CHAPTER 8 A thin layer of gold covering a lot of corruption
Chapter 6 Need to Know Thomas Edison Electricity Alexander Graham Bell Transcontinental Railroad
More Chapter 6 Andrew Carnegie- Industrialist who made a fortune in steel John D. Rockefeller- formed Standard Oil Company J.P. Morgan- Financer, mainly railroad industry
MARK TWAIN "Clothes make the man. Naked people have little or no influence on society." “Denial ain't just a river in Egypt.” Gilded Age coined by Twain
Section 1- business of Politics A.Laissez-Faire Policies Created by? -Adam Smith who wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776 Subsidy? - Payment made by Gov to encourage the development of certain key industries, such as railroads
D. Opposing Political Parties Republicans appealed to: Industrialists, bankers, and eastern farmers Strongest in the North and Midwest Weakest in the South Platform: Favored tight money supply backed by gold High tariffs to protect American business Gov aid to railroads Enforce Blue Laws -regulations that prohibited certain private activities that some people considered immoral- drinking alcohol on Sunday
2. DEMOCRATS APPEALED TO: Northern urban immigrants, laborers, southern planters, and western farmers PLATFORM: oIncreased money supply backed by silver oLower tariffs on imported goods oLess Gov aid to big business oFewer blue laws
Rutherford Hayes Against Spoils System He began to reform the Civil Service- Gov non-elected workers He strengthened the Gov and weakened the Republicans
James Garfield 1880 Election: James Garfield v Winfield Hancock Republicans split into 3 parties -Stalwarts: defended spoils system -Half-Breeds: reform spoils system -Independents: against spoils system Garfield a Half-Breed while VP Arthur was a Stalwart
July 2, 1881- Charles Guiteau Shot Garfield. He shouted out “I am a Stalwart and Arthur is President now”. A public outcry began against the spoils system
VV ice President Chester Arthur becomes President RR eform of spoils system PP endleton Civil Service Act- 1883 *ENDED SPOILS SYSTEM
Election 1884 Grover Cleveland- Democrat James Blaine- Republican
Issues of the Election, 1884 High Tariffs, unfair business practices, and unregulated railroads Scandals -Blaine receive stock options from railroad in return for votes? Did not admit and no one could prove it -Cleveland have a child out of wedlock (not married)? Admitted to this Republicans repeated “Ma, Ma, where’s my Pa” Democrats in response “Going to the White House, ha, ha, ha”
Regulating Railroads What is charging? -charging more for a short haul than a long haul What are rebates? -partial refunds or discounts to favored customers
Munn vs. Illinois- 1877 -Case allowed states to regulate railroad business within their borders Wabash Case- 1886 -Interstate railroads were not regulated Congress Responds -Interstate Commerce Act Rates should be set according to distance traveled Rates should be made public. No rebates should be given
Benjamin Harrison- 1888 Harrison wanted increase in tariffs, Cleveland wanted minor reduction in tariffs Signed Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890 -outlawed companies that restrained interstate trade Reached into the Treasury to give $$ to Civil War Vets dependents His actions hurt the economy and eventually the country went into a long depression
Cleveland’s 2 nd Term Easily defeated Harrison- ran on lower tariffs again Depression started after his term started- 1893 Gov offered no help, many lost their jobs and wages cut
Jacob Coxey and his Army Wealthy Ohio quarry owner Wanted Gov to make jobs for unemployed workers Gathered many unemployed to march on Washington “We will send a petition to Washington with boots on” -Coxey-
Cleveland Angers All Farmers upset after he repealed Sherman Silver Purchase Act Unions upset when Cleveland sent federal troops during the Pullman Strike of 1894 Unemployed upset due to no Gov help Most Democrats turned against him
William Mckinley Wins- 1896 Defeated William Jennings Bryan (was for bimetallism) Strong gold standard “A full dinner pail”
Sept. 6, 1901 Mckinley shot by Leon Czolgosz who was thought to be mentally ill Anarchist Mckinley died 8 days later "I killed the President because he was the enemy of the good people —the good working people. I am not sorry for my crime."
Why did people immigrate… -from homeland? -to the US? What were Pogroms? -violent massacres of Jews in Russia -could only live and work in certain places
Most immigrants traveled in Steerage -no comfort -no privacy -poor food -tickets were cheap -took 1 week to arrive at…..
ELLIS ISLAND NEW YORK- most immigrants came through here
Physical Exams -anyone who had a disease faced quarantine -some were even deported -”It was harrowing to see families separated”
Where did they settle? New York, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit Employers loved immigrants, Why? Tried to settle with same kind of people -lived with same ethnic groups, this formed Ghettos
RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS? -created a gap between the rich and poor
Angel Island 1910-1940 “Guardian of the Western Gate” San Francisco Bay Used to enforce Gov legislation on immigrants Chinese and Japanese largest groups Fire destroyed Admin building 1940- shut down
Chinese Immigrants Railroads Lower wages, Unions upset Chinese Exclusion Act 1882?
Japanese Restriction Ends 1906 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean not allowed in white schools Japanese Gov upset so Teddy Roosevelt reached a compromise 1907 Gentlemen’s Agreement Asians were most discriminated against during this time
Immigration from Mexico Where did they work in the South? Pull Factor- new opportunities Push Factor- Turmoil in Homeland Mexican Revolution and civil war
Section 3- The Cities Expanding Cities- 1880-1920 11 million left farms and headed to the cities along with many immigrants. New York, Philly, Chicago, St. Louis Farm labor decreased, why?
After Reconstruction, segregation and racial violence increased against African Americans 1910 boll weevil (beetle) destroyed cotton crops and floods ruined farmlands African Americans went where?
How Cities Grew Modes of transportation- If you had money you could afford this People who could moved outside the city forming suburbs- ? Modes of transportation….
Elisha Otis Invented safety device that made elevators possible in case a cable broke Set the stage for skyscrapers, helped advance cities 1 st one, Chicago- Home Insurance Company building 1885 10 stories tall, iron and steel, 4 passenger elevators
Housed many, low cost Conditions: Air- lack of good ventilation caused disease to spread Urban areas were slums at this time Water- contaminated, linked to cholera and typhoid Problems fixed Built reservoirs, had a filtration system, hallway bathrooms replaced outhouses, and bathroom sinks and tubs installed
Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives “the gang is the ripe fruit of tenement house growth”-? “gangs are made up of the American-born sons of English, Irish, and German parents”-?
Result of City Growth Widened the gap between rich and poor Cities raised taxes to form police and fire protection, sewage, electric and water service, etc. Increased revenue gave Gov more power Groups competed for control of City Gov -Some represented middle and upper class others represented lower class
Political Machines Unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power. Headed by a single powerful “Boss” They formed out of competition for control of city Gov The boss would hand pick people to run for office then help them win or they would run themselves
Handed out jobs and had other favors done by people they were representing in return for their vote Willam “Boss” Tweed Controlled Tammany Hall- political club that ran New York City’s Democratic Party Gained millions through Fraud and Graft
Thomas Nast Helped bring Tweed down with his political cartoons by exposing his methods Tweed was convicted in 1873, died in jail years later
Ideas for Reform Helping the needy- Charity Organization Movement 1882, Josephine Shaw Lowell Wanted immigrants to adopt middle class standards for raising kids, cooking, cleaning, etc. Some were upset others were grateful
Social Gospel Movement Social reform movement developed within religious institutions Looked to apply Gospel of Jesus directly to society
Settlement Movement Many educated men and women put social gospel movement into practice and formed settlement houses, what were they? Began in Britain, people wanted to witness poverty 1 st hand to know how to fix living conditions Jane Addams- Hull House 1 st settlement house People attended cultural events and took classes
Settlements houses set up Social Services: child-care centers, playgrounds, clubs, summer camps, offices to help people find jobs, and health care clinics By 1910, 400 settlement houses were across the nation
Auguste Comte Coined the word sociology, which is?
Controlling Immigration and Behavior Nativism- ? Wanted tighter rules on immigration Wanted only American Culture and English taught in schools
Prohibition Temperance Movement- organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption Drinking led to personal tragedies Supported 18th Amendment, prohibition- ?
Carrie Nation Smashed illegal saloons with a hatchet in Kansas Branch off of social gospel movement Saloons making the world un-Christian Saloons undermined public morals
Purity Crusaders Vice- ? Drugs, gambling, prostitution became big People were upset so they became “purity crusaders”
Anthony Comstock 1873, founded New York Society for the suppression of Vice Comstock Law- prohibited sending obscene materials through the mail, mainly descriptions of methods to prevent unwanted pregnancy This law slowed distribution of info on birth control