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Piecing Together Interpreting

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1 Piecing Together Interpreting
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Piecing Together Interpreting How to look at interpreting work through the demand-control schema (DC-S)

2 Introduction to Demands & Controls
Any job can be divided up into demands (what the job requires of the employee) and controls (what the worker brings to bear in response to job demands). Demands are about the job Controls are about the worker

3 This understanding of work components and definitions of demands and controls was originally defined by Robert Karasek (1979) for his research on occupational health

4 Definitions of Demands
Requirements of the job Factors that impact worker Work challenges faced by employee Demands are not necessarily demanding, just factors that impact work

5 Dean & Pollard’s Demand Categories
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Dean & Pollard’s Demand Categories Environmental That which is specific to the setting (i.e., goal, professional roles, terminology, physical surroundings) Interpersonal That which is specific to the interaction of the consumers and interpreter (i.e., culture, FOI, goals) Paralinguistic That which is specific to the expressive skills of the deaf/hearing consumers (i.e., style, pace, volume) Intrapersonal That which is specific to the interpreter (i.e., thoughts, feelings, physical reactions)

6 Environmental Demands
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Environmental Demands Goal or purpose of setting Terminology associated with this setting Personnel or clientele in this setting Physical surroundings of the setting Room temperature Chemicals and odors Seating arrangements/sight lines Lighting quality Visual distractions Background noise Space (people, furniture, equipment)

7 Interpersonal Demands
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Interpersonal Demands Dynamics that exist between all parties including the interpreter, such as: Power & authority dynamics Communication style and goals Emotional tone or mood Role and cultural differences Communication flow (e.g., turn taking) Relationship nuances (new, familiar, intimate) “Thought worlds” of hearing & deaf people

8 Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 --Claude Namy (1977)
Quote about Thought Worlds “Interpreting…is not merely transposing from one language to another. It is, rather, throwing a semantic bridge between two different cultures, two different thought worlds.” --Claude Namy (1977)

9 Paralinguistic Demands:
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Paralinguistic Demands: Idiosyncrasies of speaking Volume Pace Accents Clarity of speech Physical position Physical limitations Interpreter’s notes: Notice we do not use “language” per se. It is more about the “raw material” an interpreter’s receives. If the interpreter understands the concept or not is another demand category. This is to say that linguistic demand covers the cognition of language and the manifestation of language but not necessarily the concepts involved. Confused? We can talk about this more. Mental retardation Stroke Injured limb(s) Intoxication Arthritis Other R.O.M. Cerebral Palsy Facial paralysis AD/HD Neck problems Others?

10 Intrapersonal Demands
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Intrapersonal Demands Feelings or ruminations one may have about: one’s safety one’s interpreting performance liability the people and the dynamics the environment physiological distractions psychological responses or distractions

11 Definitions of Controls
Decision latitude afforded to the worker Response to job demands Better understood as noun and not verb (to control, to be in control, feel out of control are not accurate applications of control) Controls are about the employee Controls in interpreting must also include characteristics of interpreter (gender, age, ethnicity, etc.) because interpreting is a practice profession & about human interaction

12 Dean & Pollard’s Control Categories
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Dean & Pollard’s Control Categories Pre-assignment controls: controls that exist or are employed before for the formal assignment. Assignment controls: controls that are employed during the interpreting assignment. Post-assignment controls: controls that are employed after the assignment is over. Self-explanatory

13 Pre-assignment Controls
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Pre-assignment Controls Physical, cognitive, and psychological attributes Gender, age, ethnicity, etc. Interpreting education: Direct and Indirect Credentials: Certification or QA Experience: Work-related and personal Direct preparation for the assignment Clothing Contacts (team, hearing & deaf consumers) Readings, prep materials, Internet

14 Assignment Controls Identifying demands Positive Self-talk
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Assignment Controls Identifying demands Positive Self-talk Direct interventions Interpretations/Translations Prior Relationships Code of Ethics/Code of Professional Conduct Role metaphors (machine, window, telephone line, Bi-Bi, Ally)

15 Post-assignment Controls
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Post-assignment Controls Supervision Formal (with supervisor) Informal (with colleagues) Debriefing/venting With support system Follow up With people involved With further education With referring party Self-care

16 Dean & Pollard’s application
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Theoretical Construct of DC-S Dean & Pollard’s application Karasek’s concepts: Demands Controls Environmental Interpersonal Paralinguistic Intrapersonal Pre, During, & Post

17 Example of DC-S Analysis

18 First Grade Classroom at Reading Time
The teacher in a first grade class has called her students over to the carpet for story time. The story is about penguins and their adventures as a performing group. The students are seated on the carpet and listening to the continuing story of the penguins. There is an interpreter seated next to the teacher and a deaf student seated on the carpet in the middle facing both teacher and interpreter.

19 Environmental Demands
Goal: Education Entertainment Personnel/Clientele: 20 first graders: Most Caucasian, some African-American Teacher: Hispanic female, mid-30’s Physical Surroundings: students seated on “reading carpet”, crowded, teacher in front on rocking chair, visually busy walls, door to the hallway is open, gerbil cage with running wheel Terminology: associated with penguins, performance, specific character names, vocabulary and grammar instruction

20 Interpersonal Demands
Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Interpersonal Demands Teacher uses facial expressions and gestures for correcting children A student complains she can’t see the picture Teacher asks students to predict what might happen The story is visually interesting and students are fascinated watching the interpreter Student calls out “How do you sign penguin?” Another student is sneaking candy from his pockets and distributing it to some; others ask but he refuses; teacher is not aware

21 Paralinguistic Demands
“Read” material Teacher has a Hispanic accent She reads slowly and pauses for emphasis Deaf kid signs with one hand (other hand is propping himself up) using his voice Kid’s are whispering to each other about the candy Intermittent noise from the hallway makes the story hard to hear

22 Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 Demands

23 Intrapersonal Demands
In order to get a good idea of intrapersonal demands for this scenario, you will have to place yourself as an interpreter in this scenario. Imagine yourself in this job. What intrapersonal demands would you be facing? Share your intrapersonal demands with your classmates; note the differences for a later discussion about the interaction of demands and controls!

24 Pre-assignment Controls
Read the chapter ahead of time Find a comfortable place to sit Make sure I am placed close enough to the teacher and the book Mentally prepare myself for a lot of distracting sights and sounds Ask teacher if some signs from the story could be taught to the class (via deaf student and/or interpreter) so to avoid too many interruptions during story and to encourage interest in their classmate’s language

25 Assignment Controls Use good visual ASL (use of space and facial expressions) to show the comedic and active nature of the story Make teacher’s subtle correction of behavior more overt by “signing” the inferred meaning Make eye contact with the boy passing out candy and give the “I see you” facial expression Make eye contact with students who are watching the ASL with interest and smile with encouragement

26 Assignment Controls When the deaf student signs with one hand use consecutive interpreting to figure it out, if still unclear ask for clarification, highlighting the disclarity or ask student to use both hands Pause with teacher to show similar emphasis techniques in ASL Use sign vocabulary taught to class deliberately for those paying attention

27 Post-Assignment Controls
Briefly highlight any plot changes or developments in the story with deaf student to ensure clarity of translation Encourage students’ new vocabulary and encourage interaction with deaf student after story (redirecting attention back to their classmate) Thank teacher for taking time out at the beginning of the story to respond to students’ curiosity Consider whether the “candy” disruption should be reported to the teacher and ask for guidance on future behavior issues ( i.e., how she would like me to deal with them -- ignore or report).

28 Piecing Together Any Assignment
Any interpreting assignment will have EIPI demands for interpreters. If you can piece together EIPI demands either before the assignment (and be ready for them by employing pre-assignment controls) or when you walk into any job, you will be able to respond to these demands more effectively which is good for you and your consumers.

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