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Animals In Disasters David K. Bishop* Reproductive Design Services, Sampson Community College Livestock In Disasters.

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Presentation on theme: "Animals In Disasters David K. Bishop* Reproductive Design Services, Sampson Community College Livestock In Disasters."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animals In Disasters David K. Bishop* Reproductive Design Services, Sampson Community College Livestock In Disasters

2 Animals in Disasters Goals = Certification: Specializing in Thoughts & Options

3 Economic Value ($) of Livestock

4 Swine Density Poultry Density NCDA: 2002

5 Pets In Society $20 – 30 Billion in Pet Products (1997) Importance of “Pets as Companions” Mental Health issues – Guilt – Bereavement – ANGER “Babe”

6 Animal “Ownership” 50% of households own pets (# dogs ~ children) Reasons noted:  Personal pleasure/companionship  Educational experience for children  Replacement of persons deceased or void  Personal and property protection  Rescued from neglect  Support of family through care of animals  God-given right (Genesis 1:26)

7 Measures of / Influences “EMS” AVMA – “ Animal welfare is a human responsibility includes: proper housing, management, nutrition, disease prevention and treatment, responsible care, humane handling, and when necessary, humane euthanasia.” All Plans state: People > Animals Annually ~ 300,000 people do not evacuate

8 Scenarios Train carrying propane derails… Hurricane separates owners from horses… Tornado knocks over a tank of herbicide… Floods cause drowning of animals on farms… During heat wave, there is a power failure…

9 Risk Factors for Evac. Failure 20.9% Households with Pets: 16.3% without  Decreased with children (regardless of Pets) Increased 50% per additional dog or cat (x-Kids) 90 % evacuees stayed with friends/family  82% stayed with pet  7-18% pets at familiar location: people elsewhere  3-10% board at kennel

10 Risk Factors for Evac. Failure Short duration incident:  50.6% failed to evacuate pets  10 % neither evacuated nor rescued  Challenges  “not gone long” (70-97%)  “did not know where to take pets” (20%) Longer duration:  22.2% left pets  16.7 % made no attempt to rescue Statistic: Turnover rate of dogs (14%) and cats (18%)

11 Foundations for Pet Evacuations KEYS: Responsible pet ownership Strong Human (child) : animal bond Certain related Activities:  Regular Vet attention  Socializing behaviors  Obedience training  Pet carriers  Cats caught/transported regularly

12 Measures of / Influences “EMS” Primary (Traditional) Concerns:  Spoiling human food and water  Animal bites and human injuries  Zoonotic diseases Emerging values:  Medical and Psychological trauma  Pro- will fight for animal concerns  Con- anaphylactic shock if inhale cat dander  Unsafe Rescue attempts  Evacuation failures / re-entry attempts Animals are not “Inanimate”

13 Unit 2 Quiz 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.

14 Unit 2 Quiz 1. True, disaster preps begin with personal safety. 2. False, individual is 1 st layer: education support FEMA 3. True, US animals > $90 Billion national income 4.True, food, bites, zoonosis are top 3 5.False, strong evidence exists…animals increase QOL 6.False, food sources may be damaged… 7.False. People > pets 8. True, shelters must protect people who …animals 9. B. increases in Pet industry revenues 10. C. > 59% consider pets important to family values

15 Module A: Awareness & Preparedness

16 Huge Advantage to NIMS Approach Much of what will happen is predictable… Many strategies apply to all emergencies Partnerships improve responsiveness  personal investment in planning  local interest groups  business and private industries  governmental authority/responsibility A Global strategy model for efforts

17 Four Phases of Emergency Management

18 Personal Scenario Going to a horse show with the High-point 2-yr old Filly in IBHA Left early, so had time but was running late due to wife’s schedule of “need to do’s” Riding down county road, hit a bump and the saddle fell against dash…reached to move saddle causing truck to veer left…hit bridge. Damaged horse, trailer truck and pride…lost high point and today look at mare … MITIGATE, PREPARE, RESPONSE, RECOVERY

19 4 Phases of Emergency Management Mitigation:  Prevent, reduce frequency, minimize damage  Take place before and after an emergency Preparedness:  Save lives, respond and rescue  Before the emergency Response:  Save lives, prevent further damage  Take place during the event Recovery:  Return to “normal” or better status  Occur after the emergency

20 C Olsen UWI-Madison Swine-flu Model

21 S tate A nimal R esponse T eam Katrina, et al. 2005

22 Responsibility “Tree” Slide 1 Ultimate responsibility = Animal Owner 1 st Level and Most Effective (?) Local Government - protect citizens and property EMS system Develop plans Warning Systems Provide resources Rescue Ops Recovery/Normality Activate/Deactivate “Chain of Command”

23 Responsibility “Tree” Slide 2 Community/County Support- economic, personal welfare C.A.R.T. Volunteers Non-impacted Individuals/Corp. State Government - Focused on Communities and Structures State Resources, policy guidance, and Federal support Federal Government – Source of Education and Management Guidance Insurance Planning Assessing Ultimate Recovery

24 Unit 3 Quiz 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.

25 Unit 3 Quiz 1. False, Mitigation occurs with recovery 2.False, get blame but Individuals are responsible… 3.True, during event…save lives/minimize damage 4.True, State’s assistance requested –chain of command 5.False, most activity at Local level-Fed. are “Uncle” 6.False, response activities are during event. 7. D., Recovery and mitigation happen after… 8. A., rules and regs on building are mitigation efforts. 9. A., Local rules dictate local plans (as long as agree). 10. Personal, Local, State, Federal

26 Types of Hazards Meteorological (weather related) Thunderstorms Floods Tornados Hurricanes Winter storms Drought Wildfire Geological (tera related) Landslides Earthquakes Tsunami Volcanoes Dam Issues Technological (man-made) Hazardous materials (static and released) Nuclear presence (contained/low level + “accidents”) Terrorism Zoonotic Diseases Highway accidents

27 Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Thunderstorms (100,000 + storms per year) Lightning kills 2-300 humans, grazing livestock, starts fires (hundreds of million $) WatchWarning Condition right for:Actual Sighting LightningImminent Danger Winds > 58 mph Hail ≤ 75 inch Heavy rain National Weather Service

28 Unit 4 Quiz Thunderstorms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.

29 Unit 4 Quiz: Thunderstorms 1. True, lightening is deadly (7-8 K cows on pasture) 2. True, lightening causes most wildfires (- ignorance) 3. False, warning is conclusive evidence of area 4. True, Fencing around trees reduces lightening strikes 5. True, generally less grounding 6. False, stay away from single, tallest link to ”ground” 7. True, watch for entry and exit burns: no stray voltage 8. D. opposites 9. D. insurance = mitigation 10. A. carriers provide security + rapid removal

30 Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Floods (hurricanes, thunderstorms, fires, dam breaks… concentrated run-off) > 300,000 people leave homes, > 200 flood related fatalities, $2 Billion damage Animal risks: hypothermia, drowning, …starvation, salt toxicity, bacterial contaminants, “flocking” issues, exposure to hazards Flash Flood WatchFlash Flood WarningFlood Warning Flooding Possible in Designated area Actual reports of, or Imminent Danger in Specific Area Advance notice: imminent or “in Progress” Stay AlertTake PrecautionsRelocate Animals Prepare for evacuationsRecovery Plans Agencies: National Weather Service, State, County & Local Authorities

31 Unit 4 Quiz Floods 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.

32 Unit 4 Quiz Floods 1. False, some fungus are steroidogenic… 2. True, speed of water encroachment impacts readiness 3. True, bacterial issues prevail in flood water… 4. True, security of vaults is challenged by … 5. False, decision = high ground or confinement 6. True, escapees occur after damage covers fences 7. False, cars stalling = # 1 mistake: waiting = # 2 8. C., possible in area = watch 9. B., prepare before event: replenish before needed 10. D., dry and sunlight kill bacteria

33 Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Tornadoes Violently rotating columns of air: Anywhere & Anytime WatchWarning Condition right for:Actual Sighting or Radar Tornado developmentImminent Danger Watch SkySpecific Location, Stay alertdirection ± Wind, Hail, Heavy rain National Weather ServiceLocal National Weather Service

34 Predictability vs Impact (Tornadoes)

35 Unit 4 Quiz: Tornadoes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.

36 Unit 4 Quiz: Tornadoes 1. False, T-storms and Hurricanes spawn tornadoes 2. True, less surface area to impact…floods? 3. False, move away from mobile homes 4. True, compare structure vs debris 5. True, shame on you, but least of evils 6. True, highly variable but within ranges 7. True, all other activity ceases immediately = CYA 8. True, “some” better than “none”- safety = time 9. D. Networks for warning are mitigation. 10. B. Flying objects are during event.

37 Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Hurricanes New Maximum Damage Each Year Emerging Technologies for Predictions but, Little Change in Responses Tropical Depression Tropical StormHurricane Low pressure system Winds: < 74 MPHSustainable winds > 74 MPH: gusts to 200 Counterclockwise rotation Storm Surge (90% fatalities): retrograde flooding Spawns other trauma National Weather Service

38 Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Advisory WatchWarning Storm location Threat 24-36 hrsConditions w/n 24 hr Wind SpeedFollow evacuation PlanSustained winds ≥74 MPH Direction of MovementBe aware of /Expect Behavioral Variances in Animals High tides and Waves including STORM SURGE Final Mitigation efforts: Preparations Complete: Recovery Plans activated Hurricane ____________

39 Unit 4 Quiz: Hurricanes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.

40 Unit 4 Quiz: Hurricanes 1. True, almost always some flooding (25 year: 24 hr storm) 2. True, most last 6 mo-1 year …maximum impact 3. False, too late at coast…traffic inland 4. False, eye is generally calm before the storm 5. True, maybe not immediate but recognizable 6. False, maximum at beach front: normally? 7. D., Coastal regions (Atlantic or Pacific) 8. C., conditions not evidence within 24 hr.= watch 9. D., expectations = warning 10. B., Advisories update critical statistics

41 Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Winter Storms Winter storm watchSevere weather may affect area W S WarningConditions are expected Ice Storm warningSignificant ice accumulation Heavy Snow warningExpect > 12” in next 24 hours Blizzard WarningHeavy snow + 35 MPH wind Severe BlizzardSnow + 45 mph Wind + 10 0 F temp High Wind Warning> 40 mph for + 1 hour Traveler’s advisoryWeather hinders travel-no warnings National Weather Service

42 Unit 4 Quiz: Winter Storms (discussion) 1. False, wear multiple, light-weight, protective 2. True, Tough to estimate severity- rapid challenges 3. True, “some” watch contaminants, and cold 4. False, Suit buildup can cause fires 5. True, Drifts over roads, seasonal access to land 6. False, Cold alone challenges heart. Do necessities. 7. False, nutrient demands increase in cold, wet, wind 8. C., Water falling + freezing on surface = Ice 9. B., Expected = watch Immanent= Warning 10. D., Blizzard warning = >35 MPH + heavy snow

43 Drought and Extreme Heat  “no substantial” rainfall for period  > 10 0 F above average high temperature-several weeks  # 1 reason for heat stroke is “left in parked cars” Alerts published in newspapers, local weather advisories Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Wildfires  Uncontrolled burning grass, brush, woodlands…  Probability forecasts by National Weather Service, US Forest Service and State Forestry Agencies Alerts Posted on Signs, broadcast on Radio & TV

44 Signs of Heat Stress Excessive Panting: evaporative cooling Body Temperature 104 F – loss of control Collapse- blood flow to core reduced (coma) Increased heart and respiration- rate vs volume Salivation – clear to foamy (air:water ratio) Depression/stupor – brain damage if not cooled

45 Remedies for Heat Stress Shade- radiant heat Water –nature’s coolant- blood volume Minimum exercise- base on Adaptation, fitness, and rest periods (dehydration = water w/o salts) Animals that don’t sweat = do not obstruct panting, provide cooled floods and air flow Avoid clothing – convective cooling or sweating Cages need > airflow – > 10 times minimum venting Salt (minerals) as needed – cramps, osmotic psi (Kidneys)

46 Unit 4 Quiz: Drought and Heat 1. False, not safe, but may be necessary 2. True, shade, cool water and breeze = max cooling 3. False, Dogs and hogs do not sweat. 4. True, same as 2 above: animals cool by drying 5. False, salt is toxic w/o water but necessary nutrient 6. True, avoid shock – cool blood in extremedies 7. False, you stay in there for a while…# 1 killer 8. True, absent imports: droughts cause starvation 9. C., extreme body temps. Indicate loss of control 10. B., 10 degrees above average temp = extreme

47 Unit 4 Quiz: Wildfires 1. False, primary cause = humans, lightening… 2. True, barns contain combustibles – separate ignition 3. True, any port in a storm- watch contaminants 4. False, burns often result in trauma & bacterial issues 5. False, evacuate then see if the equipment works 6.True, nails, tin and other metals don’t burn 7.True, Floods and mudslides often follow fires 8. False, homing instincts kick in after fear subsides 9. A., lung challenges kill most animals after fires 10. B., fire seasons are hot and dry

48 Geological Hazards (tera firma…) Landslides and mudflows  Down slope movement of rock, soil & debris  People encroaching, removing cover, Unique Characteristics/Commonalities  Dam issues: Control of water release, burrowing animals, plant roots, holding fluids against designed pressure gradients  Behind wildfires, floods and hurricanes…

49 Unit 5 Quiz: Landslides 1. True, 2. True, 3. False, 4. True, 5. True, 6. True, 7. False, 8. True, 9. C., 10.A.,

50 Earthquakes  Wavelike movement of earth’s surface…  Seismic activity monitored by US Geological Survey, NOAA and University labs  Actual events not predictable-duration 0-72 hrs Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Tsunamis  Waves (up to 100 ft) created at coastline-event near or far…repeated 20/30 min. for several hrs.  Deaths occur by “scoping out” new coastline

51 Unit 5 Quiz: Earthquakes 1. False, 2. False, 3. True, 4. False, 5. False, 6. True, 7. False, 8. False, 9. C., 10.C.,

52 Unit 5 Quiz: Tsunamies 1. True, 2. False, 3. False, 4. False, 5. True, 6. False, 7. True, 8. A., 9. D., 10. B.,

53 Volcanoes  “Weak spots” in the Earth’s crust allow eruption  Ash clouds modify weather patterns and cause respiratory infections…how flat is the world?  US Geological Survey tracks activity-informs  Risk of injury related to distance from event and time. Unique Characteristics/Commonalities

54 Unit 5 Quiz: Volcanoes 1. True, 2. False, 3. False, 4. True, 5. True, 6. False, 7. True, 8. D., 9. D., 10. B.,

55 Technological (man-made) Hazards Hazardous Materials  Accidental release  Toxins from vehicle wreck…  Intentional release + lack of control  Spray without condition concerns  FDA food residue issues  Planned release – no desire to control  Bio-terrorism activists et al. “Right to Know” Documents and MSDS Information National Animal Poison Control Center Unique Characteristics/Commonalities

56 Unit 6 Quiz: Hazardous Materials 1. False, residues are a concern for meat products 2. False, anything > Dial soap = hazard 3. True, training essential for HAZMAT 4. False, veterinarian and Poison Control…animals 5. True, most show no signs of small doses 6. True, residues travel in blood- liver, lungs, meat 7. False, most often, no response = contaminated 8. C., closer to the floor – locked 9. A., Local public health safeguards …spills/food 10. B., Accidents: DOT, radiation: DOE

57 Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Radiation hazards  Not “Cold War” issue (sows in Poland) but,  Fixed nuclear facilities (good warning systems)  Transportation through rails or roads (no notice)  “Dirty Bombs”…all types including sunspots AlphaLarge, shallow penetration-easy block BetaSmaller – penetrate 2 cm (1 inch) GammaNot formed-no mass- right through body Understand control of emissions : Decay in half-life

58 Technological (man-made) Hazards  Avoidance = best  Rapid change from no problem to emergency  Short notice time but information is available  People need to care for animals  Before – prepare…be aware  During – move if possible (distance); contain if not (barrier)  After  approach with caution!  Remove Surface damage  consider hidden damage US Department of Agriculture, State Department of AG and Veterinarian Rate shelters, monitor food safety and tissue or food contamination Unique Characteristics/Commonalities

59 Unit 6 Quiz: Radiation 1. True, decay rate ½ per time: isotope relief 2. True, distance greatest than barrier (like biting dog) 3. False, together due to food quality issues 4. True, α and β are shallow or surface damaging 5. True, always. Think about site before leaving 6. True, spills cause immediate restrictions to travel 7. False, γ (gama) particles penetrate rapidly 8. D., Delta not yet found anyway 9. C., function issues not yet emergency = site EM 10. D., imminent contamination = general emergency

60 Review: Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Strong WindsCommunication, utility, structural failures High WaterStructure damage, bacteria, electrocution FiresPublic health, safety, animal welfare Air pollutionRespiratory issues, asthma Earth ShiftsChemical spills, transportation, recovery Spills/WasteContact, run-off, Decon. Process Food DroughtDehydration, animal welfare, heat Animal healthZoonosis, euthanasia, carcass disposal

61 Probability of each type of emergency Chances of advance notification in time Duration of emergency Frequency of 2 nd or 3 rd event Costs of “readiness” versus “responsiveness” Noah’s Ark concepts… Focus on Commonalities with strategies: manage deviations… Incident Management Concerns

62 What is Normal? For Animals: Emergency = Any variance from ordinary

63 Foundations for Pet Evacuations KEYS: Responsible pet ownership Strong Human (child) : animal bond Certain related Activities:  Regular Vet attention  Socializing behaviors  Obedience training  Pet carriers  Cats caught/transported regularly

64 Disaster types vary! Animal responses are predictable at various phases: –Recognition of impending urgency –Confusion/Disorientation –Anxiety –Cortisol activation “Flight of Fight” –Homing response Pet Owners have ultimate responsibility. Bullets for Care of Pets

65 Recognition of Pain in Animals Guarding Listlessness Self-mutilation Vocalizations Excessive Sweating/salivation Cribbing Lethargy Loss of “normal” behavior Stops chewing cud Lack of grooming Dehydration Tucked-up Abnormal resting posture Limping, a-mobile

66 Comments on Aggression of Animals Adult animals normally guard their homes Dogs are likely to attack if they or their master are threatened. Dogs allowed to show aggressive behavior to other animals are more likely to attack a care provider. Man and dogs interact on 3 levels:  Dependence  Social dominance  Leader-follower relationship Socializing decreases issues for care providers and may result in critical human safety accomplishments.

67 Unit 7 Quiz: Pet Care 1. False, owners have ultimate responsibility 2. True, permanent identification improves return rate 3. True, recognizable photo’s allow > observation 4. True, Humans > animals 5. False, turning your pet loose most often decreases … 6. False, Olfactory cues work off of recognition/ expose 7. False, predictable not preventable 8. False, keep kit away from fires: easy to get: rodent free 9. D., Rabies is typically yearly in presence 10. D., Most recommend keeping pets with you

68 Pig Model

69 Biosecurity Model Boar Stud

70 Feral hogs in Lagoon after Floyd Biosecurity ?

71 Bullets for Care of Large Animals Mitigation activities: Repairs and MaintenanceConstruction Materials Glass, tin, sharp objects Chemicals/Hazards Drainage: fresh vs foul Evacuation/Return events Dependable power supply Preparations: CommunicationTransportation Vet/Med IdentificationVaccinationsHealth Doc.

72 Bullets for Care of Large Animals Always: Humans > Food Supply > Animal Life Response: Know alert signalsWeigh risks/ Err to safety Consider Food SafetyRemove Pain Source Develop NeighborsExpand outside Contacts Protect Food/Water and their relationship Compare short-time inconveniences with Biosecurity risks Recovery: Homing response Facility SafetyDust/Debris “Homeostasis” Improve Com. SkillsAvoid Sights

73 Predominate Vet/Med Needs Acute challenges: High windsTraumatic injuries Droughts/WinterStarvation or Dehydration Firesburns and lung damage Congregations Social damage, disease, trauma Chronic impacts: VaccinationsIdentification Bacterial/Fungal BioSecurity Unskilled worker impacts Manure

74 Nutrient Requirements for “Survival” Dairy CowProducing7-9 gal.20 lb grass hay Dry7-9 gal.20 lb/d Heifer3-6 gal.8-12 lb Cow/calf8-9 gal.12-18 legume 400# calf4-6 gal.8-12 lb legume SwineSow/Litter4 gal.8 lb grain Preg. Sow3 gal.2 lb grain Gilt/Boar1 gal.3 lb grain SheepEwe/Lamb1 gal.5 lb grass hay Ewe dry3 qt.3 lb Weanling2 qt.3 lb

75 Nutrient Requirements for “Survival” PoultryLayers5 gal.17 grain (Per 100 birds) Broilers5 gal.10 lb/d Turkeys12 gal.40 lb HorsesAll5-12 gal.20 lb hay Dog / CatAll1 qt.Dry food (ad libitum) Purify water by boiling (10 min rolling), chemical tablets (1/qt) or bleaching (8-16 drops/gal for 15 minutes)

76 Begin at “Home” “Homeostasis”= Animal’s perspective of normal physiologic needs to “be comfortable. Comfort is a trained response. Plan for events (daily or emergency) that disrupt the Ability of the animal to “Control” his world.  Weather (extremes, water, adaptation, avoidance…)  Pain (remove, repair, monitor, long- vs short-term…)  Weigh (KEEP ALIVE vs EUTHANITIZATION)  For support – MUST PLACE HUMANS > ANIMALS

77 Other Important Definitions NRC,1992 Distress – Aversive state…unable to adapt to stress. Stressors:  Physiologic – pain, starvation, dehydration (acute/chronic)  Psychological – fear, anxiety, boredom, loneliness, separation  Environmental – restraint, noise, odors, habitat, people, chemicals, other animals Case Law –  Intentional –  Negligent –  “Good Samaritan” practices

78 Checklists Large Animals:  Water  Feed/forage  Identification  Vaccinations  Buckets with Bleach  Ropes / Halters  Antiseptic/antibiotic  Fencing supplies Small Animals:  Water  Identification  Specialty food  Rabies tag  Medications  Exposure to area  Carrier/ Leash  Comfort items

79 “Yes ma’am, I believe I have seen your black cow…”


81 Unit 8 Quiz: Large animals 1. False, barn fires occur when dry conditions present 2. True, expanded Buddy system imperative 3. True, pictures are + for deceased or live animals 4. False, manure sites can be source of pollutants… 5. False, permanent tattoos and implants are available 6. True, farmers are qualified within use directions 7. False, out of site: out of mind…help when call-in 8. B., 1% chance for each event, independently 9. D., etching hoofs is temporary, paint branding… 10. C., High wind is often cause or traumatic injuries

82 What is the “Next” Disaster?

83 Module A: Awareness & Preparedness TEST

84 Module B: Community Planning

85 Unit 2 Quiz 1. True, disaster preps begin with personal safety. 2. False, individual is 1 st layer: education support FEMA 3. True, US animals > $90 Billion national income 4.True, food, bites, zoonosis are top 3 5.False, strong evidence exists…animals increase QOL 6.False, food sources may be damaged… 7.False. People > pets 8. True, shelters must protect people who …animals 9. B. increases in Pet industry revenues 10. C. > 59% consider pets important to family values

86 Personal Impact (Owners & Aid Workers, and PUBLIC) Basis = Work together to keep “THEM” from Stabbing You in the BACK

87 The Animal Care Community Private Owners- Pets or livestock (birds to cows) Public Owners- Taxpayers pay for management strays etc. Businesses- Vets, Feed stores…Millions $ of support jobs Humane Organizations- County “Friends”, SPCA…PETA Educational Institutions- Vet School- grade schools Governmental Agencies- USDA, CES, DHS…Anim. Care Professional Associations- ASAS, AVMA…tax issues Other Associations- Clubs, 4-H, Scouts, Search/Rescue

88 The Agriculture Dollar

89 Media Communications As you evaluate each Emergency: Protect the Self-sustaining, individual (backbone to Animal Care is The Animal Owner) Consider aid for people who care + those with differing priorities Evaluate the impact of public involvement  Help or Hindrance  Phycho and Physio LOGIC Prepare and Control Communications – educate and inform without sensationalizing

90 What is the “Next” Disaster?

91 Risk Assessment B-4-23 Identify possible hazards – (your Jurisdiction)  List Provided + Local additions  Common Knowledge + Extended resources  Consider personal property Vulnerability analysis –  Threat of disaster, or routine emergency  “Could you sell this to general public?” Funding? Threat Ranking –  Likelihood  Vulnerability BIGGEST BANG for your $$$$$$$$$$

92 Response Plans (personal / Global) Must Address Issues Agencies DPS, DWQ, CDC, all known acronyms Planning Assumptions List Assets: Create If:then statements: rationality and integrity of remaining document Alternative Strategies Risk:reward analysis: Cost:payment survey: Impact assessment Implementation Concerns/Issues Protocols, people responsible, Roadblocks, Exercise strategies AttachmentsRules that change, event or people changes, Communications …

93 Most Disasters are “Handled” at the Local Level Informed owner (care-provider) –  Observes a difference in behavior  Is informed by media or warnings  Arrives on the Scene Assesses his ability to assist (1 st do no Harm!: do something!)  Mitigation (planning, insurance, stockpiling, funds and availability)  Makes a decision to risk his status for the animal’s Commits (knowledge, labor, equipment…) Evaluates (cost/benefit analysis) Cognitive decisions for next “Event”

94 Most Disasters are “Handled” at the Local Level Local Planning and Collaboration –  Observes/Predict behavior of Individuals (groups)  Evaluates responses relative to Laws (Interests)  Adds to Communications by media, warnings, addresses…  Arrives on the Scene to Assist – based on Priority System  Risks to others  Boundaries  Damage control  Availability of resources  Assistance from other entities  Advanced planning = Greater Assistance

95 Involvement of the “Next Level” Mutual Aid Agreements (cooperative support) –  Access across boundaries  Provision of resources and services  Public safety actions  Declarations of “Emergency”  Who is “In Charge”  Who is liable (death and injury while rendering aid)  When is enough, or Who call’s UNCLE? Advanced planning = Greater Assistance

96 State’s Involvement Local Government Calls to Governor –  Access bigger picture – Oak Tree Scenario  Arranges Aid and support – Guard and Reserve  Contains materials on State Roads etc.  Diverts traffic flows  Focus on Greatest Impact may Change  Creates or Responds to Economic Challenges/Industries  Assumes General control but may not be “In Charge”  Retains the right to call UNCLE? Advanced planning = Greater Assistance

97 Federal Involvement Governor requests from President (declares National Emergency) –  Assists the Local Incident Commander  Access bigger picture – Oak Tree Scenario  Arranges Aid and support  FEMA- planning, education, resources and relief  EPA – protect environmental impact, National Response Team  DOT – regulates “hazardous material” transport, all roadways  DOE – all energy concerns (radioactive wastes)  DOL – Wage earner’s welfare  OSHA – Safe working practices  CDC – Disease impact/control  IS the UNCLE? Advanced planning = Greater Assistance

98 Abilities and Attributes (Assumptions) Incident Command Strategy: ICS –  Standardizes terminology  Removes person (size) constraints – Demand Based  Integrates Communication through responsibility “tree”  Clouds responsibility in a “Hierarchy”  Functional “Span of Control”  Establishes Facility for incident command  Allows clear definition of Resources  English paper format  Termination of activities

99 Emergency Operations Center (EOC) Size and severity to engage-  Minor – establishes best available “Do-ers”  Police, Highway Department, Rural Utilities numbers  EOC not activated (unless move to next level)  Limited Emergencies  Partial mobilization – “Do-ers working need Refreshments”  1 st Limited Emergency (Watch –Warning)  2 nd Limited Emergency (Conditions Exceed Normal Response Do-ers)  Potential Disaster  1 st round of Support – Relief Strategies or Shelters Identified  Full Emergency – ALL HANDS ROWING

100 Unit 3 Quiz: Planning 1. False, local resoures are most qualified to … 2. True, vets diagnose… 3. True, every bit of experience is needed for plans 4. False, rapid (timely) = local: FED = big and slow 5. True, plans should provide a systemic response 6. False, owners are most qualified for animal’s needs 7. True, Canned document: personal appendices 8. True, resources include vets, organizations, clubs… 9. A., best way to test a plan is through exercises 10. D., combined exercise + drill = Full-Scale Exercise

101 Decisions to Evacuate Influences –  Nature of incident  Expected length of displacement  Magnitude of the threat  Time of year-  Availability of Communications Cautions –  All captures are potentially dangerous  List of “Biters”, “Kickers”, “Scratchers”, “Buttheads”, …  Familiarity can be + and –  Provide for rapid Identification of “Expertise”  First Aid for “Caregivers”

102 Decisions to Evacuate: Generalities DogsEasiest to evacuate- “if socialized” CatsOlder cats = net, don’t travel well Fish & ExoticsSpecial conditions – water, elect. Numbers: Poultry, swine, cows Concentrated effort- network “Biosecurity, Labor, Logistics, economics, waste mgmt., slaughter permits, feed/water…” HorsesOwners w/o trailers, “hosts, vanity vaccines, Socialization,…”

103 Public Health Issues / Animals Contaminated food supply Residue hazards in products/crops Run-off, spills to/from animals Recognition of “contamination” Zoonosis Animals-people (pets-children) Low level tolerances- bacteria Incubation hosts/carriers Dog Bites Surprise, cornering, handling, intervening, In-experience FREEZE, “SIT”, OBJECT, HEAD Inform, Isolate, Contain… Mental Health/Safety Re-entry/Evac., Separation anxiety, Grief, Bereavement, Anger, Guilt, Psychosomatic symptoms, Irrationality

104 Unit 4 Quiz: Risks 1. True, annex is a step toward community plan 2. True, Access to farm is mitigation to flooding 3. False, < half-life max. stay in food/tissues 4. True, health scientists are a likely response… 5. True, chemical companies have supplies … 6. False, Native wildlife to the area include… 7. True, ICC monitors and contains spills 8. B., adding smells to gases increases recognition 9. C., community characteristics include population 10. A., vulnerability analysis … size of farms…

105 Shelter Policies State Public Health Regulations Prohibit Animals in public facilities… : Shelters must adhere Am. Red CrossOnly “seeing and hearing” dogs… OwnershipOccupants ≠ owners Well-being of “residents” Injuries, anxiety, lack of privacy from pets (bites, allergies, phobias and/or noise) LiabilityPersonal injury (pet or others), property damage from animals biting, scratching, chewing while fighting or playing or from urinating in “inappropriate” places

106 Decisions Not to Evacuate Safety HumansHuman Evacuation Failures Re-entry to “Rescue” attempts Human casualty count Traumatic concerns IdentificationStray animal policies Lost = not ID’d, missing or dead or Stolen and sold Stranger approach for rescue Disposal IssuesPersonalities vs Perceptions

107 Environmental Concerns Live animalsUncontained Waste, flies and rodents, Disease spread, crop damage, sensitive areas, potential for unfound carcasses Dead AnimalsDisposal: < 24 hours Methods: Rendering-high temp cooking Burning- incinerators Burial – 3 ft deep/12” above water ? Composting – 1:2 (Protein:carbon) Fermentation – bacterial digestion

108 Pause for the PAWS Personal Plan 1.Risk Assessment 2.Which of these can I respond to? 3.What are the limits to my response? 4.If I do _________: What will happen? 5.Do I have a common meeting place? 6.Who knows how I am right now? 7.When cell service goes down,…? 8.Where is my home away from home? 9.What limitations does that home present? 10. How can I help the people who will be coming after me/mine if needed?

109 Pause for the PAWS Responsible Community Service Risk Assessment 1.Who/what is worth my energies? 2.If it impacts me: what efforts are mutually beneficial? 3.If I do _________: What will happen? 4.If it doesn’t impact me (?): when will it be my turn? 5.Who needs me to watch for them? 6.What facilities/strengths can I offer? 7.What are the must-haves for me to get involved? 8.How can I communicate needs for others?

110 Pause for the PAWS SART or CART 1.Do I have one available to review? 2.Who is the contact person (mine?)? 3.If I do _________: What will happen? 4.In Need: whom do I call? 5.When available: whom do I call? 6.What are commonalities between my personal, business, job, school’s …and the CART plan? 7. How can I help the people who will be coming after me/mine if needed? 8.Do I need to be involved?

111 Duplin County Animal Response Acknowledgements - multi-jurisdictional task force Names of Participants – Extension Agents, EMS Mgmt, Soil and Water, County Health, Solid Waste Disposal, NC Forest Service, NCDA Vets, County Mgr., USDA Farm Service, Animal Control, Ag. Pro. Companies and private parties. 1.1 Purpose Statement- To protect wild and domesticated animal resources, the public health, the public food supply, the environment and ensure the humane care and treatment of animals in the case of a large-scale emergency… 1.2 Scope- Intent and Who shall activate

112 Duplin County Animal Response 2.0 Affected Agencies – tasks 2.1 Primary 2.2 Support 2.3 Additional resources 2.4 Sub-committees A. Equine B. Domestic Pets – Appendix B-Primary Contacts C. Livestock/Poultry D. Mortality disposal E. Communications/PR F. Wildlife G. Incident commanders

113 Duplin County Animal Response 3.0 Planning Assumptions – A. Owners (notified) will take reasonable steps to provide for animals under their care and/or control. B. Disasters affect well-being …animals. C. County plans both emergency local response and recovery…outside help is likely for large events. D. Animal Plans…care, id, house, shelter & inform E. Public Information issued –media …locations F. Large-scale = state, local…specialized mutual aid G. Effective planning/org. will improve efforts.

114 Duplin County Animal Response 4.0 Concepts of Operations 4.1 General A. Management – County Emergency Mgmt. B. Requests for assistance – County EMS – State EOC C. Animal Protection – Duplin ICS: Public health – County DPH Plans D. Animals include 1. Livestock –owner’s responsibility 2. Dom. and Non-Dom. – CART- feed, care Return or disposed in accordance to animal control plan 3. Wild- own instincts + Wildlife Mgmt.- habitat

115 Duplin County Animal Response 4.2 Notification: EMS – Primary, support, mutual aid tree as needed 4.3 Communication- telephone, fax, cell, FM Radio special satellite phone at ICS – broadcasts out over tv & radio 4.4 Public Relations- County Manager + Ex. Director = spokesmen 1. Promote awareness 2. Recruit volunteers 4.5 Public Information – Appointed official 1. Notify of shelters2. Preparation of pets for em.

116 Duplin County Animal Response 4.6 Response * (some not available) A. Equine 1. Search and Rescue 2. Evacuated 3. Stray/lost 4. Recovery B. Domestic Pets C. Livestock D. Wildlife E. Additional aid – ICS request to CART to SART F. Shelter destroyed – alternative boarding G. Shelter Management: private vs Volunteer people and supply H. Medical Assistance I. Bites/disease control – Duplin County Health Dept.

117 Duplin County Animal Response 4.7 Recovery A. Carcass disposal – County Mortality Com. 1. Farm Plan- each producer/Company a. Evacuation route/equip. b. On-site burial c. Contact person (damage/assistance: EMS) d. State if not available for burial 2. County Plan…

118 Duplin County Animal Response 4.7 Recovery A. Carcass disposal – County Mortality Com. 2. County Plan a. Large farms b. Contact tree (EMS call-out) c. commercial crews (clean-out) d. equipment- dead removal e. Co-op counties 3. Priority handling (disease prevalence) a. render b. burial c. compost d. incinerate

119 Duplin County Animal Response 5.0 Review and update procedures 6.0 Approval 6.1 Primary agencies County Emergency Management County Cooperative Extension County Soil and Water Conservation County Health Dept./Animal control

120 Duplin CART Appendix A. Domestic Pets -If you leave-take your pet… -Many emergency shelters can not take pets– your problem (including contact information) -Identify all pets- name, address, phone #, permanent + evac. site -Current Photos -Pet carrier, harness or lease (do not allow escape) -Food, water, meds, records, cat box, can opener, food dish, first aid kit are must haves -Keep medical records, and vaccines current -Find foster home-provide accessories and payment

121 Duplin CART Appendix A. Livestock -Evacuate if possible -Site should have: food, water, vet care, handling equipment -If not leaving, decide on available shelter of freedom -ALL animals should be identified. Wildlife -Seek higher ground –may be stuck on islands -If suitable-leave food out -Animals have “Flight Response”- will flee if approached: back away if harmful -Water may drive animals higher and leave them there as subsides (snakes>>>) -Never Capture w/o training, clothing, equipment and caging -Beware of animals eating in/around carcasses -Mosquitoes, carcasses present disease problems Further Assistance: CALL --------------- or -------------

122 Additional References: Animal Care and Use Committee- NRC www.theMerckVeterinaryManual PQA & TQA programs of National Pork Board EMS and AWMS docs. Bladen County Animal Response Team Duplin County Animal Response Team Members of Sampson County Team …

123 Unit 5 Quiz: 1. True, 2. True, 3. True, 4. True, 5. True, 6. True, 7. False, 8. D., 9. C., 10. B.,

124 Unit 6 Quiz: 1. True, 2. False, 3. False, 4. True, 5. False, 6. True, 7. True, 8. A., 9. A., 10. C.,

125 Unit 7 Quiz: 1. True, 2. True, 3. False, 4. True, 5. True, 6. False, 7. False, 8. D., 9. A., 10. B.,

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