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Technology for Responsive Space Capability Inherent Responsiveness: Reconfigurability Robert D. Pugh, PhD Associate Chief Scientist Space Vehicles Directorate.

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Presentation on theme: "Technology for Responsive Space Capability Inherent Responsiveness: Reconfigurability Robert D. Pugh, PhD Associate Chief Scientist Space Vehicles Directorate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology for Responsive Space Capability Inherent Responsiveness: Reconfigurability Robert D. Pugh, PhD Associate Chief Scientist Space Vehicles Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory

2 Two Ways to be Responsive 1. Launch on Demand – When a new/additional space capability is needed, rapidly launch payloads with that capability 2. Use existing space systems – On-orbit “spares”—pre-positioned assets - or - – Reconfigure existing assets to provide new capability

3 Reconfigurable Systems Reconfigurability is a game changer for high- performance & enduring space capabilities – Flexible, robust, adaptable systems Tele-configuration Multi mode, multi function operation – Time shared hardware – Reusable hardware Reconfigurability blurs the Hardware/Software boundaries – Manual or Automated Adjustable antennas IC architectures and processors modified on board – Intelligent/Autonomous Adaptable solutions to unanticipated problems Self repair

4 Benefits of Reconfigurability Systems designed for flexibility  On Orbit—Inherent Responsiveness Tele-configuration Self Repair  In Production—Reduced Development Time Multipurpose components Adaptable interfaces Managing complexity  Systems Engineering Flexibility to simplify integration Configuration control Internal diagnostics

5 Examples of Reconfigurable Technologies Applicable technologies are developing rapidly – FPGA’s: Field Programmable Gate Arrays WIDELY used – Software defined radio: JTRS, cell phones – Reconfigurable antennas: DARPA, Boeing, Others – Reconfigurable computing AF Industry partnerships for reconfigurable processors DARPA polymorphic computing & reconfigurable satellites IBM self-healing computers are “surging to market” – Reconfigurable satellites: DARPA, Boeing Example – Boeing satellites w/ on-orbit adjustable antennas and processors (Wall Street Journal, 2002 and 2003) Boeing Shifts Satellite Strategy in Effort to Regain Customers (Wall Street Journal, August 29, 2002) (AP) “Boeing, hurt by quality control problems afflicting a number of it largest satellites, has embarked on a major shift to build smaller and more flexible models in an effort to regain customers. Some versions in the new line will be the first satellites capable of being reconfigured in Space to changing customer and market demands….” Boeing Shifts Satellite Strategy in Effort to Regain Customers (Wall Street Journal, August 29, 2002) (AP) “Boeing, hurt by quality control problems afflicting a number of it largest satellites, has embarked on a major shift to build smaller and more flexible models in an effort to regain customers. Some versions in the new line will be the first satellites capable of being reconfigured in Space to changing customer and market demands….”

6 The Truth* About Reconfigurability Techno-geek jargon hinders acceptance of the new paradigm – Terminology is neither rigorous or standard – Jargon conjures up concerns about risk – Risk is expensive and avoided in space systems Applicable technologies are in use and developing rapidly – Increasingly complex systems demand flexibility – High costs of space demands reconfigurablity Two paths to inserting reconfigurable technologies – System capability driven – Market/competition driven *The truth according to Janet

7 Flexibility: Why it’s important and why it’s difficult Motivation – Tele-alteration: Change from distance, refocus mission, extend platform utility – Fault tolerance: Improved robustness, defect management – Rapid development: software programmable vs. “build from scratch” Why it’s difficult – Presently, architectures are collections of single- function components hard-wired together – Flexibility (reconfigurability) requires: Multi-/variable-function components The ability to “edit” interconnect patterns of a system Flexibility Drives Interconnections

8 Vision for Reconfigurable Components and Microsystems Self-repair -overcome effects of threats & environment -improve reliability lifetime -graceful degradation Adapt to evolving threats, missions, & environments -self-optimizing, high performance -reconfigurable functionally -redefinable power & data pathways -monolithically integrated sensors Reduce deployment time -adaptive interfaces to facilitate spacecraft integration -reduce parts variety -monolithic analog/digital/RF

9 Reconfigurable System Enablers The Innovative Solution Space Adaptive Digital Electronics – traditional (von Neumann) digital circuits combined with FPGA’s to create self-repairing, configurable electronics Smart Sensors –monolithically integrated, agile, self-organizing focal planes and antennas Agile Analog Electronics – reconfigurable analog and mixed signal arrays for adaptive systems-on-chip to alter responses and sensor/actuator interfaces Reconfigurable Wires – reconfigure signal & power pathways using adaptive MEMS-based manifolds (“smart wiring harnesses” under software control) Flexible Microwave Electronics – reprogrammable RF circuits, transmission lines, antennas, adaptive anti-jam circuits Intelligent Power Control Electronics – adapt to changes in voltage supply and load while maintaining efficiency; distributed power management and energy storage and flexible power distribution

10 Traditional Computers Digital systems Analog systems FPGAs Programmable Analog arrays Programmable microwave configurable power Programmable wiring Programmable matter configurable mechanisms Reconfigurable System Enablers The Innovative Solution Space

11 Reconfigurability Enabling Technologies Developed by the AFRL Space Vehicles Directorate

12 Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) Virtually every macro-device has a micro-counterpart – Micro-gyros, micro-accelerometers – Micro-mirrors & micro-optical systems – Micro-relays – Micro-thrusters – Micro-chemical sensors Micro-relays Machines-on-a-chip – Integrated circuit chips with moving parts

13 Goal – Reprogrammable wiring harnesses Technology Challenges – Quality switches – Developing effective resource grid & switch population scheme Approach – MEMS micro-latching relays – FPGA routing algorithms Accomplishments – Developed simple prototype of harness routing tool – First pass design of primitive (80 switch) harness Flexibility: MEMS Adaptive Manifold Conceptual “tree-of-meshes” harness for future space avionics (requires MEMS latching switches and extra wires) Game-changing applications of MEMS devices for more flexible spacecraft

14 Reconfigurable Interconnect: Chalcogenide Wires Chalcogenide, the Workhorse of Reconfigurable Electronics Chalcogenide molecular structure determines electrical properties Current pulse induces ultra-fast phase transition Resistivity changes up to six orders of magnitude Materials with externally controllable electrical conductivity –Numerous components exploit this controllable conductivity Programmable resistors for analog functions Reconfigurable interconnections Multi-state (analog) non-volatile memory technology Microwave transmission lines, antenna elements I time

15 Reconfigurable Systems Malleable Signal Processor (MSP) SENSOR MSP “JUKEBOX” Multi-chip module MSP core Multi-chip module MSP core Morphable hardware miniaturized and running in real-time Hardware that can adapt to new sensor types & mission scenarios – Reconfigurable logic becomes real-time, embedded interface Digitally configured front-end – Multiple interfaces, each for a specific sensor FPA, ladar, steering mirrors

16 Sensor and Fusion Engine (SAFE) Embedded, reconfigurable supercomputer – 17 multi-chip modules incorporating 15,000 contacts – 12 GFLOPs, 32 Gbit/sec BW – Real-time sensors & mirrors at 100 frames/sec Multiple sensor input First demonstration of embedded processing system scalable to 1TFLOP/cubic foot 2 MSPs processors

17 Inherent Responsiveness for System Development “It is a special combination of hardware and software ideas, combined with … modular gadgets that enable the rapid integration to happen.” “When you do not have to rip apart and re-do cabling, or modify and re-qualify hundreds of thousands of lines of code, then you have something that can truly be ‘rapid.’ ” “It is the only way I can envision doing truly FAST prototyping.” Jim Lyke Space Electronics Branch Air Force Research Laboratory

18 Responsive Space Technology Reconfigurability  Inherently Responsive  On Orbit –Tele-configuration –Self Repair  In Production –Multipurpose components –Adaptable interfaces--Reduced development time! Technologies are in use and developing rapidly  Technology is driven by increasingly complex systems Technology is ready for insertion  Insertion driven by –System performance requirements –Market competition AFRL/VS embraces reconfigurability as the approach to assure our Nation’s continued asymmetric advantage in space


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