Presentation on theme: "EMDR EYE MOVEMENT DESENSITIZATION AND REPROCESSING LORI SETZER & PATRIK STRIDH."— Presentation transcript:
EMDR EYE MOVEMENT DESENSITIZATION AND REPROCESSING LORI SETZER & PATRIK STRIDH
EMDR ORIGINATOR AND DEVELOPER FRANCINE SHAPIRO, Ph.D
EMDR Dr. Shapiro has been an invited speaker on EMDR at numerous psychology conferences, including the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society Presidential Symposium on PTSD. She has written and co-authored more than 50 articles and three books. Dr. Shapiro received the Distinguished Scientific Achievement in Psychology Award presented by the California Psychological Association and the 2002 Sigmund Freud Award for Psychotherapy presented by the City of Vienna in conjunction with the World Council for Psychotherapy.
DEVELOPMENT OF EMDR In 1987, Dr. Shapiro was taking a stroll in the park and had some disturbing thoughts flash through her mind. After moving her eyes from side to side she noticed the negative feelings immediately dissipate. She assumed that the eye movements had a desensitizing effect. Eye Movement Desensitization (EMD) was introduced in 1989, later called (EMDR) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (1991) to reflect the cognitive changes that occur during treatment and to identify the information processing theory.
When an individual becomes upset or in distress, the brain cannot process the information as it would normally. Some traumatic event or recurring situation provokes intense emotions that become “frozen in time” and “stuck in the information processing system. Dr. Shapiro claims EMDR has a direct effect on the way the brain processes upsetting material. Brom conducted a control study in 1989 and found no significant differences between conditions of psychodynamic therapy, hypnotherapy, and desensitization. Another study conducted by Cooper and Clum reported a moderate clinical effect with a 30% drop- out rate.
Over 40,000 clinicians worldwide have been trained in EMDR. EMDR is the most extensively researched treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). EMDR use in treating depression, phobias and other complex psychological illnesses such as general anxiety, paranoid schizophrenia, learning disabilities, eating disorders, substance abuse, and pathological jealousy.
How it Works No one can explain how it works You concentrate on a problem and move eyes by following a stick, a light, or a finger Some say it unblocks the information processing system Others say it works by the restructuring of memory by a ping- pong effect between the right and left side of the brain –Effects how the brain interprets upsetting material
The Eight Phases of EMDR 1. -Client’s readiness for EMDR is assessed -Treatment plan is laid out 2.-Make sure client has coping skills and is in a relatively stable state -Stress-reducing techniques taught and mastered
Phase 3 through 6 -Target is identified and processed using EMDR -Client identifies positive beliefs and rates it from Client focuses on the image, negative thought, and body sensations while moving eyes back and fourth following the therapist’s finger -Client instructed to notice whatever happens and let their mind go blank and then notice thoughts, feelings, images, memories, or sensations that come to mind -When client reports no distress related to the targeted memory clinician asks them to think of preferred positive beliefs -Therapist checks with client regarding body sensations
Phases 7 and 8 7.-Closure -Client keeps a journal 8.-The Next Session -Re-evaluation of work done and inquire about progress made
Goal of EMDR Therapy Produce the most comprehensive treatment effects in the shortest period of time, while simultaneously maintaining a stable client with in a balanced system.
EMOTIONAL FREEDOM TECHNIQUES EFT “The cause of all negative emotions is a disruption in the body’s energy system” Gary H. Craig The set up Even though I have this ____________ I deeply and completely accept myself. Affirmation-acknowledging problem while tapping. Works even if you do not believe it, just keep saying the phrase continually but is better if emphasized. Tapping process Use dominant hand with two fingers. Tap seven times to get energy straightened out. Reminder phrase “The accident” etc. Sore spot (Lymphatic Congestion) Three inches down from where the tie knot of a tie is and three inches to left and say affirmation three times. Karate chop Tapping point while saying reminder phrase.
The Sequence Each point below the last on the body. 1.Beginning of the Eye Brow (EB) 2.Side of the Eye (SE) 3.Under the Eye (UE) 4.Under the Nose (UN) 5.Chin (Ch) 6.Beginning of the Collar Bone (CB) 7.Under the Arm (UA) 8.Below the Nipple (BN) 9.Thumb (Th) 10.Index Finger (IF) 11.Middle Finger (MF) 12.Baby Finger (BF) 13.Karate Chop (KC)
The 9 Gamut Procedure 1. Eyes closed 2. Eyes open 3. Eyes hard down to the right 4. Eyes hard down to the left 5. Roll eyes in a circle clockwise 6. Roll eyes in a circle counterclockwise 7. Hum for 2 seconds 8. Count rapidly from 1 to 5 9. Hum for 2 seconds
Persisting in the Belief Third Variable Problem Social Influence –Conformity Biased Sampling Confirmation Bias –Fundamental Attribution Error Response to Uncertainty –Pascal’s Wager Testimonials Not Falsifiable
Testing of Belief EMDR relies on eye movement so you would need to control for all other extraneous variables. If you can isolate the eye movement then you would be able to see if it is the essential part of the treatment The scales would have to be standardized to see how much you improved because a 0-10 scale is extremely subjective