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Slide 5-1 INTRODUCTION TO THE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM.

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1 Slide 5-1 INTRODUCTION TO THE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM

2 Slide 5-2 OBJECTIVE Define the need for a management system to be used at emergency incidents and demonstrate how ICS can be applied as an effective emergency management system. Need for a Management System History of ICS Development of Regulations and Standards Module 5 Overview

3 Slide 5-3 OBJECTIVE Define the five ICS functions, Command Staff positions, and Staging. The Five ICS Functional Areas Command Staff Positions Staging Module 5 Overview

4 Slide 5-4 OBJECTIVE Define the role of the Incident Commander (IC) and the importance of the CO as initial IC. The Incident Commander's Role Module 5 Overview

5 Slide 5-5 OBJECTIVE Given a scenario, establish an effective ICS organization to manage the initial phase of the incident. Using ICS Effectively Divisions And Groups Module 5 Overview

6 Slide 5-6 NEED FOR A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

7 Slide 5-7 Successful organizations are managed in a professional manner. True for all types of organizations. Business.Business. Military.Military. Sports.Sports. Firefighting.Firefighting.

8 Slide 5-8 Successful organizations are managed in a professional manner. Coordinate efforts.Coordinate efforts. Not all have the same skills.Not all have the same skills. Needs to concentrate.Needs to concentrate. Managing emergencies is much like a team sport.

9 Slide 5-9 Successful organizations are managed in a professional manner. Risk of death.Risk of death. Reduce damage.Reduce damage. Critical decisions.Critical decisions. Provide highest level of service.Provide highest level of service. Need is greater for emergency incident to be managed in a professional manner.

10 Slide 5-10 Successful organizations are managed in a professional manner. Safety.Safety. Reduce confusion.Reduce confusion. Coordinate.Coordinate. An emergency does not exclude the need for professional management.

11 Slide 5-11 Elements Of An Effective Incident Management System Suitable for use regardless of jurisdiction or agency involved.Suitable for use regardless of jurisdiction or agency involved. Adapt to an incident regardless of type of complexity.Adapt to an incident regardless of type of complexity.

12 Slide 5-12 Elements Of An Effective Incident Management System Acceptable to users.Acceptable to users. Readily adaptable to new technology.Readily adaptable to new technology. Expand in a logical manner.Expand in a logical manner.

13 Slide 5-13 Elements Of An Effective Incident Management System Basic common elements.Basic common elements. Least possible disruption to existing system.Least possible disruption to existing system. Ensure low operational maintenance costs.Ensure low operational maintenance costs.

14 Slide 5-14 ICS as a Management System Manageable span of control. "Number of subordinates one supervisor can manage effectively."Manageable span of control. "Number of subordinates one supervisor can manage effectively." Allows for delegation.Allows for delegation.

15 Slide 5-15 ICS as a Management System Ensures unity of command.Ensures unity of command. Provides standard set of terms.Provides standard set of terms. Lines of authority provide for lines of communication.Lines of authority provide for lines of communication. All-risk design.All-risk design.

16 Slide 5-16 ICS as a Management System Suitable for "everyday" use.Suitable for "everyday" use. Provides for safety of personnel.Provides for safety of personnel. Modular expansion.Modular expansion. Improved resource utilization.Improved resource utilization.

17 Slide 5-17 HISTORY OF ICS

18 Slide 5-18 ICS originated as a result of major wildland fires. Coordination and management problems.Coordination and management problems. Command was not clearly defined.Command was not clearly defined. Communication problems.Communication problems. Resources not fully utilized.Resources not fully utilized.

19 Slide 5-19 Responsible agencies formed FIRESCOPE to identify solutions. Was the first generation of ICS.Was the first generation of ICS. Evolved into an all-risk system.Evolved into an all-risk system.

20 Slide 5-20 Fireground Command (FGC) Developed by Chief Alan Brunacini.Developed by Chief Alan Brunacini. Same management principles as ICS.Same management principles as ICS. For use in structural firefighting.For use in structural firefighting.

21 Slide 5-21 National Fire Academy (NFA) Model System National Curriculum Advisory Committee.National Curriculum Advisory Committee. Proposed ICS be an all-risk system.Proposed ICS be an all-risk system. Model for agencies wishing to adopt ICS.Model for agencies wishing to adopt ICS.

22 Slide 5-22 HISTORY OF THE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM

23 Slide 5-23 Devastating wildland fires in Southern California in early 1970'sDevastating wildland fires in Southern California in early 1970's Examining various aspects concerning interagency response to incidentsExamining various aspects concerning interagency response to incidents DEVELOPMENT OF INTERAGENCY INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

24 Slide 5-24 FireFire RESources ofRESources of CaliforniaCalifornia Organized forOrganized for PotentialPotential EmergenciesEmergencies FIRESCOPE

25 Slide 5-25 Developed by the wildland community to provide a common systemDeveloped by the wildland community to provide a common system Includes six agenciesIncludes six agencies Consists of fire major subgroupsConsists of fire major subgroups NATIONAL INTER-AGENCY INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NIIMS)

26 Slide 5-26 InconsistenciesInconsistencies Effective commandEffective command Reduce confusionReduce confusion NEED FOR A SINGLE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM

27 Slide 5-27 Created in 1990Created in 1990 Determine what ICS would look like in the futureDetermine what ICS would look like in the future Consists of leaders and representatives from most major fire service organizations and Federal agenciesConsists of leaders and representatives from most major fire service organizations and Federal agencies Model Procedures Guide for Structural FirefightingModel Procedures Guide for Structural Firefighting NATIONAL FIRE SERVICE INCIDENT MANAGEMENT CONSORTIUM

28 Slide 5-28 Adopted FIRESCOPE ICS in 1980Adopted FIRESCOPE ICS in 1980 Incorporated material into its training curriculaIncorporated material into its training curricula NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY

29 Slide 5-29 Other FIRESCOPE model Incident Command System applications include Multicasualty Hazardous Materials Urban Search and Rescue

30 Slide 5-30 Federal Emergency Management Agency formally adopted FIRESCOPE ICS as the incident management system for any Federal response.

31 Slide 5-31 Each emergency management system based on sound management principles. Safety of personnel.Safety of personnel. Coordinate activities.Coordinate activities. Clear lines of authority.Clear lines of authority. Effective use of resources.Effective use of resources. Unity of command.Unity of command. Span of controlSpan of control

32 Slide 5-32 DEVELOPMENT OF REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS

33 Slide 5-33 Success of ICS has led to its inclusion in a variety of regulations and standards. Used nationally.Used nationally. Use at all emergencies.Use at all emergencies. One common management system.One common management system.

34 Slide 5-34 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require use of ICS for hazardous materials incidents.

35 Slide 5-35 NFPA Standard 1500: Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program

36 Slide 5-36 NFPA Standard 1561: Fire Department Emergency Management Systems

37 Slide 5-37 USING ICS EFFECTIVELY

38 Slide 5-38 Understanding How to Use The System Organizational charts do not put out fires--well-managed firefighters do.Organizational charts do not put out fires--well-managed firefighters do. ICS provides numerous subordinate positions.ICS provides numerous subordinate positions.

39 Slide 5-39 Think of ICS Organization As A Toolbox You don't need every tool.You don't need every tool. Only delegate those positions that will help do the job.Only delegate those positions that will help do the job. Know what positions will help.Know what positions will help.

40 Slide 5-40 Importance Of First-in Officer As Initial IC "What starts bad--stays bad.""What starts bad--stays bad." First-in officer organizes incident.First-in officer organizes incident. If well organized, it is easier to expand the organization if needed.If well organized, it is easier to expand the organization if needed.

41 Slide 5-41 The CO's Role When Not The IC First-arriving CO may act as initial IC until command can be passed.First-arriving CO may act as initial IC until command can be passed. Not first-in may be assigned to subordinate positions.Not first-in may be assigned to subordinate positions. CO's must understand the system if they are to do an effective job.CO's must understand the system if they are to do an effective job.

42 Slide 5-42 THE FIVE ICS FUNCTIONAL AREAS

43 Slide 5-43 COMMAND OPERATIONSPLANNINGLOGISTICSFINANCE

44 Slide 5-44 COMMAND OPERATIONSPLANNINGLOGISTICSFINANCE Responsible for overall management.Responsible for overall management. Establishes the strategy and tactics.Establishes the strategy and tactics. Responsible for firefighter safety.Responsible for firefighter safety. Responsible for success of incident activities.Responsible for success of incident activities. Filled by IC.Filled by IC. Established at every incident.Established at every incident.

45 Slide 5-45 Accomplishes strategy that command develops by meeting the tactical objectives.Accomplishes strategy that command develops by meeting the tactical objectives. Directs all tactical operations.Directs all tactical operations. Assists in the development of action plan.Assists in the development of action plan. COMMAND OPERATIONSPLANNINGLOGISTICSFINANCE

46 Slide 5-46 Collects and evaluates information.Collects and evaluates information. Forecasts probable course of events.Forecasts probable course of events. Prepares alternative strategies.Prepares alternative strategies. COMMAND OPERATIONSPLANNINGLOGISTICSFINANCE

47 Slide 5-47 Provides services and supplies.Provides services and supplies. Fills the "Supply Sergeant" role.Fills the "Supply Sergeant" role. COMMAND OPERATIONSPLANNINGLOGISTICSFINANCE

48 Slide 5-48 Command Operations PlanningLogistics Finance/ Administration Responsible for required fiscal documentation.Responsible for required fiscal documentation. Provides financial planning.Provides financial planning.

49 Slide 5-49 Command Operations PlanningLogistics Finance/ Administration

50 Slide 5-50 COMMAND STAFF POSITIONS

51 Slide 5-51 Command Staff Positions Enable the IC to better manage the incident.Enable the IC to better manage the incident. Do not count when determining the IC's span of control.Do not count when determining the IC's span of control.

52 Slide 5-52 OPERATIONSPLANNINGLOGISTICSFINANCE COMMAND INFORMATION OFFICER LIAISON OFFICER SAFETY OFFICER

53 Slide 5-53 Safety Officer: Responsible for monitoring and assessing safety hazards or unsafe situations and developing measures for ensuring personnel safety. OPERATIONSPLANNINGLOGISTICSFINANCE COMMAND INFORMATION OFFICER LIAISON OFFICER SAFETY OFFICER

54 Slide 5-54 Safety Officer Appointed when IC cannot adequately monitor hazards or unsafe conditions.Appointed when IC cannot adequately monitor hazards or unsafe conditions. Keeps IC informed as to existing or potential safety hazards. Can take immediate action to correct unsafe acts.Keeps IC informed as to existing or potential safety hazards. Can take immediate action to correct unsafe acts. Must have requisite background and knowledge.Must have requisite background and knowledge.

55 Slide 5-55 Liaison Officer: Responsible for providing the point of contact and coordination for assisting agencies not involved in command functions. OPERATIONSPLANNINGLOGISTICSFINANCE COMMAND INFORMATION OFFICER LIAISON OFFICER SAFETY OFFICER

56 Slide 5-56 Liaison Officer Helps IC coordinate the efforts of assisting agencies.Helps IC coordinate the efforts of assisting agencies. Determine if Agency Representatives have decisionmaking authority for their agencies.Determine if Agency Representatives have decisionmaking authority for their agencies. Helps each agency do what it does best.Helps each agency do what it does best.

57 Slide 5-57 Information Officer: Responsible for the development of accurate and complete information regarding the incident and to serve as the point of contact for the media. OPERATIONSPLANNINGLOGISTICSFINANCE COMMAND INFORMATION OFFICER LIAISON OFFICER SAFETY OFFICER

58 Slide 5-58 Information Officer Gets incident briefing and updates from IC for release to the media.Gets incident briefing and updates from IC for release to the media. Establishes a press area.Establishes a press area. Provides for tours and photos.Provides for tours and photos. Arranges for media to speak with IC.Arranges for media to speak with IC.

59 Slide 5-59 STAGING

60 Slide 5-60 STAGING COMMAND STAGING E-2E-1 E-3 COMMAND OPERATIONS STAGING E-1 E-3 E-2

61 Slide 5-61 Staging Definition: Staging is the location to which resources report until given an assignment. Located close enough to the incident.Located close enough to the incident. If IC has not determined an assignment, report in the Staging Area.If IC has not determined an assignment, report in the Staging Area. IC has time to determine proper assignments.IC has time to determine proper assignments.

62 Slide 5-62 Staging Provides a resource pool.Provides a resource pool. Keeps from turning the front of the building into a parking lot.Keeps from turning the front of the building into a parking lot. Does not count as part of the IC's span of control.Does not count as part of the IC's span of control.

63 Slide 5-63 Increases Accountability Resources are prevented from choosing their own assignment.Resources are prevented from choosing their own assignment. Keeps companies and personnel from freelancing.Keeps companies and personnel from freelancing. Resources are tracked.Resources are tracked. Controls personnel.Controls personnel. Facilitates the formation of crews.Facilitates the formation of crews.

64 Slide 5-64 Staging Area Manager Responsible for managing all activities within the Staging area.

65 Slide 5-65 Staging Area Manager First-arriving officer designated as Staging Area Manager.First-arriving officer designated as Staging Area Manager. Keeps track of resources.Keeps track of resources. Updates IC.Updates IC. Maintains minimum resource level.Maintains minimum resource level. Responds to requests for personnel.Responds to requests for personnel. Reports to IC.Reports to IC.

66 Slide 5-66 THE INCIDENT COMMANDER'S ROLE

67 Slide 5-67 Safe and effective incident operations require that someone be in command. If one person does not assume command--the incident does.If one person does not assume command--the incident does. Responsibility for incident management and firefighter safety.Responsibility for incident management and firefighter safety. IC establishes the strategy and tactics.IC establishes the strategy and tactics.

68 Slide 5-68 Responsibilities not delegated by the IC are retained by the IC. Without delegating, IC can quickly exceed effective span of control.

69 Slide 5-69 The CO's Responsibility As Initial IC Do a thorough size-up.Do a thorough size-up. Identify strategy and select tactics.Identify strategy and select tactics. Develop initial action plan.Develop initial action plan. Implement the action plan.Implement the action plan.

70 Slide 5-70 The CO's Responsibility As Initial IC Coordinate incident resources.Coordinate incident resources. Modify action plan as needed.Modify action plan as needed. Call for additional resources if needed.Call for additional resources if needed. Maintain command until it can be passed or transferred.Maintain command until it can be passed or transferred. Be prepared to fill a subordinate position.Be prepared to fill a subordinate position.

71 Slide 5-71 Refers to the number of personnel who are reporting to any given individual. SPAN-OF-CONTROL

72 Slide 5-72 Optimum in ICS is five.Optimum in ICS is five. Acceptable spread of two to seven.Acceptable spread of two to seven. SPAN-OF-CONTROL (cont'd)

73 Slide 5-73 Training/Experience level of subordinates.Training/Experience level of subordinates. Complexity of the incident.Complexity of the incident. Type of incident or timeframe of the incident.Type of incident or timeframe of the incident. RATIOS CAN BE DRIVEN BY A NUMBER OF FACTORS

74 Slide 5-74 Safety OfficerSafety Officer Liaison OfficerLiaison Officer Information OfficerInformation Officer Staging Area ManagerStaging Area Manager FOR SPAN-OF-CONTROL PURPOSES THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS AR NOT COUNTED

75 Slide 5-75 DIVISIONS AND GROUPS

76 Slide 5-76 Establishing Divisions or Groups Most incidents handled with individual assignments to each company or tactical unit.Most incidents handled with individual assignments to each company or tactical unit.

77 Slide 5-77 Time: 0245 hours Conditions: Fire on 1st floor possible victims on 2nd floor

78 Slide 5-78 IC ENG 1 (Fire Attack) ENG 2 (Search & Rescue) TRUCK 1 (Ventilation)

79 Slide 5-79 When number of companies involved exceed IC's span of control, IC needs a means of maintaining a manageable level.

80 Slide 5-80 Additional resources called: E:3, E-4, T-2

81 Slide 5-81 IC ENG 1 (FireAttack) ENG 2 (Search & Rescue) ENG 3 (Fire Attack) ENG 4 (Search & Rescue) TRK 1 (Vent.) TRK 2 (Vent.)

82 Slide 5-82 Divisions and/or Groups likely to be first-line positions delegated by IC.

83 Slide 5-83 Divisions: An organizational level responsible for operations in a specified geographical area. Example: A Division may be responsible for operations on a specified floor of a building or a specified side or area of a structure.

84 Slide 5-84 Groups: An organizational level responsible for a specified functional assignment. Example: A Group may be responsible for search and rescue or for ventilation in the entire structure.

85 Slide 5-85 IC ENG 1 (FireAttack) ENG 2 (Search & Rescue) ENG 3 (Fire Attack) ENG 4 (Search & Rescue) TRK 1 (Vent.) TRK 2 (Vent.)

86 Slide 5-86 IC INTERIOR DIVISION VENTILATIONGROUP SEARCH & RESCUE GROUP ENG 1 ENG 3 ENG 2 ENG 4 TRK 1 TRK 3

87 Slide 5-87 Relationship Between Divisions and Groups Same organizational level.

88 Slide 5-88 Relationship Between Divisions and Groups Groups' responsibilities may cross Division boundaries.

89 Slide 5-89 Relationship Between Divisions and Groups Divisions are responsible for all tactical operations in their assigned area that are not assigned to a group. IC DIVISIONS GROUPS

90 Slide 5-90 Managing Divisions and Groups Managed by Division or Group Supervisors.Managed by Division or Group Supervisors. Report directly to the IC.Report directly to the IC. CO's may very well be assigned role of a Supervisor.CO's may very well be assigned role of a Supervisor. Initial IC can be reassigned.Initial IC can be reassigned. CO's not first in may be assigned a Division or Group.CO's not first in may be assigned a Division or Group.

91 Slide 5-91 When creating a Division or Group, the IC needs to communicate to the Supervisors Area(s) they are responsible for and tactics or objectives they need to accomplish.Area(s) they are responsible for and tactics or objectives they need to accomplish. Resources they are assigned.Resources they are assigned. Their radio designation.Their radio designation.

92 Slide 5-92 Responsibilities of Division and Group Supervisors Ensure safety and survival.Ensure safety and survival. Implement their assigned portion of the incident action plan.Implement their assigned portion of the incident action plan. Keep track of assigned resources.Keep track of assigned resources. Anticipate the needs of personnel.Anticipate the needs of personnel. Advise IC if meeting objectives.Advise IC if meeting objectives. Coordinate with other divisions and groups.Coordinate with other divisions and groups.

93 Slide 5-93 Gather and analyze information to plan.Gather and analyze information to plan. Issue orders.Issue orders. Supervise operations.Supervise operations. FIRE DEPARTMENTS' COMMUNICATIONS GUIDELINES SHOULD INCLUDE REPORTING INFORMATION TO:

94 Slide 5-94 Assignment completedAssignment completed Additional resources requiredAdditional resources required Unable to complete the assignmentUnable to complete the assignment Special informationSpecial information Personnel Accountability ReportPersonnel Accountability Report Operational locationOperational location TACTICAL LEVEL OFFICER SHOULD COMMUNICATE THE FOLLOWING:

95 Slide 5-95 Imperative for the Incident Commander to understand what is happening at an incident scene.Imperative for the Incident Commander to understand what is happening at an incident scene. Once orders are given to Company Officers, Group/Division Supervisors, or Branch Directors, feedback is critical.Once orders are given to Company Officers, Group/Division Supervisors, or Branch Directors, feedback is critical. PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATIONS

96 Slide 5-96 Allow for effective decisionmaking.Allow for effective decisionmaking. Assist in prioritizing the commitment of resources.Assist in prioritizing the commitment of resources. Allow for effective refinement and revision of the action plan.Allow for effective refinement and revision of the action plan. ESSENTIAL TO INCIDENT MANAGEMENT

97 Slide 5-97 Be timely, complete, and concise.Be timely, complete, and concise. Briefly detail where and what actions have been completed.Briefly detail where and what actions have been completed. Briefly detail where and what actions are being undertaken.Briefly detail where and what actions are being undertaken. EFFECTIVE PROGRESS REPORTS SHOULD

98 Slide 5-98 "Vertical ventilation will be completed in about 5 minutes. Horizontal ventilation of the fire floor is completed. Ventilation of the floor above is just beginning." FOR EXAMPLE, A VENT GROUP SUPERVISOR ASSIGNED TO ACCOMPLISH VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL VENTILATION MAY PROVIDE A PROGRESS REPORT AS FOLLOWS:

99 Slide 5-99 In catastrophic events it is critical that the progress of operations be conveyed to all General Staff functions on a timely basis. TIMING OF PROGRESS REPORTS:

100 Slide Feedback is Critical to IC/OpsFeedback is Critical to IC/Ops Essential to Incident ManagementEssential to Incident Management Allows for revision of the Action PlanAllows for revision of the Action Plan Progress Reports should detail:Progress Reports should detail: – Actions completed – Actions underway Need to be given with greater Need to be given with greater frequency in early stages of incident frequency in early stages of incident PROGRESS REPORTS

101 Slide RAPID INTERVENTION CREW (RIC)

102 Slide Firefighters are exposed to highest risk of injury or death.Firefighters are exposed to highest risk of injury or death. One of the most effective mechanisms for reducing risk is to have a team ready.One of the most effective mechanisms for reducing risk is to have a team ready. Not all risk can be eliminated from the firefighter's environment so we must make provisions to assist members who find themselves in trouble.Not all risk can be eliminated from the firefighter's environment so we must make provisions to assist members who find themselves in trouble. NFPA 1500 REQUIRES SPECIFICALLY DESIGNATED RESCUE TEAMS AT THE INCIDENT SCENE

103 Slide Risk may be increased if the fire Situation is in an area where the ability of individuals to rescue themselves is reduced by the distance they would have to travel: In a large building.In a large building. In a basement or an upper floor.In a basement or an upper floor. In the hold of a ship.In the hold of a ship. In a highrise building.In a highrise building. IDENTIFY THE RISK CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SITUATION AND EVALUATE SPECIFIC RISK FACTORS

104 Slide RISK IS INCREASED BY THE NATURE OF THE TASK IN WHICH THEY ARE INVOLVED Hazardous materials spillHazardous materials spill Belowground rescueBelowground rescue

105 Slide COMPOSITION AND PLACEMENT OF RAPID INTERVENTION CREWS Agency specificAgency specific Written procedures/guidelinesWritten procedures/guidelines ConsistencyConsistency Minimum of two members, fully equipped with appropriate clothing, SCBA's, and necessary tools.Minimum of two members, fully equipped with appropriate clothing, SCBA's, and necessary tools.

106 Slide DEDICATED RAPID INTERVENTION CREWS In a Hazardous Materials operation, the Entry Team Leader must ensure that there is an RIC.

107 Slide It is paramount that whenever personnel are operating in positions or performing functions that subject them to immediate danger at least one properly attired Rapid Intervention Crew is available to provide assistance.

108 Slide Rapid intervention procedures should not be confused with initial interior structural firefighting operations addressed in NFPA 1500.

109 Slide EXAMPLE: A CHIEF OFFICER WITH TWO ENGINES AND ONE TRUCK IS OPERATING AT A STRUCTURE FIRE INCIDENT. A PORTION OF THE SECOND FLOOR COLLAPSES. THAT INFORMATION IS TRANSMITTED TO THE INCIDENT COMMANDER. The Rapid Intervention Team is directed to enter the structure and quickly assess the structure's stability and to recover the missing firefighter and remove the member from danger.

110 Slide Small Group Activity 5.1 Application of the ICS

111 Slide 5-111

112 Slide EXAMPLE ICS ORGANIZATION FIRE ATTACK GROUP E-1 OFFICER VENTILATION/SEARCH EXPOSURE GROUP E-3 OFFICER E 1 E 2 E 3 E 4 T 1 IC STAGINGMEDICAL

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118 Slide Summary Incident Command System is a management system.Incident Command System is a management system. It provides the IC with tools needed.It provides the IC with tools needed. Used at any type incident and by all responders.Used at any type incident and by all responders. Suitable for "everyday" use and can expand in a modular fashion.Suitable for "everyday" use and can expand in a modular fashion. Company Officers must understand the system.Company Officers must understand the system.


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