Defining Target Needs Criteria for good behavioral definition Objective: observable, countable & measurable Clear: unambiguous, specific, and reliable Complete: delineate inclusions and exclusions
Training Tools Role plays Audiotapes/videotapes Concrete supervision Provide examples of definitions Target behavior worksheets
Training Tools Field-based experiences Advanced supervision strategies Supervisor asks open questions Consultant comes to supervision with revised definitions
Assessing Target Needs Ecological assessment Student and environmental variables Functional assessment Antecedents, consequences and sequential conditions
The class was quietly doing its lesson when Russell, suffering from problems at home, prepared to employ an attention-getting device.
Training Tools Standard questions/interview forms Concrete supervision Identify key questions Functional assessment worksheet Case scenarios
Case of Servio 1. What are some possible target behaviors? 2. What are some important ecological considerations? 3. What are some possible antecedents, consequences, and sequential conditions in this case? 4. What are some possible functions of his behaviors? 5. What are some important areas to explore during the conditions analysis?
Training Tool Field-based experience Advanced supervision strategies Socratic questions Consultants discuss expanded case conceptualization
Effective Programs Have obtainable goals and objectives Have obtainable goals and objectives Are clear and specific Are clear and specific Are minimally intrusive Are minimally intrusive Empower parents & teachers Empower parents & teachers
Evidence Based Interventions Search for interventions that work Follow guidelines established by… Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (EBI Task Force; Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2000; Stoiber & Kratochwill, 2001) What Works Clearinghouse (U.S. Department of Education’s Institute for Education Services, 2003)
Evidence Based Interventions What to look for in an intervention? Focus of the intervention Type of Behavior Conditions for the intervention to be effective Settings Client/Consultee demographics Length of the intervention Effectiveness studies Appropriateness of intervention Consumer satisfaction
Training Tools Concrete supervision strategies Provide intervention materials/resources Interventions focus on child
Training Tool Consultant presentations Guest speakers on EBI’s Advanced supervision strategies Consultant brings intervention ideas to supervision Ecological Interventions
Data-based Decision Making Use data for Goal development Intervention response Immediate modifications Continuous progress monitoring
Training Tool Average rate of compliance is 60%. What is a good goal?
Evaluate Outcomes Child Outcomes Examine baseline and treatment data Peer comparison Rating scales (e.g., SSRS)
Training Tool Was the goal met? Modifications/generalization?