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This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2006 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. Revised by Tamara Copeland Robin L. SimmonsRobin L. Simmons This PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2006 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. Revised by Tamara Copeland Robin L. SimmonsRobin L. Simmons This PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

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2 This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2006 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. Revised by Tamara Copeland Robin L. SimmonsRobin L. Simmons This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2006 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. Revised by Tamara Copeland Robin L. SimmonsRobin L. Simmons

3 GRAMMAR Lecture Pronoun Reference Even more pronoun rules to learn! Even more pronoun rules to learn!

4 Now read this sentence: Rule 1: Each pronoun must refer clearly to a single antecedent. Lorna told Sue that her miniskirt was too short and too tight. herher Is there a problem?

5 Isn’t it possible to see two different pictures? This one … Girl, that skirt is a little tight! Girl, that skirt is a little tight! You reall y think so? You reall ythink so? Lorna Sue

6 … or this one? I know, I know my skirt is too short! I know, I know my skirt is too short! No for laundry this week, huh? No time for laundry this week, huh? No time for laundry this week, huh? Lorna Sue

7 To fix the problem, try one of these two strategies. Strategy 1: Use a specific word to replace the pronoun. The correction looks like this: Lorna told Sue that her skirt was too short and too tight. Strategy 2: Completely revise the sentence, like this: Lorna told Sue that her skirt was too short and too tight. Sue’s skirt Lorna’s skirt Sue, “Your skirt is tight.” Sue, “My skirt is Sue, “My skirt is

8 Rule 2: A pronoun should not refer to a possessive noun [one that ends in ’s or s’ ]. Now read this sentence: The cockroach’s antennae searched the air as it attempted to find leftover crumbs or spilled soda. itit Is there a problem, my friends? Is there a problem, my friends?

9 To fix the problem, try one of these two strategies: Strategy 1: Use of to show possession instead of ’s or s’. The antennae of the cockroach searched the air as it attempted to find leftover crumbs or spilled soda. Don’t use this option if the sentence will sound really weird. Bob’s eyes grew more and more tired as he studied his pronoun reference rules. The eyes of Bob grew … [Sounds like the title of a horror movie!]

10 The eyes of Bob say know Strategy 2! The eyes eyes of Bob say know Strategy 2! Strategy 2: Revise the sentence so that the pronoun reference is specific. The cockroach attempted to find leftover crumbs or spilled soda; his antennae searching the air.

11 Rule 3: Use they with precision. They should have a single, clear antecedent. Don’t worry if the stock market is down. They say that fluctuations are natural and won’t hurt your long-term investments. Now read this sentence: Is there a problem? TheyThey

12 Who is they ? Space aliens from Zortek? Talking squirrels from Lake Eola? Market analysts? Pay attention! I know you can hear me! Pay attention! I know you can hear hear me!

13 Don’t worry if the stock market is down. Space aliens say that fluctuations are natural and won’t hurt your long-term investments. Don’t worry if the stock market is down. The talking squirrels at Lake Eola say that fluctuations are natural and won’t hurt your long- term investments. Don’t worry if the stock market is down. Market analysts say that fluctuations are natural and won’t hurt your long-term investments. Say what you mean!

14 Rule 4: Use it with precision. It should have a single, clear antecedent. It says in this week’s National Inquisitor that the Loch Ness Monster ate Elvis Presley. Now read this sentence: Is there a problem? ItIt

15 What says? Who says? It says in this week’s National Inquisitor that the Loch Ness Monster ate Elvis Presley. This Inquisitor says that the Loch Ness Monster ate Elvis Presley. I must admit that he tasted pretty bad. I must admit that he tasted pretty bad.

16 In addition, use it sparingly. They say that Ms. Simmons will allow no more than two its per sentence! Who says? Who says? We do! The talking squirrels from Lake Eola! We do! do! The talking squirrels from Lake Eola!

17 Rule 5: Make certain that this, that, and which have one clear antecedent. The 747 crashed into a kennel full of puppies, killing everyone on board, which really upset Gloria. Now read this sentence: Is there a problem? whichwhich

18 What really upset Gloria? Oh, no! We’re going down! We’re all going to die! Oh, no! We’re going down! We’re all going to die! Oh, no! Is that a kennel full of puppies below? Oh, no! Is that a kennel full of puppies below?

19 The 747 crashed into a kennel full of puppies, killing everyone on board. Plane crashes really upset Gloria. The 747 crashed into a kennel full of puppies, killing everyone on board. The dead passengers really upset Gloria. The 747 crashed into a kennel full of puppies, killing everyone on board. All those doomed puppies really upset Gloria. Say what you mean!

20 Rule 6: Use you [or any other second-person pronoun] only for direct address. I never ride the Kumba at Busch Gardens because roller coasters always make you throw up. I never ride the Kumba at Busch Gardens because roller coasters always make you throw up. Now read this sentence: youyou Is there a problem?

21 Wheeeeeee! Wheeeeeee! Use second- person pronouns only if you mean your reader! Use second- person pronouns only if you mean your reader! Whoooooo!

22 Fix the problem this way: I never ride the Kumba at Busch Gardens because roller coasters always make you throw up. meme I don’t feel so good … I don’t feel feel so good …

23 Rule 7: Make sure that who, which, and that refer to the right types of nouns. King, Jerome’s German shepherd, which barks incessantly, works better at deterring thieves than any alarm system ever could. Now read this sentence: Is there a problem? whichwhich

24 Use who for people, famous animals, or named pets. Fred, who plays the drums … King, who guards the house … Mickey Mouse, who greets guests …

25 Use which for inanimate objects and unnamed animals. Our refrigerator, which makes strange noises … My lucky pen, which I use to … The stray cat which my neighbor helped …

26 Use that for anything unnamed, though who is best for people. The jerk that lives next door … The iguana that Tajuana has as a pet … The coffee maker that we got as a gift …

27 To prepare for the pronoun reference quiz, do the following: Be sure to complete and understand all of the interactive practice exercises for this unit. Exercise 1 looks like the real quiz; I will post a practice quiz at the course website. This PowerPoint presentation is also available for your review. me with any questions.

28 The End. The End. Study for your pronoun reference quiz! It’s a hard nut to crack!


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