Presentation on theme: "Fire Prevention & Protection Gordon Cooper Technology Center"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fire Prevention & Protection Gordon Cooper Technology Center WELCOME STUDENTS.INTRODUCE YOURSELF.REMIND STUDENTS ABOUT:ATTENDANCE ROSTER.FEEDBACK FORM (IF USED).HANDOUTS (IF USED--COPIES OF SLIDES 8 AND 15).DGordon Cooper Technology Center
2 ObjectivesUnderstand the combustion process and different fire classes.Understand fire extinguisher types, operating procedures, capabilities, and limitations.Understand basic firefighting concepts:R.A.C.E.P.A.S.S.BRIEFLY REVIEW OBJECTIVES.
3 Elements of a Fire Oxygen Fuel Heat/Ignition source They come together to create a chain reaction (FIRE)Of course, often there's another factor involved—carelessness. Somebody has to be careless enough to put all three fire-starters together.And if employees haven't been thoroughly trained (and periodically retrained) in fire safety and aren't fully aware of fire hazards in the workplace, yet another factor—ignorance—might come into play.
4 THE FIRE TETRAHEDRONOXYGENCHAINREACTIONFUELASK “WHAT FOUR INGREDIENTS ARE NEEDED TO CREATE A FIRE?” AND SHOW SLIDE.EXPLAIN HOW IT SHOWS “FIRE TETRAHEDRON”--FOUR-SIDED FIGURE SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF COMBUSTION PROCESS (UPDATE FROM OLD “FIRE TRIANGLE”--ADDS CHEMICAL CHAIN REACTION AS FOURTH ELEMENT).EXPLAIN THAT EACH COMPONENT IS EQUALLY IMPORTANT.ASK “HOW DO YOU PUT OUT A FIRE?” (REMOVE ONE OR MORE OF THE ABOVE ELEMENTS). EXPLAIN HOW EXTINGUISHERS WE USE ARE ALL DESIGNED TO DO THIS.TEMPERATURE
5 How to prevent Fires If we can keep these elements apart… We can prevent the fire from happening!Here's an example:A container leaks a considerable amount of flammable liquid onto the floor. As the liquid evaporates, flammable vapors are released into air. An employee working nearby is using a metal tool that creates a spark. The spark ignites the vapors, and in seconds a fire has started. If there is enough vapor, or if the fire makes it back to the flammable liquid container, the container might explode.All three basic elements of fire existed here, plus the added dimensions of carelessness and ignorance. Why hadn't the leak been detected and corrected? And what about the employee who started the fire? Shouldn't he have known to use nonsparking tools when working in an area around flammable liquids?Here's another example:A worker sneaking a smoke out on the loading dock tosses an incompletely extinguished cigarette butt into a pile of cardboard and paper trash that's been allowed to collect into a sizable mound. It takes a while, but eventually the trash starts burning. If it goes unnoticed for long, the fire could easily spread.Again, all the elements for starting a fire were present. Plus an employee was careless enough to ignore smoking rules and toss his butt into a pile of trash. And someone else—maybe the same employee—was careless enough to allow the trash to build up, when it should have been properly disposed of.
6 How Can we put out a fire? BREAK THE CHAIN! Eliminate any one of the elements, we can element the fire.That’s what extinguishes are made for.Incipient / beginning stages of fire only!
7 D Fire Classes DESCRIBE THE FIVE FIRE CLASSES ON THIS AND NEXT SLIDE. A Trash Wood PaperC Electrical Equipmentwoodclothpaperrubbermany plasticsenergized electrical equipmentgasolineoilgreasetaroil-based paintlacquerflammable gasesCOMBUSTIBLEmagnesiumsodiumpotassiumtitaniumzirconiumother flammable metalsB Liquids GreaseDESCRIBE THE FIVE FIRE CLASSES ON THIS AND NEXT SLIDE.POINT OUT OLD AND NEW FIRE SYMBOLS--USED TO MARK EXTINGUISHERS FOR SUITABILITY FOR USE ON FIRE CLASSES.TO DECIDE IF EXTINGUISHER IS APPROPRIATE, MATCH SYMBOL TO TYPE OF FIRE BEING ENCOUNTERED.DMETALS
8 CLASS K FIRES Recently recognized by NFPA 10. K Cooking MediaRecently recognized by NFPA 10.Fires involving combustible vegetable or animal non-saturated cooking fats in commercial cooking equipment.RECENT ADDITION TO NFPA 10.DESIGNED FOR USE WITH HOTTER BURNING NON-SATURATED FAT FIRES.
9 Fire Extinguisher Anatomy PRESSURE GAUGE(not found on CO2extinguishers)DISCHARGE LEVERDISCHARGE LOCKING PINAND SEALCARRYINGHANDLEDISCHARGE HOSEDATA PLATEPOINT OUT DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER.POINT OUT THAT CO2 EXTINGUISHER IS UNIQUE IN THAT IT DOES NOT HAVE PRESSURE GAUGE.DISCHARGE NOZZLEBODYDISCHARGE ORIFICE
10 PRESSURIZED WATER Class “A” fires only. 2.5 gal. water at psi (up to 1 minute discharge time).Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check.30-40 ft. maximum effective range.Can be started and stopped as necessary.Extinguishes by cooling burning material below the ignition point.
11 CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) Class “B” or “C” fires. lb. of CO2 gas at psi (8-30 seconds discharge time).Has NO pressure gauge--capacity verified by weight.3-8 ft. maximum effective range.Extinguishes by smothering burning materials.Effectiveness decreases as temperature of burning material increases.
12 MULTIPURPOSE DRY CHEMICAL Class “A”, “B”, or “C” fires.lb. dry chemical (ammonium phosphate) pressurized to psi by nitrogen gas (8-25 seconds discharge time).Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check.5-20 ft. maximum effective range.Extinguishes by smothering burning materials.
13 HALONClass “A”, “B”, or “C” fires (smaller sizes ineffective against Class “A”).9-17 lb. Halon 1211 (pressurized liquid) released as vapor (8-18 seconds discharge time).Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check.9-16 ft. maximum effective range.Works best in confined area--ideal for electronics fire due to lack of residue.Extinguishes by smothering burning materials.Fumes toxic if inhaled.Halon is ozone depleting chemical--production halted in Jan ‘94.
14 COMBUSTIBLE METAL D Class “D” combustible metal fires only. 30 lb. pressurized dry powder optimized for specific combustible metal (also available in bulk containers for hand scooping onto fire to extinguish).6-8 ft. maximum effective range.Extinguishes by smothering burning materials.DCOMBUSTIBLEMETALSPRESSURIZED SPRAY--UNLIKE DRY CHEMICAL, ONLY NITROGEN CYLINDER ON BACK OF EXTINGUISHER IS PRESSURIZED. MUST ACTIVATE IT TO PRESSURIZE BODY AND PROPEL EXTINGUISHING AGENT OUT OF DISCHARGE NOZZLE AND ONTO FIRE.BULK CONTAINER AGENT IS HAND SCOOPED ONTO SMALL (BENCHTOP) FIRES.
16 WET CHEMICAL Class “A”, “C”, and “K” fires. 1.5 gal. of stored pressure PRX wet chemical extinguishing agent (40 sec. discharge time).10-12 ft. maximum effective range.On Class “K” fires, don’t use until after fixed extinguishing system has activated.Extinguishes by cooling and forming foam blanket to prevent reignition.ATrash Wood PaperCElectrical EquipmentK Cooking MediaEXTINGUISHING AGENT IS AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF INORGANIC SALTS.EMPHASIZE WARNING SIGN--ONLY USE AFTER FIXED SUPPRESSION SYSTEM GOES OFF!
17 Fire Extinguisher Summary EXTINGUISHER TYPEWORKS BYEFFECTIVE AGAINSTPRESSURIZED WATERCOOLINGCARBON DIOXIDESMOTHERINGMULTIPURPOSE DRY CHEMICALSMOTHERINGSMOTHERINGHALONBRIEFLY REVIEW EACH EXTINGUISHER TYPE, STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES.POINT OUT STUDENTS HAVE COPY OF THIS SLIDE AS ONE OF HANDOUTS.COMBUSTIBLE METALSMOTHERINGDCOOLING/ SMOTHERINGWET CHEMICAL
18 Fire Extinguisher Placement Class A ExtinguishersPlaced within 75 feet of employeesClass B ExtinguishersPlaced within 50 feet of employeesClass C ExtinguishersPlaced based on pattern for existing class A & B hazardsNo matter where you’re at in the facility, the distance between you and an extinguisher should be no more 50 feetfeet
19 Fire Extinguisher Maintenance 30 Day Visual InspectionLocation, Accessibility, PressureLabeled √Accessibility √In Place √Green Is Good √
20 Fire Extinguisher Maintenance Annual InspectionConducted by External CompanyComplete Inspection
21 Documenting Fire Extinguisher Maintenance 30 Day Visual InspectionNoted on the extinguisher’s service tagDate & initials of InspectorAnnual InspectionDocumentation provided by companyRetained a minimum of 1 year or life of extinguisher, whichever is less
22 Fire Emergency Response RescueAAlarmCContainASK “WHAT DO I DO IF I SEE A FIRE?”RESCUE VICTIMS.ALARM ACTIVATION TO SUMMON HELP.CONTAIN FIRE TO PREVENT SPREAD--CLOSE DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUT OFF EXHAUST, ETC.EXTINGUISH THE FLAMES--PUT THE FIRE OUT.EExtinguish
23 Firefighting Decision Criteria Know department emergency procedures and evacuation routes.Know locations of extinguishers in your area and how to use them.Always sound the alarm regardless of fire size.Avoid smoky conditions.Ensure area is evacuated.Don’t attempt to fight unless:Alarm is sounded.Fire is small and contained.You have safe egress route (can be reached without exposure to fire).Available extinguishers are rated for size and type of fire. If in doubt, evacuateASK “HOW DO I DECIDE TO FIGHT THE FIRE OR EVACUATE?”IF ONE OR MORE OF THE ABOVE CRITERIA AREN’T MET, BUG OUT!IF YOU DO USE AN EXTINGUISHER, PLACE IT OUT OF SERVICE AND NOTIFY THE APPROPRIATE PERSON(S) SO IT CAN BE RECHARGED OR REPLACED.
24 P A S S Fighting the Fire Pull the pin Aim low at the base of flames Squeeze thehandleIF YOU DECIDE TO FIGHT FIRE, USE “P.A.S.S.” ACRONYM TO REMEMBER HOW TO OPERATE THE EXTINGUISHER PROPERLY.SSweep side to side
25 Summary Combustion process (Fire Tetrahedron). Class A, B, C, D, K fires.Types of portable fire extinguishers:Operating procedures.Capabilities and limitations.Basic firefighting concepts:R.A.C.E.P.A.S.S.BRIEFLY REVIEW COMBUSTION PROCESS, FIRE CLASSES, TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS, AND THEIR LIMITATIONS (REMIND STUDENTS OF HANDOUTS).REVIEW “R.A.C.E”, “P.A.S.S.” ACRONYMS.ASK FOR QUESTIONS.REMIND STUDENTS TO SIGN ROSTER.