Presentation on theme: "Fire Extinguisher Use. This training material presents very important information. Your organization must do an evaluation of all exposures, applicable."— Presentation transcript:
Fire Extinguisher Use
This training material presents very important information. Your organization must do an evaluation of all exposures, applicable codes and regulations, and establish proper controls, training, and protective measures to effectively control exposures and assure compliance. This program is neither a determination that the conditions and practices of your organization are safe nor a warranty that reliance upon this program will prevent accidents and losses or satisfy local, state or federal regulations. All procedures and training, whether required by law or not, should be implemented and reviewed by safety and risk management professionals, and legal counsel to ensure that all federal and state- specific requirements are satisfied. Disclaimer
1.Why Take Fire Extinguisher Use Training? 2.Planning for a Fire Emergency 3.Stages of Fire 4.The Fire Triangle 5.Classes of Fire 6.Types of Extinguishers 7.Using a Fire Extinguisher 8.Six Rules for Dealing with Fire 9.Inspection & Maintenance 10.Evacuation 11.Risk Assessment 12.Summary Course Outline – Fire Extinguisher Use
Why Take Fire Extinguisher Use Training? Understanding the importance of fire extinguisher use: Workplace fires and explosions kill hundreds and injure thousands of workers each year. One way to limit the amount of damage from fires is to make portable fire extinguisher use a part of your fire prevention program. When used properly, fire extinguishers can save lives and property by putting out small fires before they can do damage.
Fire is the most common type of emergency an organization must plan for: Planning for a Fire Emergency Training: The staff must be well trained and understand the use and limitations of portable fire extinguishers and the hazards associated with fighting fires.
Fire is the most common type of emergency an organization must plan for (continued): Evacuation: The organization needs an evacuation plan and evacuation charts posted throughout the facility. Evacuation drills must be conducted regularly. Emergency Action and Fire Prevention Plans: These plans should be in place and be current. They include emergency response requirements, incident command structure, training requirements etc. Equipment: This course will discuss portable fire extinguishers, which are a required component of a fire prevention program. Planning for a Fire Emergency
Stages of Fire 1.Incipient 2.Free burn 3.Smolder Prior to attempting to put out any fire, you must know what stage the fire is in. Fires will go through three distinct stages without interruption:
Stages of Fire Stage 1 - Incipient phase: The fire begins. The fire will be small and could spread slowly. There will be minimal smoke in the area. This is the only phase in which a fire extinguisher is an acceptable tool for fire suppression.
Stages of Fire Stage 2 - Free burn phase: The flames and smoke grow and expand rapidly. Fire engulfs the area and smoke may fill the room rapidly. The heat is too intense to approach the fire. Fires in this stage are no longer acceptable to fight with an extinguisher and all personnel must evacuate.
Stages of Fire Stage 3 - Smoldering phase: The oxygen and or fuel supply has been depleted. This occurs at the end of the fire and all personnel should have already evacuated. No personnel shall be permitted to re-enter the area during this time. Only professional fire fighters have the training and equipment to put out a smoldering fire.
Oxygen: Is required as a catalyst and can be supplied by the surrounding air or, in some cases, by the fuel itself. Fuel: For a fire to burn there must be a burnable material present. Heat: For a fire to start there must be a source of heat or ignition. The Fire Triangle A fire triangle requires three things: A fire requires all three parts of the fire triangle.
Fire extinguishers can break down the fire triangle: The extinguishing agent blankets the fuel so the ignition (flame) cannot reach the fuel. Caution: When using an extinguisher, always aim for the base of the fire to coat the fuel, not at the flames. The extinguishing agent displaces oxygen that the fire needs to burn. Caution: After using an extinguisher there may not be enough oxygen to breathe in the area. The Fire Triangle
Fires are classified by the type of fuels, i.e., material, they burn: Class A Fire Class B Fire Class C Fire Class D Fire Class K Fire Classes of Fire
Class A: This class of fire burns: Wood Paper Plastic Rags Classes of Fire
Class B: This class of fire burns flammable liquids such as: Gasoline Oil Grease Paint Classes of Fire
Class C: This class of fire includes electrical fires, such as: Office equipment Motors Switchgears Heaters Classes of Fire
Class D: This class of fire involves burning metal, such as: Potassium Phosphorus Sodium Aluminum Magnesium Classes of Fire
Class K: This class of fire involves combustible cooking fluids, such as: Vegetable oils used in deep fryers. Classes of Fire
Two functions of the portable fire extinguisher: Used to control or extinguish small fires. Used to protect evacuation routes from fire that may be directly or indirectly blocked with smoke or burning materials. Types of Extinguishers
Fire extinguisher classifications: They are classified according to the kinds of fires they are designed to extinguish. Fire extinguisher class ratings: ‒ Class A extinguisher ‒ Class B extinguisher ‒ Class C extinguisher ‒ Class D extinguisher ‒ Class ABC extinguisher ‒ Class K extinguisher Types of Extinguishers Class ABC are the most common and commercially available fire extinguishers.
Class A Extinguishers Class A extinguishers are used for these materials: Wood Paper Plastic Rags Types of Extinguishers
Class B Extinguishers Class B extinguishers are used for flammables like: Gasoline Oil Grease Paint Types of Extinguishers
Class C extinguishers are for electrical fires: Electrical fires can start from different types of equipment, such as: Office machines Motors Switchgears Heaters Types of Extinguishers
Class D extinguishers are used on burning metals: Class D fires involve burning metals, such as: Potassium Phosphorus Sodium Aluminum Magnesium Types of Extinguishers
Class K extinguishers are used on combustible cooking fluids: Vegetable oils used in deep fryers are a common ignition source. The extinguishing agents in Class K extinguishers can be electrically conductive, so they should only be used after the appliance’s power has been turned off. Types of Extinguishers
Extinguishing a fire with a fire extinguisher requires: Using a Fire Extinguisher Immediate access to the extinguisher. Knowing the types of fires and proper kinds of extinguishers to use. Knowing how to operate extinguishers. Knowing how to apply the extinguishing agent to the fire effectively.
Pull Aim Squeeze Sweep Using a Fire Extinguisher Use the PASS system to fight a fire:
Pull: Pull the pin. Removing the safety pin allows the activation handle to be squeezed. Using a Fire Extinguisher
Aim: Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire where the fuel is. Do not aim directly at the flames because the extinguishing agent will fly right through and will not extinguish the fire. Using a Fire Extinguisher
Squeeze: Squeeze the two handles together. Squeezing the top handle down to the bottom handle releases the pressurized extinguishing agent from the extinguisher. Using a Fire Extinguisher
Sweep: Sweep from side to side. Cover the fuel with the extinguishing agent until the fire is completely out. Using a Fire Extinguisher
Rule 1 - Do not fight a fire if you don't know what the fuel is: If you don't know what is burning, then you don't know what type of extinguisher to use. Even if you have a Class ABC extinguisher, there may be something in the fire that could explode or produce highly toxic smoke. Six Rules for Fighting Fires
Rule 2 – Do not fight a fire if the fire has spread beyond the spot where it started: The appropriate time to use a portable fire extinguisher is in the beginning stages of a fire. If the fire is already spreading, evacuate the building. If time allows, close doors and windows as you leave. Six Rules for Fighting Fires
If you don't have the correct type of extinguisher or if your extinguisher is obviously too small, do not fight the fire. Six Rules for Fighting Fires Rule 3 – Do not fight a fire if you don’t have the appropriate or adequate equipment and training:
Rule 4 – Do not fight a fire if you might inhale toxic smoke: Six Rules for Fighting Fires If the fire is producing a large amount of smoke that you could inhale if you remained in the room, do not fight the fire. Gases from some materials can be fatal even in very small amounts. Toxic smoke can produce an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Most fire fatalities are due to smoke inhalation and not burns.
If you are uncomfortable with the situation for any reason, evacuate the building and let trained firefighters do their job. Six Rules for Fighting Fires Rule 5 – Do not fight a fire if your instincts tell you not to:
Rule 6 – Always position yourself with an exit or means of escape behind you: Whenever you attempt to use an extinguisher to put out a fire, keep a clear exit at your back. In case the extinguisher malfunctions or something else unexpected happens, you need to be able to get out quickly; you do not want to become trapped. Six Rules for Fighting Fires Remember, always keep a clear exit behind you.
Locking pin is securely in place. Pressure gauge indicates that the extinguisher is full. Legible operating instructions are on the extinguisher. No physical damage is present, e.g., corrosion, cracking, leakage, or cracked nozzle. Inspection and Maintenance All fire extinguishers must also receive an annual maintenance check. Inspect by a qualified person monthly to ensure:
Evacuation Evacuate or remain and fire-fight? Is there a public fire department nearby? Are the exit routes accessible or are they vulnerable to the fire? What, if any, fire safety equipment exists in the workplace? Does the building have a sprinkler system? How quickly could a fire get out of control, e.g., if flammables are used or stored on the site?
Evacuation Evacuation planning: Things to consider in the context of a potential fire: ‒ The facility layout and exit locations. –How would employees evacuate? –The amount of combustible and/or flammable materials present. Consider the impacts, based on where a fire could start, e.g., a warehouse vs. an office.
Evacuation Evacuation option #1 - Total evacuation: Immediate and total evacuation is required of all staff from the workplace when the alarm sounds. Establish an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan and train staff accordingly. No one is authorized to use available fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers are not present.
Evacuation Evacuation option #2 – Designated staff are authorized to use fire extinguishers: When designated staff are authorized to use fire extinguishers to fight fires, all other staff must evacuate the workplace immediately when an alarm sounds. Establish an emergency action plan and train staff accordingly. Meet all fire extinguisher requirements and annually train designated staff to use fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers in the workplace must be inspected and maintained.
Evacuation Evacuation option #3 – All staff are authorized to use fire extinguishers: If any staff, or visitors will be evacuating, establish an emergency action plan and train staff accordingly. Meet all fire extinguisher requirements and annually train all staff to use fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers in the workplace must be inspected monthly and maintained annually on the required preventive maintenance schedules.
Evacuation Establish an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan. Train designated staff accordingly. If fire extinguishers are present in the workplace, they must be inspected and maintained. Evacuation option #4 - Extinguishers are provided but are not intended for staff use:
Risk Assessment First things first: Pull the fire alarm. Assist anyone in danger. Be certain that you will not endanger yourself or others if you attempt to extinguish a fire. Call 911. Fires can spread and intensify in an instant!
Prior to fighting fire with an extinguisher you must assess: Fire size Controllability Atmosphere in the vicinity of the fire Evacuation pathway Risk Assessment
A fire can increase in size and intensity in seconds and possibly create a hazardous atmosphere or block the evacuation route of the firefighter. Portable fire extinguishers contain a limited amount of extinguishing agent and can be discharged in a matter of seconds. Individuals should only attempt to extinguish very small and controllable fires. Risk Assessment Attempting to extinguish even a small fire carries some risk. Keep these critical points in mind to limit the risk:
Risk Assessment SHOULD USE a portable fire extinguisher: SHOULD NOT USE a portable fire extinguisher: The fire is limited to the original material ignited. It is contained (such as in a waste basket). It is not higher than the firefighter’s head. It is not able to expand rapidly. The fire involves flammable solvents or hazardous materials. It has spread over more than 60 square feet. It is partially hidden behind a wall or ceiling. It cannot be reached from a standing position. Evacuate immediately! Question 1 – Is the fire too big?
Risk Assessment SHOULD USE a portable fire extinguisher: SHOULD NOT USE a portable fire extinguisher: The fire has not and will not deplete the oxygen in the room. It is producing only a small amount of smoke. Visibility is good and no respiratory protection is required. Smoke is quickly filling the room. Respiratory protection is required. Evacuate immediately! Question 2 – Is the air safe to breathe?
Risk Assessment SHOULD USE a portable fire extinguisher: SHOULD NOT USE a portable fire extinguisher: Heat is being generated, but the room temperature is only slightly increased. Smoke may be accumulating at the ceiling, but visibility is good. No personal protective equipment is required. Radiation from heat is easily felt on exposed skin making it difficult to approach within the effective range of the extinguisher. Crawling on the floor is necessary. Smoke is quickly filling the room and decreasing the visibility. Evacuate immediately! Question 3 – Is the environment too hot or smoky?
Risk Assessment SHOULD USE a portable fire extinguisher: SHOULD NOT USE a portable fire extinguisher: There is a clear evacuation path that is behind you as you fight the fire. The fire is not contained. Fire, heat, or smoke may block the evacuation path. Evacuate immediately! Question 4 – Is there a safe evacuation path?
Plan for a fire suppression strategy: Determine whether or not employees will be trained to use fire extinguishers. Know the stages of fire: The incipient phase is the only time to use a fire extinguisher. Identify the type of fire: This is based on the fire class which depends on the fuel type. Select the appropriate fire extinguisher: The wrong extinguisher type for a particular fire class could actually make the problem worse. Summary
Chemical fires: Refer to the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for extinguishing fires involving specific chemical materials. Use the PASS system: Pull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep Perform a risk assessment: When in doubt, GET OUT! Summary
Fire Extinguisher Use This form documents that the training specified above was presented to the listed participants. By signing below, each participant acknowledges receiving this training. Organization: Trainer: Trainer’s Signature: Class Participants: Name: Signature: Date: