Presentation on theme: "Week 2: Finding and reading a paper. ◦ See StudyDirect for the names of your tutors ◦ Please remember our first names for submission of your course work."— Presentation transcript:
Week 2: Finding and reading a paper
◦ See StudyDirect for the names of your tutors ◦ Please remember our first names for submission of your course work ◦ Only us for personal issues (e.g. to inform us of absence etc.)
1 hour 50 min practical weeks 2 – 12 Please attend allocated sessions or negotiate a change directly with the Psychology office
Week of termLecturePractical 1Introductory lecture- 2Questionnaire designThe research process 3Writing a lab-reportQuestionnaire design 4Frequency distributionsIntroduction to SPSS 5Means and SDsWriting a lab-report 6 Normal distribution & z-scores Graphs in Excel 7Test constructionMeans, SDs & z-scores 8Chi-square testsExploring a new dataset 9Linear regressionChi-square 10Correlation testsLinear regression & correlations 11Correlation interpretationExam revision 12nonparametric testsExam revision
Autumn term coursework submissions ◦ Week 7: Lab report (based on fast-food data). ◦ Week 11: Lab report (based on the maths test you did last week).
Course material - Graham Hole’s resources page: ◦ Google > Graham Hole Questions about the course/coursework: ◦ Forum: Study Direct > Research Skills > Forum ◦ Office Hour: (to be announced) ◦ s: Do not tutors directly about coursework, use the forum.
The Research Process Scientific Writing Style Original Article vs. Secondary source How to Find a Paper How to Read a Paper Research Treasure Hunt
Subject area Read around the subject Research question Design the study Obtain ethical approval Conduct the study Data analysis Lab report
Report of a study that you have conducted. Resembles structure of a journal article. Contains title, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references. Written in past tense (you are describing the results of a study).
Write concisely Write in a formal tone Avoid jargon Focus on relevant literature Top tip: Read and look at published journal articles to get an idea of what you should be aiming for
From a textbook citation... “ Stanley Milgram’s (1963) study of destructive obedience highlighted the dilemma facing a person ordered by an authority figure to perform an immoral act”
But why would I want to look at the original? And if I did, how would I find it?
One simple reason: When a textbook/paper author (or anyone else) summarises a study, they can get it wrong... The more people between you and the study, the more chance something is wrong Wilson I think Cuddy is very intelligent! House Cuddy Wilson thinks you’re intelligent...but ugly. House
At the end of textbook chapters (or sometimes the whole book) and journal articles you will find the reference section Reference sections are ordered by first author’s surname: Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(4), 371–378.
If you know the reference for a paper:- ◦ Go to the library website: ◦ Electronic Library > Online Journals > Type in journal name > Find the correct volume, issue and page numbers
If you want to do a search on a topic:- ◦ Go to the library website: ◦ Electronic Library > Online Resources > Choose ‘PsycARTICLES’ or ‘PsycINFO’ > Simple or Advanced ◦ Electronic Library > QuickSearch ◦ Google Scholar Top tip: be specific!
Papers are laid out in this order: ◦ Abstract ◦ Introduction ◦ Methods ◦ Results ◦ Discussion ◦ References Easier to read them in this order: ◦ Abstract ◦ Discussion ◦ Introduction ◦ Methods ◦ Results ◦ (References)
Abstract ◦ Summary of everything that’s in the paper ◦ Order: Past research, methods, results, conclusions ◦ Approx. 150 words Discussion ◦ Summary of purpose and results ◦ Comparison to previous research ◦ Possible faults ◦ Wider implications ◦ Future directions ◦ Conclusions
Introduction ◦ Quick explanation of research area ◦ Summary of relevant past research (and perhaps its flaws) ◦ Purpose of study ◦ Brief description of methods ◦ Hypotheses Methods ◦ Usually split into four sections: Participants Materials Design Procedure ◦ Technical language
Results ◦ Point-by-point breakdown of findings ◦ Descriptive statistics ◦ Inferential statistics ◦ The magic word: ‘significant’ References ◦ Don’t need to worry about these too much when reading ◦ If you find past research in the paper that sounds interesting, look for a full citation here ◦ And use your new skills to find that paper
Work through the “Research Treasure Hunt” hand-out. Try not to use the same search tool for each question.
Have completed this week’s work sheet (especially question 9). Next week: Questionnaire design