Reporting results: APA style Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology.
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Reporting results: APA style Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology
Why present your research? Purpose of presenting your research –To get the work out there –to spur further research –allow replication –allow testing/falsifaction of your theory
Why a structured format? To ease communication of what was done –forces a minimal amount of information –people know what to expect –where to find the information in the article
The ultimate resource for APA style is the APA Publication manual, but also lots of websites to help too. Appendix A of your textbook is good too.
Major goal: Clarity Remember that the goal of your research is to communicate what you did, so you want to be as clear as you can. Avoid jargon when possible, don’t be too creative, avoid slang and colloquialisms. Avoid sexist and biased language Also try to be fairly concise – don’t use a whole paragraph when two sentences will do
Writing style Psychological writing tends to differ from other academic writings Try to avoid using direct quotes, restate things in your own words. Footnotes are rare, they’re used to elaborate/clarify a point. Try to do so in the text.
Parts of a research report Title Page Abstract Body References Authors Notes Footnotes Tables Figure Captions Figures
Title Page Title, Authors, Affiliation, Short title, running head –Title should be maximally informative while short (10 to 12 words recommended) –Order of Authorship sometimes carries meaning –Affiliation – where the bulk of the research was done –Running head – will go on each page of published article, no more than 50 characters –Short title – goes in header (with page number) on each page of the manuscript
Abstract short summary of entire paper –100 to 120 words –the problem/issue –the method –the results –the major conclusions
Body Hourglass shape Introduction –Background –Literature Review –Statement of purpose –Specific hypotheses (at least at operational level)
Body Methods (in enough detail that the reader can replicate the study) –Participants How many, where they were selected from, any special selection requirements, details about those who didn’t complete the experiment –Design (optional) – suggested if you have a complex experimental design, often combined with Materials section –Apparatus/Materials –Procedure – what did each participant do? Other details, including the operational levels of your IV(s) and DV(s), counterbalancing, etc.
Body Results (state the results but don’t interpret them here) –Verbal statement of results –Tables and figures – these get referred to in the text, but actually get put into their own sections at the end of the manuscript –Statistical Outcomes
Body Discussion (interpret the results) –Relationship between purpose and results –Theoretical (or methodological) contribution –Implications –Future directions (optional)
Figures and tables These are used to supplement the text. To make a point clearer for the reader. Typically used for: –The design –Examples of stimuli –Patterns of results
Checklist - things to watch for Clarity Acknowledge the work of others (avoid plagiarism) Active vs. passive voice –Active: Coane and Kearney (2003) hypothesized that speakers use to much passive voice –Passive: It was hypothesized by Coane and Kearney (2003) that speakers use to much passive voice
Checklist - things to watch for Avoid biased language –APA guidelines: Accurate descriptions of individuals (e.g., Asian vs. Korean) Be sensitive to labels (e.g., “Oriental”) Appropriate use of headings Correct citing and references Good grammar
Next time Read chapters 4&5. Bring your APA Publication Manual to lab (if you’ve got one) Don’t forget your first journal summary is due this week in lab