Presentation on theme: "REFORM AND THE POPULIST PARTY 1892-1896. Journal Entry “Unless you can get the ear of a Senator…and persuade him to use his ‘influence’ in your behalf,"— Presentation transcript:
Journal Entry “Unless you can get the ear of a Senator…and persuade him to use his ‘influence’ in your behalf, you cannot get an employment of the most trivial nature in Washington. Mere merit, fitness and capability, are useless baggage to you without ‘influence’…It would be an odd circumstance to see a girl get employment…merely because she was worthy and a competent, and a good citizen of a free country that ‘treats all persons alike.” from the Gilded Age by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner 1.According to the authors, what was the best way to get a government job? 2.How is the last sentence in the quotation sarcastic?
Series of Poor Presidents Rutheford B. Hayes James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison William McKinley
BEGINNINGS OF REFORM Rutherford B Hayes (1876) starts Civil Service Reform –Used Merit System to hire employees –Fired clerks with nothing to do
Election of 1880 Split in Republican Party—Reformers (Mugwumps and Half-breeds) and Stalwarts (opposed reform) Garfield (reformer) and Arthur (Stalwart) were placed on the ticket. When Garfield became president he gave Reformers most of the patronage jobs Garfield had turned down Charles Guiteau ( a Stalwart) for a job Guiteau wanted Chester Arthur to be president Shot Garfield--July 2, 1881--died in Sept of 1881*
Pendleton Act 1883 Appoint a 3 member bi-partisan Civil Service Commission Open competitive examination for classified jobs
Results of the Pendleton Act Qualified, honest, more efficient government Politicians lost patronage, had to find other sources for campaign funds
Farmers and the Populist Movement Prices received for goods fell Cost of manufactured goods remained high Had to pay high prices for shipping Many lost farms to mortgage foreclosure
GRANGE Try to solve social and political problems Fix maximum rates for storage and regulate freight rates Interstate Commerce Act –Rates must be reasonable, no rebates, no long hauls cheaper than short hauls
Money Solutions Greenbacks –Farmers wanted an increase in the money supply –Cheaper money makes it easier to pay debts Unlimited Coinage of Silver –Dollar defined as one ounce of gold or 16 ounces of silver –Also called bi-metalism favored by the “free silverites”
Financial Reform Currency inflation Graduated federal income tax Federal loan program
Transportation Reforms Government ownership and operation of railroads Government ownership and operation of telephone
Government Reforms Direct Election of Senators Single term for President and Vice- President Australian ballot (secret ballot)
Other Reforms 8 hour work day Restrictions on immigration Oppose subsidies to private corporations
Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan (Democratic Party) gives Cross of Gold Speech Lost election and party faded from political scene Many proposals adopted by other parties and enacted into law
“Cross of Gold” speech "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." July 9, 1896, at the Democratic National Convention, Chicago
1. The Pendleton Act helped correct the evils of: a. the short ballot, b. the spoil’s system (patronage), c. low wages in factories, d. high railroad rates.
2. Agrarian (farmers) discontent eventually led to: a. reforms in the Republican Party, b. a strong farmer's lobby in Washington, c. the formation of the Populist Party, d. support from Eastern businessmen.
3. Most members of the Populist Party were: a. farmers, b. industrial leaders, c. labor leaders and feminists, d. middle-class white collar workers.
4. The Populist platform did not include: a. an income tax equal for the rich and the poor, b. a deflated currency, c. election of senators by popular vote, d. the secret Australian ballot.
5. A Populist reform idea that became a constitutional amendment was: a. referendum, b. secret ballot, c. initiative, d. graduated income tax.
6. Bryan's Cross of Gold speech emphasized: a. importance of cities, b. dependency of farmers on businessmen, c. influence of the gold standard on farmers, d. independence of farmers.
7. Which of the following was prompted by President Garfield's assassination? a. the Haymarket affair, b. civil service reform, c. the formation of the Secret Service, d. the appointment of Frances Perkins as Secretary of Labor.
8. Which is true of "free silverites"? a. they favored bimetallism, b. they opposed the use of gold as money, c. they opposed the use of paper money, d. they preferred a stable currency to cheap money.
9. Who started Civil Service Reform? A. Ulysses S. Grant B. William Jennings Bryan C. Rutherford B. Hayes D. William McKinley
10. Which of the following were not part of the Republican party in 1880? A. Mugwumps B. Half-Breeds C. Populists D. Stalwarts
11. Why was Garfield assassinated? A. Guiteau was mad that he didn’t get a job. B. Arthur was a Mug-wump. C. Hayes had fired Arthur. D. Civil servants were tired of the work.
12. What were the results of the Pendleton Act? A. Gov’t officials were more qualified and honest. B. Politicians lost their patronage. C. Gov’t was more efficient D. All of the above
13. How did farmers want to increase the money supply? A. By printing greenbacks B. By producing more crops C. By encouraging the unions D. By limiting the amount of crops
14. When did the Populist Party die off? A. After the election of 1896. B. Before the Cross of Gold Speech. C. When Garfield died. D. After the Pendleton Act was passed.
15. What was the Grange? A.Bimetalism B.A group trying to solve the social and political problems of the farmers. C.A member of the Stalwarts Party D. Another type of cattle