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Presentation on theme: "DEMAND-CONTROL SCHEMA"— Presentation transcript:

Gallaudet June, 2010

2 Encounters with Reality
“Once one has mastered sign language, the mechanics of interpreting, and internalized the Code of Ethics, the really difficult work begins.”

3 How do you sign… “What’s going on with you?”
In a psychiatric hospital between night nurse and patient In an emergency room between patient and doctor In the police station between mother and son Between close friends who haven’t seen each other for a long time

4 “Interpreting…is not merely transposing from one language to another
“Interpreting…is not merely transposing from one language to another. It is, rather, throwing a semantic bridge between two different cultures, two different thought worlds.” ---Claude Namy (1977) A person’s thought world is shaped by their experiences throughout their life. It is their mind set, their reality, their “thought world.”

5 “I was interpreting in a church…..”

6 Demand-Control Theory
Developed by Robert Karasek and Tores Theorell Basis for Dean & Pollard’s Demand-Control Schema for Interpreters Looked at jobs in relation to two continua: demands and controls High Control IV Low-strain I Active Low demand High Demand IIIPassive II High-strain Low Control

7 Demands Controls BALANCE = WELLNESS

8 Demands Requirements of the job; those factors which “act upon” the worker What factors are impacting the work? - Not necessarily “demanding” Demands are about the job

9 Categorizing Interpreting Demands
Environmental: That which is specific to the setting, (e.g. professional roles, terminology, physical surroundings) Interpersonal: That which is specific to the interaction of the consumers and interpreter Paralinguistic: That which is specific to the expressive skills of the consumers, deaf or hearing Intrapersonal: That which is specific to the interpreter (e.g. thoughts, feelings, physical states

10 Environmental Demands
Physical Surroundings Room temperature Smells and odors Seating arrangements/sight lines Visual distractions Background noise Space (people, furniture, equipment) Goal or Purpose of the Setting Terminology Personnel or clientele

11 Interpersonal Demands
Interactional dynamics (authority, power) Communication style and goals Emotional tone or mood Role and cultural differences Communication flow (e.g., turn taking) Relationship nuances (new, familiar, intimate, tension power, etc.) “Thought worlds”

12 Paralinguistic Demands
Idiosyncrasies of signing/speaking Volume Pace Accents Clarity of Speech Physical Position Physical Limitations

13 Intrapersonal Demands
Feelings or ruminations one may have about: one’s safety one’s interpreting performance liability the people and the dynamics the environment Physiological distractions Psychological responses or distractions

14 Example of Demand Analysis
First Grade Class Scenario: The teacher has called the children over to her on the carpet for a story about penguins. The students are seated on the carpet and listening to the story. There is an interpreter seated next to the teacher and a deaf child seated in the middle facing both teacher and interpreter.

15 Environmental Demands
Goal: education, entertainment Personnel/Clientele: 20 first graders (can describe ethnic characteristics), teacher (can describe age and ethnicity) Physical Surroundings: students seated on a carpet, crowded, teacher in front on rocking chair, visually busy, door to the hallway is open. Terminology: specific character names, place names, penguin related vocabulary

16 Interpersonal Demands
Teacher uses facial expressions and gestures for correcting children Teacher will insert the name of a child while reading the story to correct behavior A student complains she can’t see the picture Teacher asks students to predict what might happen The story is visually interesting and students are fascinated watching the interpreter A student calls out, “How do you sign ‘penguin’?” Teacher is unaware of a child sneaking candy from his pocket and passing it to a few selected children

17 Paralinguistic Demands
“Read” material Teacher has an accent She reads slowly and pauses for emphasis The Deaf child signs with one hand, using his voice Kids are whispering to each other about the candy Intermittent noise from the hallway makes the story hard to hear

18 Intrapersonal Demands
Interpreter feels qualified for this setting. Interpreter feels frustrated with the children’s inattention. Interpreter feels cramped with so many children around. Interpreter feels good that the deaf child is attending to the lesson.

19 Picture Analysis Assignment
New employee orientation Deaf consumer has Ushers Syndrome. The presenter often refers to handouts and reads from them.

20 Controls Skills or resources that the worker can bring to bear in response to the demands of the job Controls may involve: Behavioral actions and interventions Particular translation decisions Internal /attitudinal acknowledgments

21 Controls of the Interpreter
Three time periods Pre-assignment controls: controls that are employed before or in preparation for the formal assignment Assignment controls: controls that are employed during the interpreting assignment Post-assignment controls: controls that are employed after the assignment is over.

22 Pre-assignment Controls
Physical, cognitive, and psychological attributes such as gender, age, ethnicity, etc. Interpreting education, direct and indirect Credentials, such as certifications or QAS Experience, both work-related and personal Direct preparation for the assignment Clothing Contacts (team, hearing and deaf consumers) Readings, prep materials, Internet

23 Assignment Controls Identifying demands Positive self-talk
Direct interventions Interpretations/Translations Code of Professional Conduct Role metaphors (machine, window, telephone line, Bi-Bi, ally)

24 Post-assignment Controls
Supervision - Formal (with supervisor) - Informal (with colleagues) Debriefing/venting - With support system Follow up With people involved With further education With referring party Self-care

25 Ethical and Effective Decisions
Too Liberal Too Conservative Therefore Therefore ineffective ineffective and/or and/or unethical unethical Liberal: favoring action, creativity, assertiveness Conservative: favoring inaction, reservation, patience

26 Controls Exercise Suppose you are working a group discussion assignment, and from where you are sitting, you cannot hear the person who is talking. Best practice process doesn’t start with “what do I do” but starts with “what’s going on.”

27 Conservative? Effective? Ethical? Ask speaker to repeat
Use closure skills and “assume” what was said Tell the deaf person you couldn’t hear Leave out unheard portion/ignore it Ask the deaf person what to do Interpret what was heard while explaining the missed piece Ask facilitator to repeat Describe how the person is talking Ask speaker to talk louder Ask speaker to stand Move closer to the speaker Liberal? Move to the center of the group Ask the group to move Conservative? Alter acoustics (e.g., close a door/window) Effective? Move speaker to speaker Ethical? Stop environmental noise Stand up yourself

28 Liberal? Conservative? Effective? Ethical?
18. Narrate comments using third person Look at the speaker (orient face to face) Read the speaker’s lips Give visual cues that you cannot hear (cup ear, lean in, look quizzical) Ask the group to move to a different place Repeat the heard text back to the speaker up to the point you didn’t hear Liberal? Use amplification (e.g., microphone) Refer to visual or written material Conservative? Explain to the deaf person why you can’t hear Ask the person next to you what was said Effective? Ask the whole group to please speak up Ethical? Ask the deaf person to do something Stop signing Make it up

29 Group Activity Based on the controls you came up with in the picture analysis, construct a list of controls in all three categories: Pre-Assignment During Assignment Post-Assignment

30 Goal: GGoGoalaGoal Pre-Assignment Environmental Demands
Interpersonal Demands Post- Assign- ment Paralingustic Demands Intrapersonal Demands AsAs Assignment

31 Picture Analysis Assignment
High school Chemistry class One Deaf student, in black shirt Teacher is demonstrating a machine that measures air quality


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