Presentation on theme: "Day 1 Introduction to Social Policy and Youth Policy."— Presentation transcript:
Day 1 Introduction to Social Policy and Youth Policy
Overview of the Module This module is designed to draw together the student’s professional development through the three years of their course. The aim of the module is to enable students to reflect on the journey they have undertaken as a professional, set their learning in the broader social and political context and consider their future learning and development needs
What is the purpose of this module? 1.To pull together all the elements of theoretical and theological thinking and their applications to practice. 2.To deepen reflective practice to an intrinsic level. 3.To prepare the student to self manage learning and development post BA. 4.To consolidate professional identity and Vocation.
1. Understand and critique the wider social policy context and its relevance to professional practice and professional identity 2. Synthesise a theoretical and theological underpinning for each of the six competences 3. Demonstrate an integrated and contextual approach to professional and personal development and lifelong learning. 4. Consistently evidence an appropriate level of professional practice across the six competencies demonstrating competence at the JNC professional grade including the exercise of personal responsibility and decision making in complex and unpredictable circumstances. 5. Demonstrate the ability to communicate effectively, use analytical techniques, problem solving skills, create appropriate interventions and reach sound judgements 6. Show a growing awareness of professional identity including values, ethical and theological frameworks, boundaries and vocation
Teaching days for the Module 26 th March Introduction to Social Policy and Youth Policy 9 th AprilFaith Perspectives on Social Policy: Social Justice, Social Gospel and CRED Policy 30 th AprilGlobal Perspectives on Social Policy: Understanding the UNCRC and the implications to youth work. 7 th MayFuture Perspectives on Social Policy: Priorities for youth and the role of youth workers post 2014
Professional Formation Groups PFG’s will play a critical role in this module as they will help students to meet the learning outcomes set out in this module.
Assessment Portfolio should include: A competence-related piece of work outlining your personal and professional development through the course, clearly set in and engaging with the social and political context of your work. This can be in the form of a written piece, a scrapbook, film or Powerpoint presentation with accompanying notes and should be equivalent to 3000 words. Assessments from the student, PPT and Line Manager. Signed timesheets from the Main Agency Timesheets and Line Manager’s Assessment from the Second Alternative Agency. Marksheets from a presentation given to the PPT and Line Manager in a Three Way Meeting. This should be a 20 minute presentation demonstrating your personal and professional development through the course and identifying future learning and development needs. It will be followed by a 20 minute viva. (25% of mark)
Any Questions? Deadlines for submission 12 noon on the 4 th June
So... what are we talking about? On a Post-It write down your answers to the following baseline questions
1.What do you understand by the term social policy? 2.Who makes social policy? 3.Who does it affect? 4.What areas of life might social policy affect?
Question Time 5.Rate yourself 1-5 on your current understanding of the following terms: 1.Welfare State 2.Child Poverty 3.Inequality 4.Social exclusion 6.Rate your understanding of the following documents: 1.A Model of Effective Practice 2.Our Children and Young People – Our Pledge 3.Review of Public Administration 4.Delivering social change for Children and young people 5.CRED 6.Priorities for Youth
Social Policy: What is it? The Policies which governments use for welfare and social protection The ways in which welfare is developed in society The academic study of this subject area
Some definitions: “Social Policy refers to forms of state intervention which affect the social opportunities and conditions under which people live.” (Burden 1998:3) “Social policy is the study of welfare and the ‘welfare state’. It is a deliberate intervention by the state to redistribute resources amongst its citizens so as to achieve a welfare objective.” (Baldock et al 2003:9) Social Policy is the “aims or goals, or statements of what ought to happen. Social policies aim to improve human welfare and to meet human needs for education, health, housing and social security.” (Blakemore & Griggs 2007:1)
What does it cover? Policy and practice in personal and social services: health, social security, education, employment services, community care, housing management, youth work Social Concerns: Crime, disability, employment, mental health, educational attainment, educational need, old age Issues relating to social disadvantage: Race, gender, poverty The range of the collective responses to these aspects
The term ‘social policy’ refers to forms of state intervention which affect the social opportunities and conditions under which people live (Burden 1998:3) Ultimately relates to how state and society informs and relates to an individual’s social biography and context:
But what do we really know about Politics and Social Policy Democracy Cookbook activity on the Northern Ireland Assembly and the history of policy and politics since the formation of the state: Divide into 2 groups and complete the task ASAP
Personal and Social Biographies Take a few minutes to reflect on your own personal and social context. Consider specifically where social policy may make a direct or indirect impact. Personal Time
Social Policy and Welfare The study of social policy is the study of welfare and the ‘welfare state’: [Social Policy is]a deliberate intervention by the state to redistribute resources amongst its citizens so as to achieve a welfare objective (Baldock et al 2003:9).
The Welfare State Alcock (2008:6-7) highlights that Beveridge (1942) spoke of the ‘five giant social evils’: ignorance, disease, idleness, squalor and want. The labour response was: Free education for all up to the age of 15, NHS free at the point of entry, state commitment to securing employment for all citizens, public housing for all citizens to combat squalor and National Insurance benefits to combat ‘want’.
Arguments for Welfare and Collective Provision Humanitarian Religious Mutual self- interest Democratic Practical
Arguments against Welfare and Collective Provision People have absolute rights to use their own property as they wish Redistributive arrangements are compulsory and thus mitigates against free will The rights of the individual are paramount Undermines economic performance Fosters dependency
Principles of Welfare Provision Residual Welfare Solidarity/ Mutual Responsibility Institutional Welfare Industrial Achievement/ Performance Welfare as safety net, confined to those who are unable to manage otherwise e.g Poor Laws Relates to welfare provided through specific inter- relationships. Specific rather than general. Not general rights. Eg. Trade Unions Welfare is provided for the population as a whole. Welfare is not just for the poor, but for everyone Welfare seen as ‘servant’ of the economy. Helps employers by preparing workforce. Acts as an economic stimulator
Welfare and Northern Ireland Northern Ireland as a region of the UK adopts an institutional system of welfare. This means that there is a combination of universal service (e.g free education; NHS) and some selective benefits (Income Support, Disability Living Allowance)
Welfare and the Concept of Poverty What does “poverty” mean to you? Just as it is very difficult to define “need” so it is difficult to define poverty Poverty may refer to Material conditions Economic position Social position
Welfare and the Concept of Poverty There are two main models of poverty Absolute Poverty: based on subsistence, a minimum standard needed to live. Relative Poverty: based on a comparison of poor people with others in society
Townsend and Relative Poverty Peter Townsend defines poverty as “The absence or inadequacy of those diets, amenities, standards, services and activities which are common or customary in society” Townsend, P. (1979) “Poverty in the United Kingdom: a survey of household resources and standards of living, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, p.39
Hillyard et al (2003) Bare Necessities: Poverty and Social Exclusion
15,360 children and young people in Northern Ireland only own two pairs of shoes Save the Children 2007
Definition to Measurement If there is no agreed definition of poverty then poverty cannot be measured Even if definitions agreed it is still complex and difficult to quantify Absolute Measure: Income based The World Bank uses $2 a day as a current measure. In 2001 they estimated that 2.7 billion people in the world (roughly half the world’s population) were living below this rate
Poverty and the EU The European Union uses a comparative measure which sets the poverty line at 50% of median income
32,000 children and young people in Northern Ireland live in extreme poverty Save the Children 2007
Factors influencing Child Poverty
Steps to eradicate Child Poverty in NI Child Poverty Act (2010) Child Poverty Outcomes Framework (2013) OFMDFM
Poverty and NI “Targeting Social Need” Initiative introduced in 1991 in NI with the aim of improving the social and economic conditions of the most disadvantaged Implementation of this policy required the identification of areas where the highest levels of disadvantage and deprivation exist. Initial ‘index’ of indicators (by Robson) included 18 measurements Revised in 2001 by Michael Noble. Noble used a total of 45 indicators from administrative sources As well as original indicators of health, shelter, physical environment, education, family, income and jobs Noble introduced new measures of child poverty and economic deprivation He included seven individual domain measures covering income, employment, health & disability, education & training, geographical access, social environment and housing NI Assembly, “Measures of Deprivation” (Research Paper 02/02), 23 Jan 02
Noble’s Multiple Deprivation Indicators Advantages Comprehensive use of measurements These can be informed not only by the census figures (10 yearly) but ongoing statistical data Important to have a comparative tool of analysis Useful information for workers in forming community profiles and funding applications Disadvantages Complex index of indicators Measured by Super Output Areas, that are larger than any given community – Can lead to poor communities being excluded from policy initiatives Results provided rank communities and may lead to negative use of this data Results are produced with little indication of what the measuring tools actually were.
The Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH) refers to health inequalities as: Preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups. People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged. Why is it that your post code can mean you have a shorter life expectancy? Or can determine your likelyhood of having a mental illness? Or why is it greater numbers of people in deprived areas suffer from obesity? Health Inequalities
What role does religion play in deprivation?
Catholics 4% Protestants 4% Gays/Lesbian/Bisexual37% Disabled27% Elderly23% Travellers42% Other ethnic38% Peace Monitoring Report : Dr Paul Nolan (2013)
Values in the Welfare Debate Solidarity: “A firm and persevering determination to commit oneself to the common good, that is... The good of all and of each individual, because we are all really responsible for each other” Pope John Paul II, On Social Concern, 1987, #38 Freedom: Individualists argue freedom should be based on independence – freedom to do something The social model of freedom depends on interdependence. To be able to act people have to have the power to choose in society
Values in the Welfare Debate Rights: Rights to welfare can be general or specific In the UK attempts to extend rights to all dependent on citizenship However, citizenship can be a concept that can be used both to deny people rights as well as to include them Justice: Two approaches to justice: Platonic: Justice is what is good, right or desirable (The Republic) Aristotelian: Justice is a principle of proportionate action. Social justice is basically a distributive principle. You get only what you deserve (Nichomean Ethics)