2 Encounters with Reality “Once one has mastered sign language, the mechanics of interpreting, and internalized the Code of Ethics, the really difficult work begins.”
3 How do you sign… “What’s going on with you?” In a psychiatric hospital between night nurse and patientIn an emergency room between patient and doctorIn the police station between mother and sonBetween close friends who haven’t seen each other for a long time
4 “Interpreting…is not merely transposing from one language to another “Interpreting…is not merely transposing from one language to another. It is, rather, throwing a semantic bridge between two different cultures, two different thought worlds.”---Claude Namy (1977)A person’s thought world is shaped by their experiences throughout their life. It is their mind set, their reality, their “thought world.”
6 Demand-Control Theory Developed by Robert Karasek and Tores TheorellBasis for Dean & Pollard’s Demand-Control Schema for InterpretersLooked at jobs in relation to two continua: demands and controlsHigh ControlIV Low-strain I ActiveLow demand High DemandIIIPassive II High-strainLow Control
8 DemandsRequirements of the job; those factors which “act upon” the workerWhat factors are impacting the work?- Not necessarily “demanding”Demands are about the job
9 Categorizing Interpreting Demands Environmental: That which is specific to the setting, (e.g. professional roles, terminology, physical surroundings)Interpersonal: That which is specific to the interaction of the consumers and interpreterParalinguistic: That which is specific to the expressive skills of the consumers, deaf or hearingIntrapersonal: That which is specific to the interpreter (e.g. thoughts, feelings, physical states
10 Environmental Demands Physical SurroundingsRoom temperatureSmells and odorsSeating arrangements/sight linesVisual distractionsBackground noiseSpace (people, furniture, equipment)Goal or Purpose of the SettingTerminologyPersonnel or clientele
11 Interpersonal Demands Interactional dynamics (authority, power)Communication style and goalsEmotional tone or moodRole and cultural differencesCommunication flow (e.g., turn taking)Relationship nuances (new, familiar, intimate, tension power, etc.)“Thought worlds”
12 Paralinguistic Demands Idiosyncrasies of signing/speakingVolumePaceAccentsClarity of SpeechPhysical PositionPhysical Limitations
13 Intrapersonal Demands Feelings or ruminations one may have about:one’s safetyone’s interpreting performanceliabilitythe people and the dynamicsthe environmentPhysiological distractionsPsychological responses or distractions
14 Example of Demand Analysis First Grade Class Scenario: The teacher has called the children over to her on the carpet for a story about penguins. The students are seated on the carpet and listening to the story. There is an interpreter seated next to the teacher and a deaf child seated in the middle facing both teacher and interpreter.
15 Environmental Demands Goal: education, entertainmentPersonnel/Clientele: 20 first graders (can describe ethnic characteristics), teacher (can describe age and ethnicity)Physical Surroundings: students seated on a carpet, crowded, teacher in front on rocking chair, visually busy, door to the hallway is open.Terminology: specific character names, place names, penguin related vocabulary
16 Interpersonal Demands Teacher uses facial expressions and gestures for correcting childrenTeacher will insert the name of a child while reading the story to correct behaviorA student complains she can’t see the pictureTeacher asks students to predict what might happenThe story is visually interesting and students are fascinated watching the interpreterA student calls out, “How do you sign ‘penguin’?”Teacher is unaware of a child sneaking candy from his pocket and passing it to a few selected children
17 Paralinguistic Demands “Read” materialTeacher has an accentShe reads slowly and pauses for emphasisThe Deaf child signs with one hand, using his voiceKids are whispering to each other about the candyIntermittent noise from the hallway makes the story hard to hear
18 Intrapersonal Demands Interpreter feels qualified for this setting.Interpreter feels frustrated with the children’s inattention.Interpreter feels cramped with so many children around.Interpreter feels good that the deaf child is attending to the lesson.
19 Picture Analysis Assignment New employee orientation Deaf consumer has Ushers Syndrome. The presenter often refers to handouts and reads from them.
20 ControlsSkills or resources that the worker can bring to bear in response to the demands of the jobControls may involve:Behavioral actions and interventionsParticular translation decisionsInternal /attitudinal acknowledgments
21 Controls of the Interpreter Three time periodsPre-assignment controls: controls that are employed before or in preparation for the formal assignmentAssignment controls: controls that are employed during the interpreting assignmentPost-assignment controls: controls that are employed after the assignment is over.
22 Pre-assignment Controls Physical, cognitive, and psychological attributes such as gender, age, ethnicity, etc.Interpreting education, direct and indirectCredentials, such as certifications or QASExperience, both work-related and personalDirect preparation for the assignmentClothingContacts (team, hearing and deaf consumers)Readings, prep materials, Internet
23 Assignment Controls Identifying demands Positive self-talk Direct interventionsInterpretations/TranslationsCode of Professional ConductRole metaphors (machine, window, telephone line, Bi-Bi, ally)
24 Post-assignment Controls Supervision- Formal (with supervisor)- Informal (with colleagues)Debriefing/venting- With support systemFollow upWith people involvedWith further educationWith referring partySelf-care
25 Ethical and Effective Decisions Too Liberal Too ConservativeTherefore Thereforeineffective ineffectiveand/or and/orunethical unethicalLiberal: favoring action, creativity, assertivenessConservative: favoring inaction, reservation, patience
26 Controls ExerciseSuppose you are working a group discussion assignment, and from where you are sitting, you cannot hear the person who is talking.Best practice process doesn’t start with “what do I do” but starts with “what’s going on.”
27 Conservative? Effective? Ethical? Ask speaker to repeat Use closure skills and “assume” what was saidTell the deaf person you couldn’t hearLeave out unheard portion/ignore itAsk the deaf person what to doInterpret what was heard while explaining the missed pieceAsk facilitator to repeatDescribe how the person is talkingAsk speaker to talk louderAsk speaker to standMove closer to the speakerLiberal?Move to the center of the groupAsk the group to moveConservative?Alter acoustics (e.g., close a door/window)Effective?Move speaker to speakerEthical?Stop environmental noiseStand up yourself
28 Liberal? Conservative? Effective? Ethical? 18. Narrate comments using third personLook at the speaker (orient face to face)Read the speaker’s lipsGive visual cues that you cannot hear (cup ear, lean in, look quizzical)Ask the group to move to a different placeRepeat the heard text back to the speaker up to the point you didn’t hearLiberal?Use amplification (e.g., microphone)Refer to visual or written materialConservative?Explain to the deaf person why you can’t hearAsk the person next to you what was saidEffective?Ask the whole group to please speak upEthical?Ask the deaf person to do somethingStop signingMake it up
29 Group ActivityBased on the controls you came up with in the picture analysis, construct a list of controls in all three categories: Pre-Assignment During Assignment Post-Assignment