2 Disclaimer This training material presents very important information. Your organization must do an evaluation of all exposures, applicable codes and regulations, and establish proper controls, training, and protective measures to effectively control exposures and assure compliance.This program is neither a determination that the conditions and practices of your organization are safe nor a warranty that reliance upon this program will prevent accidents and losses or satisfy local, state or federal regulations.All procedures and training, whether required by law or not, should be implemented and reviewed by safety and risk management professionals, and legal counsel to ensure that all federal and state- specific requirements are satisfied.
3 Course Outline – Fire Extinguisher Use Why Take Fire Extinguisher Use Training?Planning for a Fire EmergencyStages of FireThe Fire TriangleClasses of FireTypes of ExtinguishersUsing a Fire ExtinguisherSix Rules for Dealing with FireInspection & MaintenanceEvacuationRisk AssessmentSummary
4 Why Take Fire Extinguisher Use Training? Understanding the importance of fire extinguisher use:Workplace fires and explosions kill hundreds and injure thousands of workers each year.One way to limit the amount of damage from fires is to make portable fire extinguisher use a part of your fire prevention program.When used properly, fire extinguishers can save lives and property by putting out small fires before they can do damage.A “small fire” is one that is smaller than the size of a small office trash can.
5 Planning for a Fire Emergency Fire is the most common type of emergency an organization must plan for:Training: The staff must be well trained and understand the use and limitations of portable fire extinguishers and the hazards associated with fighting fires.An evacuation plan might include evacuation maps, assemble areas outside the building or in safe areas, emergency notification (e.g., telephone, radio, etc.) and alarm systems.A written plan should also be developed that describes evacuation procedures and assigns roles and responsibilities.
6 Planning for a Fire Emergency Fire is the most common type of emergency an organization must plan for (continued):Evacuation: The organization needs an evacuation plan and evacuation charts posted throughout the facility. Evacuation drills must be conducted regularly.Emergency Action and Fire Prevention Plans: These plans should be in place and be current. They include emergency response requirements, incident command structure, training requirements etc.Equipment: This course will discuss portable fire extinguishers, which are a required component of a fire prevention program.
7 Stages of FireFires will go through three distinct stages without interruption:IncipientFree burnSmolderPrior to attempting to put out any fire, youmust know what stage the fire is in.
8 Stages of Fire Stage 1 - Incipient phase: The fire begins. The fire will be small and could spread slowly.There will be minimal smoke in the area.This is the only phase in which a fire extinguisher is anacceptable tool for fire suppression.
9 Stages of Fire Stage 2 - Free burn phase: The flames and smoke grow and expand rapidly.Fire engulfs the area and smoke may fill the room rapidly.The heat is too intense to approach the fire.Fires in this stage are no longer acceptable to fight with anextinguisher and all personnel must evacuate.
10 Stages of Fire Stage 3 - Smoldering phase: The oxygen and or fuel supply has been depleted.This occurs at the end of the fire and all personnel should have already evacuated.No personnel shall be permitted to re-enter the area during this time.Only professional fire fighters have the training andequipment to put out a smoldering fire.
11 A fire requires all three parts of the fire triangle. A fire triangle requires three things:Oxygen: Is required as a catalyst and can be supplied by the surrounding air or, in some cases, by the fuel itself.Fuel: For a fire to burn there must be a burnable material present.Heat: For a fire to start there must be a source of heat or ignition.A fire will not burn once one of the three parts is removed.A fire requires all three parts of the fire triangle.
12 The Fire Triangle Fire extinguishers can break down the fire triangle: The extinguishing agent blankets the fuel so the ignition (flame) cannot reach the fuel.Caution: When using an extinguisher, always aim for the base of the fire to coat the fuel, not at the flames.The extinguishing agent displaces oxygen that the fire needs to burn.Caution: After using an extinguisher there may not be enough oxygen to breathe in the area.
13 Classes of FireFires are classified by the type of fuels, i.e., material, they burn:Class A FireClass B FireClass C FireClass D FireClass K FireThe most common fire extinguishers available are those that will extinguish Class A, B and C fires.
14 Classes of Fire Class A: This class of fire burns: Wood Paper Plastic RagsThis is the most common type of fire since these materials are generally present in office and industrial environments.
15 Classes of Fire Class B: This class of fire burns flammable liquids such as:GasolineOilGreasePaintClass B fires can spread very rapidly when the burning material has been spilled.As the material flows down-gradient, the fire will follow and could burn other material in its path.
16 Classes of Fire Class C: This class of fire includes electrical fires, such as:Office equipmentMotorsSwitchgearsHeatersElectrical fires can initially be difficult to detect if the fire starts in wiring or electrical systems that may be hidden by building structures such as walls.
17 Classes of Fire Class D: This class of fire involves burning metal, such as:PotassiumPhosphorusSodiumAluminumMagnesiumWhen metal is sanded or ground to a fine dust, e.g., aluminum or titanium grinding, the risk of a Class D fire can dramatically increase.
18 Classes of Fire Class K: This class of fire involves combustible cooking fluids, such as:Vegetable oils used in deep fryers.Class K fires can spread quickly especially if grease and oils are splashed in the area of the fire.
19 Types of Extinguishers Two functions of the portable fire extinguisher:Used to control or extinguish small fires.Used to protect evacuation routes from fire that may be directly or indirectly blocked with smoke or burning materials.
20 Types of Extinguishers Fire extinguisher classifications:They are classified according to the kinds of fires they are designed to extinguish.Fire extinguisher class ratings:Class A extinguisherClass B extinguisherClass C extinguisherClass D extinguisherClass ABC extinguisherClass K extinguisherClass ABC are the most common andcommercially available fire extinguishers.
21 Types of Extinguishers Class A ExtinguishersClass A extinguishers are used for these materials:WoodPaperPlasticRags
22 Types of Extinguishers Class B ExtinguishersClass B extinguishers are used for flammables like:GasolineOilGreasePaint
23 Types of Extinguishers Class C extinguishers are for electrical fires:Electrical fires can start from different types of equipment, such as:Office machinesMotorsSwitchgearsHeaters
24 Types of Extinguishers Class D extinguishers are used on burning metals:Class D fires involve burning metals, such as:PotassiumPhosphorusSodiumAluminumMagnesiumOften the Class D extinguishers are much heavier than ABC fire extinguishers.Many are generally placed on carts with wheels, rather than being mounted on a wall.
25 Types of Extinguishers Class K extinguishers are used on combustible cooking fluids:Vegetable oils used in deep fryers are a common ignition source.The extinguishing agents in Class K extinguishers can be electrically conductive, so they should only be used after the appliance’s power has been turned off.
26 Using a Fire Extinguisher Extinguishing a fire with a fire extinguisher requires:Immediate access to the extinguisher.Knowing the types of fires and proper kinds of extinguishers to use.Knowing how to operate extinguishers.Knowing how to apply the extinguishing agent to the fire effectively.
27 Using a Fire Extinguisher Use the PASS system to fight a fire:PullAimSqueezeSweep
28 Using a Fire Extinguisher Pull:Pull the pin.Removing the safety pin allows the activation handle to be squeezed.
29 Using a Fire Extinguisher Aim:Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire where the fuel is.Do not aim directly at the flames because the extinguishing agent will fly right through and will not extinguish the fire.
30 Using a Fire Extinguisher Squeeze:Squeeze the two handles together.Squeezing the top handle down to the bottom handle releases the pressurized extinguishing agent from the extinguisher.
31 Using a Fire Extinguisher Sweep:Sweep from side to side.Cover the fuel with the extinguishing agent until the fire is completely out.
32 Six Rules for Fighting Fires Rule 1 - Do not fight a fire if you don't know what the fuel is:If you don't know what is burning, then you don't know what type of extinguisher to use.Even if you have a Class ABC extinguisher, there may be something in the fire that could explode or produce highly toxic smoke.
33 Six Rules for Fighting Fires Rule 2 – Do not fight a fire if the fire has spread beyond the spot where it started:The appropriate time to use a portable fire extinguisher is in the beginning stages of a fire.If the fire is already spreading, evacuate the building.If time allows, close doors and windows as you leave.Also, as you evacuate, communicate to other employees that you encounter, letting them know that evacuation is necessary.
34 Six Rules for Fighting Fires Rule 3 – Do not fight a fire if you don’t have the appropriate or adequate equipment and training:If you don't have the correct type of extinguisher or if your extinguisher is obviously too small, do not fight the fire.
35 Six Rules for Fighting Fires Rule 4 – Do not fight a fire if you might inhale toxic smoke:If the fire is producing a large amount of smoke that you could inhale if you remained in the room, do not fight the fire.Gases from some materials can be fatal even in very small amounts.Toxic smoke can produce an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Most fire fatalities are due to smoke inhalation and not burns.
36 Six Rules for Fighting Fires Rule 5 – Do not fight a fire if your instincts tell you not to:If you are uncomfortable with the situation for any reason, evacuate the building and let trained firefighters do their job.
37 Six Rules for Fighting Fires Rule 6 – Always position yourself with an exit or means of escape behind you:Whenever you attempt to use an extinguisher to put out a fire, keep a clear exit at your back.In case the extinguisher malfunctions or something else unexpected happens, you need to be able to get out quickly; you do not want to become trapped.Be aware of your surroundings and take mental note of materials in the area that could be affected by the fire, e.g., chemicals.Remember, always keep a clear exit behind you.
38 Inspection and Maintenance Inspect by a qualified person monthly to ensure:Locking pin is securely in place.Pressure gauge indicates that the extinguisher is full.Legible operating instructions are on the extinguisher.No physical damage is present, e.g., corrosion, cracking, leakage, or cracked nozzle.Each fire extinguisher should have an inspection tag attached to it.Monthly inspections should be noted on the tag, indicating the date of inspection and the person who inspected the extinguisher.All fire extinguishers must also receive an annual maintenance check.
39 Evacuation Evacuate or remain and fire-fight? Is there a public fire department nearby?Are the exit routes accessible or are they vulnerable to the fire?What, if any, fire safety equipment exists in the workplace?Does the building have a sprinkler system?How quickly could a fire get out of control, e.g., if flammables are used or stored on the site?
40 Evacuation Evacuation planning: Things to consider in the context of a potential fire:The facility layout and exit locations.How would employees evacuate?The amount of combustible and/or flammable materials present.It is very important to know your evacuation route(s) before an emergency situation occurs.Consider the impacts, based on where a firecould start, e.g., a warehouse vs. an office.
41 Evacuation Evacuation option #1 - Total evacuation: Immediate and total evacuation is required of all staff from the workplace when the alarm sounds.Establish an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan and train staff accordingly.No one is authorized to use available fire extinguishers.Fire extinguishers are not present.
42 EvacuationEvacuation option #2 – Designated staff are authorized to use fire extinguishers:When designated staff are authorized to use fire extinguishers to fight fires, all other staff must evacuate the workplace immediately when an alarm sounds.Establish an emergency action plan and train staff accordingly.Meet all fire extinguisher requirements and annually train designated staff to use fire extinguishers.Fire extinguishers in the workplace must be inspected and maintained.
43 EvacuationEvacuation option #3 – All staff are authorized to use fire extinguishers:If any staff, or visitors will be evacuating, establish an emergency action plan and train staff accordingly.Meet all fire extinguisher requirements and annually train all staff to use fire extinguishers.Fire extinguishers in the workplace must be inspected monthly and maintained annually on the required preventive maintenance schedules.
44 EvacuationEvacuation option #4 - Extinguishers are provided but are not intended for staff use:Establish an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan.Train designated staff accordingly.If fire extinguishers are present in the workplace, they must be inspected and maintained.
45 Risk Assessment First things first: Pull the fire alarm. Assist anyone in danger.Be certain that you will not endanger yourself or others if you attempt to extinguish a fire.Call 911.Fires can spread and intensify in an instant!
46 Risk AssessmentPrior to fighting fire with an extinguisher you must assess:Fire sizeControllabilityAtmosphere in the vicinity of the fireEvacuation pathway
47 Risk Assessment Keep these critical points in mind to limit the risk: A fire can increase in size and intensity in seconds and possibly create a hazardous atmosphere or block the evacuation route of the firefighter.Portable fire extinguishers contain a limited amount of extinguishing agent and can be discharged in a matter of seconds.Individuals should only attempt to extinguish very small and controllable fires.Attempting to extinguish even a small fire carries some risk.
48 Risk Assessment Question 1 – Is the fire too big? SHOULD USE a portable fire extinguisher:SHOULD NOT USE a portable fire extinguisher:The fire is limited to the original material ignited.It is contained (such as in a waste basket).It is not higher than the firefighter’s head.It is not able to expand rapidly.The fire involves flammable solvents or hazardous materials.It has spread over more than 60 square feet.It is partially hidden behind a wall or ceiling.It cannot be reached from a standing position.Evacuate immediately!
49 Risk Assessment Question 2 – Is the air safe to breathe? SHOULD USE a portable fire extinguisher:SHOULD NOT USE a portable fire extinguisher:The fire has not and will not deplete the oxygen in the room.It is producing only a small amount of smoke.Visibility is good and no respiratory protection is required.Smoke is quickly filling the room.Respiratory protection is required.Evacuate immediately!
50 Risk Assessment Question 3 – Is the environment too hot or smoky? SHOULD USE a portable fire extinguisher:SHOULD NOT USE a portable fire extinguisher:Heat is being generated, but the room temperature is only slightly increased.Smoke may be accumulating at the ceiling, but visibility is good.No personal protective equipment is required.Radiation from heat is easily felt on exposed skin making it difficult to approach within the effective range of the extinguisher.Crawling on the floor is necessary.Smoke is quickly filling the room and decreasing the visibility.Evacuate immediately!
51 Risk Assessment Question 4 – Is there a safe evacuation path? SHOULD USE a portable fire extinguisher:SHOULD NOT USE a portable fire extinguisher:There is a clear evacuation path that is behind you as you fight the fire.The fire is not contained.Fire, heat, or smoke may block the evacuation path.Evacuate immediately!
52 SummaryPlan for a fire suppression strategy: Determine whether or not employees will be trained to use fire extinguishers.Know the stages of fire: The incipient phase is the only time to use a fire extinguisher.Identify the type of fire: This is based on the fire class which depends on the fuel type.Select the appropriate fire extinguisher: The wrong extinguisher type for a particular fire class could actually make the problem worse.
53 SummaryChemical fires: Refer to the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for extinguishing fires involving specific chemical materials.Use the PASS system: Pull, Aim, Squeeze, SweepPerform a risk assessment: When in doubt, GET OUT!
54 Fire Extinguisher Use Documentation Summary Documents This form documents that the training specified above was presented to the listed participants. By signing below, each participant acknowledges receiving this training.Organization:Trainer: Trainer’s Signature:Class Participants:Name: Signature: Date:Documentation SummaryDocumentsRisk Management Center LocationWritten Fire Extinguisher Safety ProgramMy ContentTMTraining Documentation including:- Classroom training and training course completed- Sign-in sheets- Quizzes- Skills evaluations- Operator CertificatesTraining TrackTM applicationPre-shift Inspection ChecklistsSafety ObservationsJob Hazard Analysis/ Safety Observation ToolTMNear missesIncident TrackTMAccidents and claimsSupplier and manufacturer Certificates of InsuranceCOI TrackTMSafety Data SheetsSDS TrackTM