Presentation on theme: "DEMAND-CONTROL SCHEMA Gallaudet June, 2010. Encounters with Reality Once one has mastered sign language, the mechanics of interpreting, and internalized."— Presentation transcript:
DEMAND-CONTROL SCHEMA Gallaudet June, 2010
Encounters with Reality Once one has mastered sign language, the mechanics of interpreting, and internalized the Code of Ethics, the really difficult work begins.
How do you sign… Whats going on with you? In a psychiatric hospital between night nurse and patient In an emergency room between patient and doctor In the police station between mother and son Between close friends who havent seen each other for a long time
Interpreting…is not merely transposing from one language to another. It is, rather, throwing a semantic bridge between two different cultures, two different thought worlds. ---Claude Namy (1977) A persons thought world is shaped by their experiences throughout their life. It is their mind set, their reality, their thought world.
I was interpreting in a church…..
Demand-Control Theory Developed by Robert Karasek and Tores Theorell Basis for Dean & Pollards Demand-Control Schema for Interpreters Looked at jobs in relation to two continua: demands and controls High Control IV Low-strainI Active Low demand--------------------------High Demand IIIPassive II High-strain Low Control
DemandsControls BALANCE = WELLNESS
Demands Requirements of the job; those factors which act upon the worker What factors are impacting the work? - Not necessarily demanding Demands are about the job
Categorizing Interpreting Demands Environmental: That which is specific to the setting, (e.g. professional roles, terminology, physical surroundings) Interpersonal: That which is specific to the interaction of the consumers and interpreter Paralinguistic: That which is specific to the expressive skills of the consumers, deaf or hearing Intrapersonal: That which is specific to the interpreter (e.g. thoughts, feelings, physical states
Environmental Demands Physical Surroundings -Room temperature -Smells and odors -Seating arrangements/sight lines -Visual distractions -Background noise -Space (people, furniture, equipment) Goal or Purpose of the Setting Terminology Personnel or clientele
Interpersonal Demands Interactional dynamics (authority, power) Communication style and goals Emotional tone or mood Role and cultural differences Communication flow (e.g., turn taking) Relationship nuances (new, familiar, intimate, tension power, etc.) Thought worlds
Paralinguistic Demands Idiosyncrasies of signing/speaking Volume Pace Accents Clarity of Speech Physical Position Physical Limitations
Intrapersonal Demands Feelings or ruminations one may have about: -ones safety -ones interpreting performance -liability -the people and the dynamics -the environment Physiological distractions Psychological responses or distractions
Example of Demand Analysis First Grade Class Scenario: The teacher has called the children over to her on the carpet for a story about penguins. The students are seated on the carpet and listening to the story. There is an interpreter seated next to the teacher and a deaf child seated in the middle facing both teacher and interpreter.
Environmental Demands Goal: education, entertainment Personnel/Clientele: 20 first graders (can describe ethnic characteristics), teacher (can describe age and ethnicity) Physical Surroundings: students seated on a carpet, crowded, teacher in front on rocking chair, visually busy, door to the hallway is open. Terminology: specific character names, place names, penguin related vocabulary
Interpersonal Demands Teacher uses facial expressions and gestures for correcting children Teacher will insert the name of a child while reading the story to correct behavior A student complains she cant see the picture Teacher asks students to predict what might happen The story is visually interesting and students are fascinated watching the interpreter A student calls out, How do you sign penguin? Teacher is unaware of a child sneaking candy from his pocket and passing it to a few selected children
Paralinguistic Demands Read material Teacher has an accent She reads slowly and pauses for emphasis The Deaf child signs with one hand, using his voice Kids are whispering to each other about the candy Intermittent noise from the hallway makes the story hard to hear
Intrapersonal Demands Interpreter feels qualified for this setting. Interpreter feels frustrated with the childrens inattention. Interpreter feels cramped with so many children around. Interpreter feels good that the deaf child is attending to the lesson.
Picture Analysis Assignment New employee orientation Deaf consumer has Ushers Syndrome. The presenter often refers to handouts and reads from them.
Controls Skills or resources that the worker can bring to bear in response to the demands of the job Controls may involve: -Behavioral actions and interventions -Particular translation decisions -Internal /attitudinal acknowledgments
Controls of the Interpreter Three time periods Pre-assignment controls: controls that are employed before or in preparation for the formal assignment Assignment controls: controls that are employed during the interpreting assignment Post-assignment controls: controls that are employed after the assignment is over.
Pre-assignment Controls Physical, cognitive, and psychological attributes such as gender, age, ethnicity, etc. Interpreting education, direct and indirect Credentials, such as certifications or QAS Experience, both work-related and personal Direct preparation for the assignment -Clothing -Contacts (team, hearing and deaf consumers) -Readings, prep materials, Internet
Assignment Controls Identifying demands Positive self-talk Direct interventions Interpretations/Translations Code of Professional Conduct Role metaphors (machine, window, telephone line, Bi-Bi, ally)
Post-assignment Controls Supervision - Formal (with supervisor) - Informal (with colleagues) Debriefing/venting - With support system Follow up -With people involved -With further education -With referring party Self-care
Ethical and Effective Decisions Too Liberal Too Conservative Therefore ineffective and/or unethical Liberal: favoring action, creativity, assertiveness Conservative: favoring inaction, reservation, patience
Controls Exercise Suppose you are working a group discussion assignment, and from where you are sitting, you cannot hear the person who is talking. Best practice process doesnt start with what do I do but starts with whats going on.
1.Ask speaker to repeat 2.Tell the deaf person you couldnt hear 3.Ask the deaf person what to do 4.Ask facilitator to repeat 5.Ask speaker to talk louder 6.Ask speaker to stand 7.Move closer to the speaker 8.Move to the center of the group 9.Ask the group to move 10.Alter acoustics (e.g., close a door/window) 11.Move speaker to speaker 12.Stop environmental noise 13.Stand up yourself 14.Use closure skills and assume what was said 15.Leave out unheard portion/ignore it 16.Interpret what was heard while explaining the missed piece 17.Describe how the person is talking Liberal? Conservative? Effective? Ethical?
18. Narrate comments using third person 19.Give visual cues that you cannot hear (cup ear, lean in, look quizzical) 20.Repeat the heard text back to the speaker up to the point you didnt hear 21.Use amplification (e.g., microphone) 22.Refer to visual or written material 23.Explain to the deaf person why you cant hear 24.Ask the person next to you what was said 25.Ask the whole group to please speak up 26.Ask the deaf person to do something 27.Stop signing 28.Make it up 29.Look at the speaker (orient face to face) 30.Read the speakers lips 31.Ask the group to move to a different place Liberal? Conservative? Effective? Ethical?
Group Activity Based on the controls you came up with in the picture analysis, construct a list of controls in all three categories: Pre-Assignment During Assignment Post-Assignment
Picture Analysis Assignment High school Chemistry class One Deaf student, in black shirt Teacher is demonstrating a machine that measures air quality