Presentation on theme: "Piecing Together Interpreting"— Presentation transcript:
1 Piecing Together Interpreting Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Piecing Together InterpretingHow to look at interpreting work through thedemand-control schema (DC-S)
2 Introduction to Demands & Controls Any job can be divided up into demands (what the job requires of the employee) and controls (what the worker brings to bear in response to job demands).Demands are about the jobControls are about the worker
3 This understanding of work components and definitions of demands and controls was originally defined by Robert Karasek (1979) for his research on occupational health
4 Definitions of Demands Requirements of the jobFactors that impact workerWork challenges faced by employeeDemands are not necessarily demanding, just factors that impact work
5 Dean & Pollard’s Demand Categories Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Dean & Pollard’s Demand CategoriesEnvironmentalThat which is specific to the setting (i.e., goal, professional roles, terminology, physical surroundings)InterpersonalThat which is specific to the interaction of the consumers and interpreter (i.e., culture, FOI, goals)ParalinguisticThat which is specific to the expressive skills of the deaf/hearing consumers (i.e., style, pace, volume)IntrapersonalThat which is specific to the interpreter (i.e., thoughts, feelings, physical reactions)
6 Environmental Demands Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Environmental DemandsGoal or purpose of settingTerminology associated with this settingPersonnel or clientele in this settingPhysical surroundings of the settingRoom temperatureChemicals and odorsSeating arrangements/sight linesLighting qualityVisual distractionsBackground noiseSpace (people, furniture, equipment)
7 Interpersonal Demands Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Interpersonal DemandsDynamics that exist between all parties including the interpreter, such as:Power & authority dynamicsCommunication style and goalsEmotional tone or moodRole and cultural differencesCommunication flow (e.g., turn taking)Relationship nuances (new, familiar, intimate)“Thought worlds” of hearing & deaf people
8 Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007 --Claude Namy (1977) Quote about Thought Worlds“Interpreting…is not merely transposing from one language to another. It is, rather, throwing a semantic bridge between two different cultures, two different thought worlds.”--Claude Namy (1977)
9 Paralinguistic Demands: Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Paralinguistic Demands:Idiosyncrasies of speakingVolumePaceAccentsClarity of speechPhysical positionPhysical limitationsInterpreter’s notes: Notice we do not use “language” per se. It is more about the “raw material” an interpreter’s receives. If the interpreter understands the concept or not is another demand category. This is to say that linguistic demand covers the cognition of language and the manifestation of language but not necessarily the concepts involved. Confused? We can talk about this more.Mental retardationStrokeInjured limb(s)IntoxicationArthritisOther R.O.M.Cerebral PalsyFacial paralysisAD/HDNeck problemsOthers?
10 Intrapersonal Demands Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Intrapersonal DemandsFeelings or ruminations one may have about:one’s safetyone’s interpreting performanceliabilitythe people and the dynamicsthe environmentphysiological distractionspsychological responses or distractions
11 Definitions of Controls Decision latitude afforded to the workerResponse to job demandsBetter understood as noun and not verb (to control, to be in control, feel out of control are not accurate applications of control)Controls are about the employeeControls in interpreting must also include characteristics of interpreter (gender, age, ethnicity, etc.) because interpreting is a practice profession & about human interaction
12 Dean & Pollard’s Control Categories Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Dean & Pollard’s Control CategoriesPre-assignment controls: controls that exist or are employed before for the formal assignment.Assignment controls: controls that are employed during the interpreting assignment.Post-assignment controls: controls that are employed after the assignment is over.Self-explanatory
13 Pre-assignment Controls Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Pre-assignment ControlsPhysical, cognitive, and psychological attributesGender, age, ethnicity, etc.Interpreting education: Direct and IndirectCredentials: Certification or QAExperience: Work-related and personalDirect preparation for the assignmentClothingContacts (team, hearing & deaf consumers)Readings, prep materials, Internet
14 Assignment Controls Identifying demands Positive Self-talk Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Assignment ControlsIdentifying demandsPositive Self-talkDirect interventionsInterpretations/TranslationsPrior RelationshipsCode of Ethics/Code of Professional ConductRole metaphors (machine, window, telephone line, Bi-Bi, Ally)
15 Post-assignment Controls Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Post-assignment ControlsSupervisionFormal (with supervisor)Informal (with colleagues)Debriefing/ventingWith support systemFollow upWith people involvedWith further educationWith referring partySelf-care
16 Dean & Pollard’s application Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Theoretical Construct of DC-SDean & Pollard’s applicationKarasek’s concepts:DemandsControlsEnvironmentalInterpersonalParalinguisticIntrapersonalPre, During, & Post
18 First Grade Classroom at Reading Time The teacher in a first grade class has called her students over to the carpet for story time. The story is about penguins and their adventures as a performing group. The students are seated on the carpet and listening to the continuing story of the penguins. There is an interpreter seated next to the teacher and a deaf student seated on the carpet in the middle facing both teacher and interpreter.
19 Environmental Demands Goal: EducationEntertainmentPersonnel/Clientele:20 first graders: Most Caucasian, some African-AmericanTeacher: Hispanic female, mid-30’sPhysical Surroundings: students seated on “reading carpet”, crowded, teacher in front on rocking chair, visually busy walls, door to the hallway is open, gerbil cage with running wheelTerminology: associated with penguins, performance, specific character names, vocabulary and grammar instruction
20 Interpersonal Demands Robyn K. Dean, FIPSE 2007Interpersonal DemandsTeacher uses facial expressions and gestures for correcting childrenA student complains she can’t see the pictureTeacher asks students to predict what might happenThe story is visually interesting and students are fascinated watching the interpreterStudent calls out “How do you sign penguin?”Another student is sneaking candy from his pockets and distributing it to some; others ask but he refuses; teacher is not aware
21 Paralinguistic Demands “Read” materialTeacher has a Hispanic accentShe reads slowly and pauses for emphasisDeaf kid signs with one hand (other hand is propping himself up) using his voiceKid’s are whispering to each other about the candyIntermittent noise from the hallway makes the story hard to hear
23 Intrapersonal Demands In order to get a good idea of intrapersonal demands for this scenario, you will have to place yourself as an interpreter in this scenario. Imagine yourself in this job. What intrapersonal demands would you be facing?Share your intrapersonal demands with your classmates; note the differences for a later discussion about the interaction of demands and controls!
24 Pre-assignment Controls Read the chapter ahead of timeFind a comfortable place to sitMake sure I am placed close enough to the teacher and the bookMentally prepare myself for a lot of distracting sights and soundsAsk teacher if some signs from the story could be taught to the class (via deaf student and/or interpreter) so to avoid too many interruptions during story and to encourage interest in their classmate’s language
25 Assignment ControlsUse good visual ASL (use of space and facial expressions) to show the comedic and active nature of the storyMake teacher’s subtle correction of behavior more overt by “signing” the inferred meaningMake eye contact with the boy passing out candy and give the “I see you” facial expressionMake eye contact with students who are watching the ASL with interest and smile with encouragement
26 Assignment ControlsWhen the deaf student signs with one hand use consecutive interpreting to figure it out, if still unclear ask for clarification, highlighting the disclarity or ask student to use both handsPause with teacher to show similar emphasis techniques in ASLUse sign vocabulary taught to class deliberately for those paying attention
27 Post-Assignment Controls Briefly highlight any plot changes or developments in the story with deaf student to ensure clarity of translationEncourage students’ new vocabulary and encourage interaction with deaf student after story (redirecting attention back to their classmate)Thank teacher for taking time out at the beginning of the story to respond to students’ curiosityConsider whether the “candy” disruption should be reported to the teacher and ask for guidance on future behavior issues ( i.e., how she would like me to deal with them -- ignore or report).
28 Piecing Together Any Assignment Any interpreting assignment will have EIPI demands for interpreters. If you can piece together EIPI demands either before the assignment (and be ready for them by employing pre-assignment controls) or when you walk into any job, you will be able to respond to these demands more effectively which is good for you and your consumers.