Black Hole was repeated in reverse where 45 out of 332 prisoners waiting for execution in a tiny jail suffocated. As an example to their fellow sepoys, captured rebels were dealt with harshly, some of them being tied to the fronts of loaded cannon barrels that were then shot.

76 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br did what? A

77 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A

78 Britain ruled only about 60% of Indian directly & the rest indirectly through native princes who followed British policies. But that was enough to give it effective control of the subcontinent. French Dependent or under British supervision Portuguese

79 In 1876, Queen Victoria was declared empress of India. The next year she toured the subcontinent, which became known as the Crown Jewel of the British Empire.

80 In 1886, the British rounded out their conquests by taking the rest of Burma. Left: Bengali troops, led by a British officer, advance in the takeover of Upper Burma Right: This depiction of a street in Mandalay only a year after the British conquest shows how quickly British cultural influence took hold.

81 “The sun never sets on the British Empire” There was a good deal of truth in this saying. By 1900, in terms of overall territorial extent, the British Empire had become the largest empire in history, although it was scattered across the globe. Therefore, the empire’s global extent meant that the sun was indeed always shining on part of it. By the same token, one could say the empire was always shrouded in darkness.

82 The continued maintenance of British rule required keeping a large army of native troops commanded by British officers, such as Sikander’s Bengal Lancers, seen here passing in review.

83 The Indian army on training maneuvers in 1891.

84 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  How did Br. develop econ? A

85 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A The continued maintenance of British rule required keeping a large army of native troops, such as Sikander’s Bengal Lancers, seen here passing in review. Tying India together?

86 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  Civil govt.?

87 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A The Suez Canal (opened 11/17/1869) proved vital to British and other European countries’ hold on their Asian colonies, since this 105 mile long artificial strait of water cut more than 4350 miles off the voyage from Europe to Asia. A narrow gauge railroad in India. By the end of its rule in 1947, the British built railway system in India was the most extensive in Asia.

88 A British tennis party in India in the late 1800s served by Indian servants shows how much the British ruling class segregated itself from the Indian population in order to maintain their customs and way of life thousands of miles from home.

89 Officials pass out food during a famine in India. Even modern developments in agriculture & transportation brought in by the British weren’t necessarily good news for Indians, because the more stable food supply these advances brought triggered dramatic population growth. The resulting burden on the food producing and distribution systems just made more people susceptible to the effects of famine when it did strike.

90 A FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWI (FC.127) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

91 A FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

92 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A What did Hindus want?

93 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A Indep.. movement by Hindus  Reaction by Muslims?

94 Members of the Indian National Congress, which was formed in 1875, pose for a group portrait. At first, they espoused loyalty to Great Britain, but came to be leaders in the movement for independence.

95 George V of England visits India in 1911 in an attempt to dazzle his Indian subjects and bolster their loyalty to Britain in the face of rising nationalist sentiments for independence.

96 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A How did WWI & II affect Britain’s policy?

97 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A Br. needs Indian help  ?

98 A FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

99 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A Leader & his tactics?

100 A FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Gandhi’s non- violent movement Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

101 Mohandas Gandhi (01/2/ /30/1948) as a young man was a prosperous lawyer educated in Britain where he learned the best and worst of Western Civilization. He soon became an activist for the rights of colonials, first in South Africa and later in his native India.

102 The most remarkable aspect of Gandhi’s campaign for Indian independence was that it used non-violent civil disobedience to protest British policies. If his followers did turn to violence, he would go on a hunger strike until the violence stopped. So great was his moral authority and the loyalty he inspired, that this tactic consistently restored the peace.

103 As part of his program to gain independence from Britain, Gandhi reverted to the much simpler Indian lifestyle, even spinning his own thread as seen here. To protest India’s caste system and show his revolution was equally for all Indians, he adopted a girl of the untouchable caste.

104 The Dandi Salt March, As a protest against the British salt tax imposed on India, Gandhi marched 400 kilometers (240 miles) to the sea and evaporated some sea water, daring British officials to arrest him for such a normally inconspicuous act.

105 Gandhi and a baby. As a protest against the caste system, Gandhi even adopted a girl from the untouchable class.

106 Gandhi tends to a leper, showing his regard for all human life.

107 There was a playful and very human side to Gandhi, such as here where he is chasing his grandson along a beach

108 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Gandhi’s non- violent movement Muslim/Hindu clashes worsen Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  A Major source of tension within India?

109 A FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Gandhi’s non- violent movement Muslim/Hindu clashes worsen Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

110 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  Tropical diseases & heat kill many BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Gandhi’s non- violent movement Muslim/Hindu clashes worsen Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757) Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.52) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.82) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) WWI (FC.127) WWII (FC.135) Br. grants indep. (1947), but to separate Hindu India & Muslim Pakistan India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees 

111 “Great soul” Unfortunately, India paid a heavy price for independence, because a Hindu, disgruntled with the partition of India, shot and killed Gandhi. Even in death, Gandhi was thinking of others, being relieved to find that a Hindu, not a Muslim, had shot him, since that would be less likely to renew violence between the two groups. His incredible strength and spirit in guiding India along a non-violent path to independence earned him the nickname Mahatma, meaning “Great soul.”

112 Sikh refugees leave the newly formed Muslim state of Pakistan to find new homes in Hindu India

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119 FC. 123 THE BRITISH IN INDIA (c ) Great India Mutiny (1857)  Br. Gov. takes control of India (1858) Defeat Fr. expansion in S. India during 7 Yrs War BEIC trains native troops like Eur. armies  India wide open for exploitation & conquest by BEIC & its employees  BEIC in debt  Br. govt. assumes more control British having no respect for Ind. civ. Growing tension between: British advocating respect for Ind. civ. Efficient but segregated bur. Continue bldg. RR’s & telegr. Br. send missionaries, some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. rapidly modernize Ind., some to help Indians & some to show Eur. superiority Many Indians upset either way Br. E. Indies Comp.(BEIC) sets up & must defend trading posts in India Br. needs Indian help  More promises of concessions Indep.. movement by Hindus  Indian Muslims want sep. state Gandhi’s non- violent movement Muslim/Hindu clashes worsen Many make huge fortunes Many adopt local customs Dev. Tea, cotton, coal & iron ind’s Decline of Mughal Empire  Growing turmoil (FC.61) Decline of Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia by 1600 (FC.81) WWI (FC.81) WWII (FC.81) WWI (FC.81) WWII (FC.81) Br. grants indep. (1947), but to separate Hindu India & Muslim Pakistan Tropical diseases & heat kill many Defeat Bengalis at Plassey vs. 30:1 odds (1757)


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