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United States History Exam Review. USHC-1 Settling North America Competition between three European countries was motivation for exploration and settlement.

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Presentation on theme: "United States History Exam Review. USHC-1 Settling North America Competition between three European countries was motivation for exploration and settlement."— Presentation transcript:

1 United States History Exam Review

2 USHC-1 Settling North America Competition between three European countries was motivation for exploration and settlement. Spain France Great Britain

3 Colonial Areas  New Spain  New France  New England colonies  British Mid-Atlantic colonies  British Southern colonies  British Caribbean

4 Colonial Regions Be able to identify regions

5 European Settlements Spain, France, England and others Each establish colonies in North and South America Competition drove exploration and motivated settlement Came over for various reasons-not just religion!

6 New Spain Spanish-Gold, God and Glory Mostly gold Developed a strict hierarchical social structure Spanish converted native peoples mostly by force (encomienda system)

7 New France Fur traders Also converted natives but not by force

8 British Colonies British settlers brought with them the political traditions of the mother country. Examples: Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, the Rule of Law, Representative

9 British colonies New England -Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire Mid-Atlantic (middle colonies) - New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania Southern colonies-Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

10 Thirteen Colonies

11 Religion What role did religion play in the colonial regions? New England colonies Influenced by Puritans Very intolerant of other religions

12 Religion Middle Colonies (Mid-Atlantic) Pennsylvania-Quakers (peaceful, tolerant people) made for an accepting colony for people of other faiths (Holy Experiment) Maryland-established as a haven for Catholics Maryland Act of Toleration (1642)-

13 Religion Southern colonies Founded mainly for economic reasons. Religion did not play a major part in settlement. The Church of England (Anglican Church) was the established church in the South. It was supported by colonial taxes.

14 Economic Development of the Regions The economic development of the colonies was dependent upon their geographic location and the natural resources available to them. New England colonies Rocky soil (subsistent farmers) Shipbuilding, triangular trade, merchants, fishing

15 Economic Development Middle Colonies (Mid-Atlantic) Agriculture, Commerce (export trade in food stuffs), limited industry (wagon building, etc)

16 Economic Development Southern Colonies Fertile soil to grow cash crops Cash crops/staple crops: tobacco, rice, indigo Labor: slaves

17 Economic Development All colonies were affected by the British economic policy of mercantilism. Mercantilism is an economic policy that a country should export more than it imports so it can accumulate wealth.

18 Society of Each Region New England and Middle Colonies Initially developed a somewhat egalitarian society based on religious equality but class distinctions begin to emerge with economic prosperity (upper, middle, lower). Education was very important in New England society.

19 Society of Each Region Southern colonies South developed a hierarchical social structure because of their dependence on indentured servants and slaves and the plantation system. Visible class distinctions Large plantation owners headed Southern society. The slave system was transported to the Carolinas from Barbados.

20 Essential Questions Why did Spain and France come to the New World? For Spain it was gold, God and glory. For France it was fur trade. What were the four major regions of British colonial settlement? New England colonies, Middle Colonies, Southern colonies, Caribbean colonies

21 Essential Questions What role did religion play in the colonial regions? Describe the society of each region. Describe the economic development of the region. What is mercantilism?

22 USHC-2 Revolution and a New Nation American representative government developed during the colonial period as a result of both the ideas of representative government from England and the circumstances of the New World.

23 Development of the colonies The Magna Carta recognized the rights of Englishmen to be consulted on the levying of taxes and to have their rights protected by a jury of their peers. Colonial charters granted by the King included statements declaring that English colonists continued to enjoy the rights of Englishmen.

24 Conflict After the 1720s’ the English government followed a policy of salutary neglect, leaving the colonists to govern themselves. It was the change in this policy that riled the colonists into revolt. The cost of the French and Indian War caused Great Britain to change their policy towards the colonies to achieve greater control of their empire and impose taxes to help pay the war debt.

25 Revolution and a New Nation Colonial legislatures were soon in conflict with the royal governors. The colonial legislatures had the power of the purse. The assemblies had the right to levy taxes and they controlled the governor’s salary.

26 Boston Tea Party (1773)

27 What were the major causes of conflict? EventDateResults French and Indian War (Seven Years War) 1759-1763Taxes to pay for defense of the colonies Stamp Act1765Purchase of stamps for all documents Boston Massacre1770Five men killed. British officer acquited. Boston Tea Party1773Sons of Liberty dumped tea into Boston Harbor. Resulting in Parliament passing the Intolerable Acts. TaxationAfter French and Indian War No more salutary nelect “No taxation without representation” Colonists wanted to be taxed by their own colonial assemblies.

28 English Political Tradition English political tradition also included the rule of law. What is rule of law? It is the idea that everyone must obey the law for the good of society.

29 American Revolution Battle of Lexington and Concord Shots heard round the world Direct cause of the war

30 Lexington and Concord

31 Breed’s Hill/Bunker Hill First major battle of the war British won but lost many soldiers died. British heavy losses-over 800 dead and many wounded.

32 Bunker Hill

33 Representative government What are examples of colonial representative government? House of Burgesses -Virginia landowners who made laws and governed themselves Mayflower Compact -Pilgrims establishing a charter to form a government in New England Town meetings -New England pure democracy where people of community discussed and voted on important issues for them (democratic local government)

34 Thomas Paine

35 Common Sense  Highly popular pamphlet written by Thomas Paine  Paine argued for independence  Led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence

36 Who was John Locke?

37 John Locke John Locke wrote The Social Contract arguing that man had natural rights to life, liberty and property. Locke also argued that the authority to govern rests on the will of the people.

38 Declaration of Independence Justified the colonies right to rebel against the British It was addressed to those within the colonies who remained loyal to the King or were uncommitted. Listed the grievances against the King It made the case that the King, not Parliament, had violated the rights of the people. Be able to identify grievances as indirect causes of the American Revolution. By declaring independence, the Americans made it possible to enter into an alliance with other countries, most notably France.

39 Declaration of Independence (1776)

40 Declaration The Declaration made the case that the King, not Parliament, had violated the rights of the colonists. By declaring their independence the Americans could now receive help from other nations. Following the Battle of Saratoga, America began to receive help from France.

41 Declaration As a result of help from the French navy, Americans won the battle of Yorktown. The ideas expressed in the Declaration had an impact on the newly formed state governments. States in the North passed laws for the gradual emancipation of slaves. States also provided for freedom of religion.

42 Declaration of Independence The Declaration also had worldwide impact. The French Revolution and revolutions in Latin America was modeled on the American Declaration of Independence.

43 Americans Who were the Whigs? These Americans were also know as Patriots and were opposed to King George III and his policies toward the colonies. Who were the Tories? These Americans were also called Loyalists and believed in remaining loyal to Britain and the King.

44 British Advantages  World’s largest navy which could blockade American ports  Experienced veteran army  Experienced officer corps  Outnumbered Americans at the field army level  Support from Tories in colonies  Indian allies  Greater population ( 7.5 million to 2.5 million)

45 American Advantages  Large territory to conquer and control (almost size of Europe)  Long line of supplies from Britain  British had mediocre leadership at home  British had limited financial resources to put down a rebellion  Americans were basically fighting a defensive war  The Patriots had a cause to fight for

46 First Political Cartoon

47 Important Battles BattleDateResults Bunker Hill/Breed’s Hill TrentonDecember 1776Successful surprise attack on a Hessian outpost which kept Washington’s army intact and gave it new hope SaratogaOct. 1777Turning point of the American Revolution in favor of the Patriots France becomes our ally YorktownOct. 1781Final major battle of the war. Americans won with the help of the French fleet. Cornwallis surrenders to Washington.

48

49 Articles of Confederation 1781-1789 Established by the Second Continental Congress Provided a government for the country throughout the Revolution Each state had one vote in a unicameral legislature and there was no separate executive and judicial branch.

50

51 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation A unicameral Congress [9 of 13 votes to pass a law]. 13 out of 13 to amend. Representatives were frequently absent. Could not tax or raise armies. No executive or judicial branches.

52 Articles of Confederation Helped to guide country through the Revolution Was able to negotiate the treaty, Treaty of Paris, ending the American Revolution Settled land disputes between states over territory in the West Land Ordinance of 1785 Northwest Ordinance of 1787-This established criteria for territories to become states and kept slavery out of the Northwest Territory.

53 Articles Of Confederation

54

55 Article of Confederation Soon after the Revolution, Americans found that the Articles was too weak to meet the needs of the new nation.  Could not resolve conflicts between states  Could not solve trade problems with other nations  Could not deal stop rebellions against the government –Shays’s Rebellion

56 Articles  Articles required unanimous consent of all the states to be amended.

57 Time for a change British broke off trade with Americans Shays’s Rebellion-farmers in Massachusetts marched to close the courts to prevent foreclosures on their farms

58 Constitutional Convention

59 Purpose of the Constitution  The Articles of Confederation was designed to be a weak central government but was not effective.  The purpose of the Constitution was to provide a more effective central government while at the same time limiting the power of the government over the states and the people.

60 Sovereignty Under the Articles of Confederation, sovereignty lay with the states. Under the Constitution the authority to govern derives not from the states but from the people as evidenced by the language, “We the People”

61 Constitutional Convention Time: 1787 Place: Philadelphia Purpose: To change the Articles

62 Constitutional Convention 55 DELEGATES ALL STATES EXCEPT Rhode Island George Washington -PRESIDENT OF THE CONVENTION James Madison-“FATHER OF THE CONSTITUTION”

63 Arguments and Compromises REPRESENTATION Virginia PLAN-Bicameral Congress House REPRESENTATION BASED ON population New Jersey PLAN-UNICAMERAL HOUSE AND EQUAL REPRESENTATION Great Compromise-BICAMERAL CONGRESS BASED ON POPULATION IN THE HOUSE AND equal IN THE SENATE

64 Arguments and Compromises SLAVERY WOULD THE SLAVES COUNT IN THE POPULATION Three-fifths Compromise -SLAVES COUNTED AS 3/5s of a person The slave trade would end in 1808.

65 Arguments and Compromises SLAVERY WOULD THE SLAVES COUNT IN THE POPULATION ____________Compromise -SLAVES COUNTED AS 3 PEOPLE The slave trade would end in ______

66 PRESIDENT HOW WOULD THE PRESIDENT BE ELECTED? POPULAR VOTE OR REPRESENTATIVES VOTE Electoral college selects the President. WE ELECT THE PRESIDENT INDIRECTLY.

67 Ratification Federalists -FOR THE CONSTITUTION EXS: JEFFERSON AND MADISON Anti-Federalists-AGAINST THE CONSTITUTION IT TOOK nine STATES TO RATIFY THE CONSTITUTION The major objection of the Ant-Federalists was the lack of a Bill of Rights.

68

69 Federalist Papers

70 WRITTEN BY Hamilton, Madison and Jay EXPLAINED AND ENCOURAGED ratification of the Constitution

71 System of Checks and Balances BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION CHECKS AND BALANCES WHEN ONE BRANCH CHECKS ANOTHER BRANCH‟S POWER Example: PRESIDENTIAL veto OF A LAW PASSED BY CONGRESS

72 Enumerated Powers Article I, Section 8 DELEGATED POWERS-POWERS GIVEN TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BY THE STATES Examples: coin money, declare war, regulate trade between states, regulate immigration...they are powers that belong only to the federal government.

73 Enumerated Powers Article I, Section 8 DELEGATED POWERS-POWERS GIVEN TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BY THE STATES Examples: coin money, declare war, regulate trade between states, regulate immigration...they are powers that belong only to the federal government.

74 Reserved Powers POWERS RESERVED TO THE STATES Establish local governments Establish and maintain schools Regulate business within the state Marriage laws assume to the states other powers not delegated to the government or the states

75 Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution. Added by the first Congress in 1791. The purpose of the Bill of Rights was to limit the power of the national government by recognizing the rights that belong to the people and are protected from abuse by the government.

76 Hamilton v. Jefferson IssuesHamiltonJefferson Bank of the United States “elastic clause” Interpretation of the Constitution Strong central government Tariff French Revolution Tax on whiskey Jay Treaty Economy Political Party

77 John Marshall (1801-1835) Appointed by President John Adams (Federalist).

78 John Marshall and the Supreme Court The principals and ideas of the Constitution were strengthened by the decisions of the Marshall Court which established a strong federal government that was supreme over the states. The Marshall Court is an example that presidential power is felt long after the administration is over through presidential appointment of justices who hold political ideas similar to the president’s own.

79 Decisions of the Marshall Court The ruling of the Marshall Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803) began the enduring precedent of judicial review as a vital part of the checks and balances system. This was a landmark decision because it was the first time that the court claimed for itself the right of the judicial review, the right to determine the constitutionality of an act of Congress.

80 Marshall Court The Marshall Court continued to strengthen the role of the federal government in other cases. Another case is McCullough v Maryland The Constitution grants to Congress the power for implementing the Constitution’s express powers, in order to create a functional national government. State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the national government.

81 Standard 3 Westward Expansion and Growing Sectionalism Prior to the Civil War, westward movement impacted the relations between the regions as Southerners pushed for expansion of slavery and “free-soilers” demanded that slavery be banned in the territories. Railroad construction prior to the Civil War impacted the growing tensions between the regions as Northerners and Southerners vied for routes to the Pacific Ocean.

82 Railroad Transcontinental railroad completed in 1869. Build by immigrant labor-Irish and Chinese. In 1893, Historian, Frederick Jackson Turner, advanced the frontier thesis. This was the idea of the importance of the frontier in the shaping of American culture and strong American character.

83 Transcontinental Railroad completion

84 Compromises over slavery and expansion Missouri Compromise (1820) Compromise of 1850 Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

85 US Land Acquisitions Treaty of Paris-1783 British territory-Appalachian Mountains to Mississippi River Louisiana Purchase-1803 Purchased from France Land from Appalachian Mountains to Rocky Mountains Florida Purchase Treaty-1819 (Adams-Onis Treaty) Acquisition of Florida

86 Land Acquisitions Republic of Texas-1845 Admitted by a joint resolution of Congress Oregon Territory/Oregon Country (54-40 or Fight!) Acquired by treaty from Great Britain Mexican Cession-1848 Acquired as a result of Mexican War

87 Mexican Cession

88

89 Manifest Destiny The belief that it was part of God’s plan for the United States to expand from coast to coast (a God-given right to all the land of the North American continent).

90 Manifest Destiny

91 “Gone to Texas” Americans were allowed to settle in Mexican territory if the settlers did not bring their slaves. Americans from the South continued to settle and continued to bring their slaves. When the Mexican government passed laws to limit slavery, the Texans revolted.

92 Texas War for Independence 1836

93 Texas War for Independence/Texas Revolution Texas independence was not recognized by Mexico. Texas was annexed to the United States by joint resolution of Congress.

94 Mexican War Background The Mexican War and United States argued over the boundary between the two countries. The US said the boundary was the Rio Grande River and Mexico said it was Nueces River. President Polk sends troops to the disputed area. American troops are fired upon. Polk claims “American blood on American soil”.

95 Mexican War 1846-1848 America wins the war and a large area of territory called Mexican Cession. The Mexican War resulted in adversarial relationship between the United States and Mexico until the 20 th century.

96 Monroe Doctrine 1823

97 Issued by President James Monroe Said that the western hemisphere was no longer open for settlement American military power was very limited at this time and the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine was dependent upon the British navy.

98 Monroe Doctrine 1823

99 Native Americans and Expansion Lost their land to White settlers “Trail of Tears”-forced removal of the _________ Indian Wars Near extinction of the __________

100 Trail of Tears

101 Indian Removal Act (1830) Forced removal of the Cherokee 800 mile march to Oklahoma Over 25% of Cherokees died from disease

102 Dawes Act 1887 Passed by Congress in 1887 Abolished tribal organizations and divided up reservations for the purpose of allotting land to individual Native American families. The Dawes Act was a failure.

103 Conflict Between the North and South TariffNational Bank Internal improvements Expansion of slavery North South West

104 Standard 4-Civil War and Reconstruction

105 African Americans Antebellum America African Americans lived in all sections of the country. Although job opportunities for Blacks were better in the North, Blacks were not granted civil or political rights. De facto segregation was practiced throughout the North.

106 As the country expanded westward the issue of the spread of slavery became heated. The admission of new states to the Union threatened to upset the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states.

107 Moving toward War “a fire bell in the night” One of the first efforts at compromise was the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state and Maine would enter the Union as a free state. All states below the 36 degree 30 minute line would be slave states.

108 Missouri Compromise 1820

109 William Lloyd Garrison

110 Abolitionist Movement The abolitionist movement gained momentum in the 1830s. Among the key members of this movement was William Lloyd Garrison. Garrison was the editor of The Liberator and helped establish the American Anti-Slavery Society. The Liberator was banned in the South.

111 Abolition Most Northerners were not abolitionists. Abolitionists were not popular in the North. Abolitionists helped some slaves to escape through the underground railroad. Important African-American abolitionists were Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman.

112 Harriet Beecher Stowe Abolitionist, Harriet Beecher Stowe, was successful because her book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852), reached many Northern readers and convinced them of the horrors of slavery.

113 Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln

114 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852  Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.  2 million in a decade!  Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.  2 million in a decade!

115 Women’s Rights Movement Leaders of the women’s rights movement were Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Stanton and Mott organized the first women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848-Seneca Falls Convention. In the Seneca Falls Declaration presented a list of issues such as the right of education, to own property, divorce and suffrage.

116 Mexican War and Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso-1846  A bill authored by Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania  Provided that slavery would not be allowed in any new territory acquired from Mexico  Passed in the House but defeated in the Senate

117 Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay California enters the Union as a free state A tougher Fugitive Slave law

118 Compromise of 1850

119 Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Opened the territories to popular sovereignty. Popular sovereignty would allow the voters to decide the issue of slavery Led to “Bleeding Kansas” and the Sumner Brooks Affair.

120 Sumner-Brooks Affair

121 Republican Party 1854 Supported the idea of free soil Free soil meant that slavery would not expand into the territories. The Republicans advocated that slavery should not be extended into the territories (free soil) but NOT abolition.

122 Scott v. Sanford/Dred Scott Decision/Ded Scott Case Supreme Court decision-1857 Justice Roger Taney (appointed by President Andrew Jackson) Declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. Said that slaves were property and therefore could not be denied to slave owners regardless of where they took their slaves

123 John Brown’s Raid 1859 Radical Abolitionist Martyr to the North Hanged for treason

124 Southern Secession Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln, wins the Presidential election of 1860. Southern states believed that Lincoln would not allow slavery to expand into the territories. Thus the balance of power in the Senate would be upset and Congress would eventually abolish slavery. Eventually 11 southern states seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.

125 Advantages of the North Greater economic resources  Industrial capacity  Miles of railroad  Manpower  Navy

126 Political Leadership Another advantage of the North was political leadership. President Lincoln was able to articulate the purpose of the as the preservation of the Union and to retain sufficient public support to continue the fight despite initial military defeats.

127 Advantages of the South Military leadership Geography Depended on the power of cotton and their trade with Great Britain The Northern blockade of Southern ports effectively disrupted this trade throughout the war.

128 Strategy of the North Splitting the South at the Mississippi River and taking the capital at Richmond (Anaconda Plan)

129 Anaconda Plan

130 Strategy of the South To defend their region until the North tired of the war effort and quit Confederate forces invaded the North twice in an effort to gain foreign support and hasten the end of the war but were repulsed at Antietam and defeated at Gettysburg.

131 Emancipation Proclamation January, 1863 President Lincoln demonstrated his political skills by his handling of the issue of the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln issued the Emancipation to change the purpose of the war. By making the goal the liberation of slaves, Lincoln made it impossible for the British to support the Southern cause.

132 Emancipation Proclamation Ended European support for the war Caused internal problems for the South Allowed African-Americans to serve in the military (54 th Massachusetts) Slavery would be ended by the Thirteenth Amendment (1865).

133 Finding a general who fights Ulysses S. Grant changed the war strategy to total war. General William T. Sherman fought a war of attrition in his “March to the Sea” (Atlanta to Savannah).

134 Appomattox Courthouse

135 Important Battles BattleDateResults Bull Run/Manassas1861CSA victory. North realizes that it is going to be a long hard war. Battle of Antietam1862This “victory” allows Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation Battle of Vicksburg1863CSA is divided. Battle of Gettysburg1863Turning point of the war in favor of the Union Battle of Atlanta1864-1865Defeating Southern morale Appomattox Courthouse1865Lee surrenders to Grant

136 Reconstruction 1865-1877 Presidential Reconstruction (Lincoln and Johnson) was to allow the South to return to full participation in the government. Southern legislatures passed the Black Codes and elected former Confederates to office. Radical Reconstruction was controlled by Republicans in Congress. This plan broke the South into five military districts.

137 Reconstruction Amendments 13 th - Freed slaves throughout the United States 14 th - Overturned the Dred Scott decision by recognizing the citizenship of African Americans 15 th –Right to vote for all male citizens (and vote Republican)

138

139

140 Reconstruction governments in the South Freedmen were able to exercise the right to vote and to hold elected office. Most Southern governments were not controlled by Freedmen. Carpetbaggers-Republicans who came South Scalawags-Southerners who worked with Northerners

141

142 Reconstruction Governments African Americans were elected to the House and Senate, representing Southern states, but no African American was elected governor. The South continued as an agricultural area but now depended on sharecropping rather than slave labor. The election of 1876 led to the withdrawal of federal troops.

143 African Americans After the Civil War, some African Americans moved to the West, such as Exodusters who went to Kansas, however most freedmen stayed in the South. The Freedmen’s Bureau established schools for African American children. No land was permanently given to African Americans (No “forty acres and a mule” happened)

144 “Redeemers” Methods used by Southern Whites to limit rights of Blacks: Poll tax Literacy test Grandfather clause These laws limited the effectiveness of the 15 th amendment.

145 Test-Terms 1. Divide your paper into three sections. 2. Label sections. 1607-1763, 1767-1775, 1775-1825 3. Number from 1 to 15. 4. Identifications-5 from each section 5. Bonus Section: Washington-Domestic and Foreign Jefferson - Domestic and Foreign Jackson - Domestic and Foreign

146 Identify Explain your term in one or two sentences. Why is your term in the history books? Example: John Peter Zenger Trial The trial provided a major symbolic victory for freedom of the press in the American colonies.

147 African Leaders Booker T. Washington Founded Tuskegee Institute Advocated a vocational education

148 The Supreme Court Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 In the 1890s, Southern legislatures passed segregation laws (de jure). In 1895, Homer Plessy took his case to court. The Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow laws were legal.

149

150 Standard 5-Rise of Big Business, Populism, and Progressivism Industrial Growth How did corporations evolve?  Owned by stock holders  Began before Civil War but grew after the Civil war with the use of corporate mergers and monopolies.

151 How did government aid industry? Subsidies to railroad and other businesses Increased immigration which brought in cheap labor High protective tariffs Expansion of overseas markets No corporate tax or income tax

152 Rags to Riches Stories Horatio Alger stories of “rags to riches” success provided support for the myth that anyone could make it if they worked hard enough.

153 Captains of Industry Some businessmen made their money through unethical means. The term applied to them was robber barons.

154 Tycoons of the late 1800s Cornelius Vanderbilt made his money in the railroad industry.

155

156 Tycoons of the late 1800s (Robber Barons) John D. Rockefeller Made his millions in oil Standard Oil Company First trust/monopoly

157 Corporate Giants Andrew Carnegie made his money in the steel industry Carnegie believed that wealthy individuals had an obligation to give back to society. He expressed this in “The Gospel of Wealth”. Carnegie improved his public image by giving money to libraries and universities.

158 Carnegie Steel Carnegie took control of the steel industry using a method called vertical integration. Vertical integration means controlling a product from raw material to finished product.

159 John D. Rockefeller Horizontal Integration This means merging with other companies that make the same product. Eliminate the competition.

160 Social Darwinism Captains of industry justified their sometimes unethical practices with the ideologies of Social Darwinism and laissez faire capitalism. Social Darwinism meant the “survival of the fittest in business” Laissez faire capitalism meant the government would not regulate business.

161 How did industrialization cause problems for farmers?  Children left the land to work in the cities  Mechanization increased supply, but farmers overproduced which meant prices fell.  Many small farmers were in constant debt.

162 How did farmers try to solve their problems? Tried to organize-The Grange and the Populist Party Supported laws to regulate the railroads Wanted an inflated currency (unlimited coinage of silver)

163 Early attempts by government to regulate industry Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890) was an early attempt to regulate trusts. Interstate Commerce Act (1887) regulated railroads.

164 Populist Party Also called the People’s Party Supported candidates for political office Omaha Platform-1890  Free and unlimited coinage of silver  Direct election of Senators  Secret Ballot  Graduated income tax  Government ownership of large industry

165 Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan-Democrat (supported by Populist) (“Cross of Gold Speech”) William McKinley-Republican Party (Front Porch Campaign) Major issue of the campaign: Who should government protect: business or the farmers?

166 Election of 1896 “Cross of Gold Speech”

167 Problems of Workers  Low pay  Long working hours  Unsafe working conditions  Child labor

168 Labor Unions Knights of Labor  First major labor union  Open to all regardless of gender, race or level of skill (both skilled and unskilled)  The association of the Knights of Labor with the violence (anarchism) Haymarket Square Riot led to its demise.

169 Haymarket Square Riot 1886

170 American Federation of Labor Founded by Samuel Gompers-1886 Organized only skilled workers Worked for issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions

171 Industrial Workers of the World IWW Known as the “Wobblies” Founded in 1905 Advocated the overthrow of capitalism

172 Progressive Movement The Progressive Movement developed in response to the problems of the cities and the problems of the workers.

173 Jane Addams Jane Addams introduced the settlement house to America. At Hull House, immigrants received vocational classes and childcare help.

174 Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt was the first Progressive President. He was the first president to support the rights of workers.

175 Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt supported government regulation of the railroads and regulation of industry. Roosevelt was known as the “trust-buster”.

176 Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt protected the consumer with his championing of the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.

177 Woodrow Wilson Wilson was also a progressive president. He encouraged Congress to pass the Clayton Anti-Trust Act (which Samuel Gompers called the Magna Carta of Labor). It allowed labor unions to be exempt from anti-trust laws.

178 Woodrow Wilson Congress also passed the 16 th (income tax) and 17 th (direct election of Senators). During Wilson’s administration the first federal child labor laws act was passed.

179 African American Leaders Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee Institute, advocated vocational training for African Americans.

180 W.E.B. DuBois W.E.B. DuBois argued that African Americans should have the opportunity for any education that fit their talents and promoted the development of the “Talent Tenth”.

181 End of Progressive Reform Most Progressive initiatives were stopped as a result of World War I.

182 Standard 6 The Rise of Imperialism and Intervention

183 Expansionism of the late 1900s The expansionism of the late 1900s was motivated by the desire to secure markets. It reached beyond the contiguous United States.

184 Intervention The United States moved from isolationism to interventionism because of a need for raw materials and new markets for the developing industries and expanding capitalism. Social Darwinism also influenced American expansionism. Another factor was the closing of the frontier.

185 Spanish American War-1898 Reasons US declared war on Spain  Humanitarian desire to support the rights of Cubans against the Spanish  Increased naval power (Alfred Mahan)  Yellow journalism

186 Anti-imperialistic Cartoon

187 Imperialism President McKinley

188 War-1898 The direct cause of the war was the explosion of the USS Maine in Hanna harbor.

189 Results of the War  The United States emerged from the war as a world power.  The United States acquired the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico.  The United States gained control of Cuba.  The US faced armed resistance in the Philippines (the Philippine Insurrection).

190 American Grows Overseas

191 Open Door Policy-1900 European countries had special trade relations with China. US Secretary of State, John Hay, released a series of diplomatic notes asking that the US have equal opportunity to trade in China.

192 Open Door Policy The Open Door Policy led to increased economic opportunity for the United States. The success of the Open Door Policy was due to the support from leading world powers.

193 Roosevelt Corollary The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine described the United States as a policemen who would keep the European powers from intervening in the Western Hemisphere.

194 William Howard Taft William Howard Taft supported dollar diplomacy, promising to protect the investments of American businesses in Latin America.

195 Woodrow Wilson President vowed to use “moral diplomacy” to intervene in Mexico to “teach the Mexicans to elect good men”.

196 Moral Diplomacy

197 Causes of the World War I : M.A.I.N. M – Militarism A – Secret Alliances I – Imperialism N – Nationalism

198 World War I (1914-1918) At the outbreak of World War I, the United States declared neutrality. But various factors challenged US neutrality and led the involvement of the United States. World War I began in 1914. The United States entered in 1917.

199 Reasons US became involved  Business interests with the Allies  Our traditional connection with the British  German policy of submarine warfare  Sinking of the Lusitania  Zimmerman note  President Wilson wanting to make the world “safe for democracy”.

200 Zimmerman Note

201 Treaty of Versailles-1918 Wilson took at leadership role at the Versailles Conference. Wilson wanted a peace based on the Fourteen Points which he hoped would eliminate many of the causes of the war. The other allies did not agree with Wilson and imposed a war guilt clause and reparations payments on Germany.

202 Treaty of Versailles The Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and did not become a member of the League of Nations.

203 Standard 7 The 1920s and 1930s

204 Economic Boom  By the 1920s, electric energy fueled most of American industry which brought hardship to the coal industry.  Mass production techniques, such as Henry Ford’s assembly lines introduced in 1913 for the automobile brought radios, refrigerators and other new products to the marketplace.  Mass production marginalized the skilled worker (loss of individuality as a worker).

205 Farmers Farmers suffered through an economic depression when World War I brought a loss of markets and surpluses (overproduction) led to low prices and foreclosures. The gap between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have- nots’ increased during the 1920s.

206 Installment Plans  Installment plans encouraged people to change their attitudes about debt. This philosophy (buy now, pay later) stimulated the economy at first, but later proved harmful.

207 Mass Media The mass media advertised goods that many could not afford. The availability of new home appliances (washing machines, electric irons, and vacuum cleaners) led to some social changes for women. Women were able to do their household chores more easily. However, it led to no significant change in their position in the society or the economy.

208 Transportation Transportation helped to change urban life. The automobile changed living conditions and dating patterns for those who could afford to buy a car. Suburbs grew but not a much as in the 1950s. Aviation had little impact on the average American who could not afford to fly.

209 Culture of the 1920s The migration of African Americans to segregated neighborhoods in the cities of the North and Midwest bought about a cultural renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance brought recognition and pride to Black artists, particularly musicians.

210 Literature The literature of the 1920s rejected the thinking of the WWI era and questioned the materialism of the 1920s. The Lost Generation called American cultural values into question.

211 Art of 1920s Art of the 1920s also reflected the conflict between the traditional and modern world. Georgia O’Keefe revolutionized modern art.

212 Impact of radio and movies What impact did radio and movies have on society?  Led to Jazz Age  Promoted a shared national culture  Advertised materialism  Fostered the resurgence of KKK

213 Jazz Louis Armstrong was a noted jazz musician of the time period.

214 Movies Movies portrayed materialism and racist themes as seen in the popular film “Birth of a Nation” (directed by D.W. Griffith-1915) that fostered a resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan.

215 Social Change The 1920s are often seen as a time of booming prosperity but not everyone experienced this. The social changes that occurred were a result of industrialization, immigration, and urbanization. By the 1920s, more than half of the population live in cities.

216 Palmer Raids-1920s The Russian Revolution alarmed many Americans. Some feared that such a revolution might occur here. This led to a period called the Red Scare. In the Palmer Raids (Attorney General Mitchell Palmer), the federal government rounded up 4,000 suspected communists who were held without bond (600 were deported).

217 Sacco and Vanzetti (1927) Sacco and Vanzetti were confirmed anarchists and accused of robbing an armored car and killing a guard. Many believed Sacco and Vanzetti were persecuted for their views. Sacco and Vanzetti were found guilty and executed.

218 100% American The 1920s were also a time of extreme nativism and xenophobia. Congress passed The National Origins Act of 1924 which severely limited immigration from Eastern and Southern Europe(immigrant quotas). Asians were banned entirely.

219 19 th Amendment-1920 Women won suffrage through the 19 th amendment. Women did not make politics more moral as they had promised and typically voted as their husbands voted.

220 Prohibition The 18 th Amendment prohibited the sale and distribution of alcohol but its consumption. Illegal sources (bootlegger and speakeasies) filled the demand for alcohol.

221 18 th Amendment-1920 Neither the federal or local governments had the manpower to stop this illegal trade or the organized crime that grew as a result of bootlegging business. The 21 st Amendment passed in 1933 repealed the 18 th Amendment and ended prohibition.

222 Conflict The conflict between religion and science also caused anxiety in the 1920s. A revival movement at the beginning of the century led to the development of religious fundamentalism.

223 Scopes Trial/Monkey Trial 1925 Tennessee law forbade the teaching of evolution. John Scopes, a young biology teacher, purposefully defied the law in order to bring a test case. Scopes was arrested and defended by the American Civil Liberties Union. The case resolved nothing. John Scopes was fined. The argument over evolution continues today.

224 The Lawyers Clarence Darrow for the defense William Jennings Bryan for the state of Tennessee

225 Scopes Trial Cartoon

226 Great Depression The stock market crash of 1929 was not the only cause of the Great Depression was an out ward sign of the long term problems within the economy. The crash signaled the start of the Great Depression. The basic underlying problems were overproduction and declining demand.

227 Stock Market The stock was not regulated and investors were allowed to buy on the margin. The Federal Reserve poorly managed the stock market and interest rates.

228 Lives The Great Depression greatly impacted the lives of many Americans. Unemployment reached 25%. Americans did not have unemployment insurance. “Runs” on the bank took place when Americans tried to withdraw their savings. The panicked rush of withdrawals often caused banks to collapse and many investors lost their savings.

229 Test-Terms 1. Divide your paper into three sections. 2. Label sections. 1825-1865,1865-1900,1900- 1918 3. Number from 1 to 15. 4. Identifications-5 from each section 5. Bonus Section: Theodore Roosevelt-Domestic and Foreign Woodrow Wilson - Domestic and Foreign Franklin Roosevelt - Domestic and Foreign

230 Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl affected the environment and also produced additional human tragedy.

231 Images Soup Kitchen

232 Images Soup Kitchen

233 Images Hoovervilles

234 Images Okies

235 Election of 1933 Franklin Roosevelt, Democrat, was elected President in 1933.

236 Cartoon FDR and New Deal

237 FRD and New Deal

238 Court Packing Plan

239 New Deal legislation The New Deal was not socialism. The New Deal saved capitalism and it gave the American people hope. Although New Deal programs alleviated suffering and helped many Americans. The New Deal programs did not end the Great Depression. The Great Depression was ended by the spending necessary to fight World War II.

240 New Deal Programs Each of the agencies established was intended to address the goals of relief, recovery, and reform.

241 First New Deal The first New Deal was started during the First Hundred Days. Roosevelt declared a banking holiday to inspect banks and stop future collapse of the banking industry. Roosevelt addressed the nation in a fireside chat and advised Americans to trust in the banks.

242 Lasting Reform Programs Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation(FDIC)- regulated the stock market Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)- regulated the stock market to prevent the conditions that to the crash Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- addressed the problem of overproduction by paying farmers not to plant so many crops

243 First New Deal Programs Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)-built dams to generate electricity for Americans in several states Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)-unemployed young men were given work in the nations’ parks Works Progress Administration (WPA)-set precedent for federal support of the arts

244 Thunder from the right and left The New Deal was criticized by both liberals and conservatives. The Second New Deal was a response to these critics. Some conservatives labeled the ideas as socialism. Some liberals labeled the ideas as fascism.

245 Second New Deal The Second New Deal placed emphasis on reform while maintaining relief and recovery.

246 Social Security Social Security developed as an insurance plan for the unemployed, the disabled, the elderly and dependent children. Social Security did not help the problems with the Depression because it took money out of paychecks and did not give immediate returns. Social Security is one of the most significant and enduring of the New Deal programs.

247 African Americans and the New Deal African Americans were not protected by the New Deal programs. African Americans were the last hired and first fired. However African Americans issues were given some attention by the Roosevelt Administration (“Black Cabinet” and Fair Employment Commission) Consequently Northern Blacks began to vote for the Democratic Party.

248 Women and the Great Depression Women during the Great Depression had to “use it up, wear it out, make it do, or do without”. The New Deal legislation did not address the specific problems of women. Many New Deal programs were just for men. Women still faced discrimination in the work force. Roosevelt did appoint the first woman to a cabinet position, Frances Perkins.

249 DBQ Essay 1. Read the question. 2. Underline key words in the question. 3. Brainstorm terms, people, places, ideas related to the question. This is outside information. 4. Read the documents. Make notes beside the ones that you know. This is inside information. 5. Write the introductory paragraph. Write on the thesis. Use the documents to support the thesis. 6. Write a standard five paragraph essay using the documents to support your ideas.

250 DBQ Essay 7. Indicate the documents that you use. 8. Don’t quote documents directly.

251 Practice DBQ Essay The issue of territorial sparked considerable debate in the period 1800-1855. Analyze this debate and evaluate the influence of both supporters and opponents of territorial expansion in shaping federal government policy. Use the documents and your knowledge of the years 1800-1855 in your answer.

252 Practice DBQ Essay Analyze the international and domestic challenges the United States faced between 1968 and 1974, and evaluate how President Richard Nixon’s administration responded to them.

253 DBQ Practice Analyze the responses of Franklin Roosevelt’s administration to the problems of the Great Depression. How effective were these responses? How did they change the role of the federal government?

254 Rise of Dictatorships World War I, the Treaty of Versailles and economic depression laid the groundwork for the rise of totalitarian regimes in Italy and Germany. Mussolini became the dictator of Italy. Hitler became the dictator of Germany. Tojo became the military dictator of Japan. Propaganda was used as an effective tool by these leaders to control their countries.

255 Standard 8 World War II

256 Mussolini and Hitler

257 Two Leaders Both Hitler and Roosevelt came into office in 1933 amidst the social and economic upheaval of the Great Depression. Roosevelt told the American people that we “have nothing to fear but fear itself”. Hitler told the German people that the Jews were the source of all Germany’s problems.

258 World War II Begins The German invasion of Poland in 1939 led to war in Europe. Congress passed a series of neutrality acts to keep America out of war. Roosevelt tried to change America’s policy from isolationism to international involvement.

259 Progressive Involvement With Roosevelt’s leadership the United States became more involved in support of the Allies. “Cash and Carry” Destroyers-for-Bases Deal Lend Lease

260 Leadership Roosevelt’s commitment to oppose German and Japanese aggression was evidenced by the Quarantine Speech and the signing of the Atlantic Charter.

261 Pearl Harbor The Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 forced the United States to officially abandon its policy of isolationism.

262 Battles European Theater Operation Torch (invasion of North Africa)- purpose to take pressure off USSR Battle of Stalingrad-Turning point of the war on the eastern front D-Day Invasion-provided long awaited second front against the Axis powers Battle of the Bulge-last German offensive and the beginning of the end for the Nazis.

263 D-Day Invasion June 1944

264 Battles in the Pacific Theater Battle of Coral Sea- Turning point of the war in the Pacific that saved Australia from invasion Battle of Midway-Stopped the Japanese advances in the Pacific and put them on the defensive Island hopping-Take islands that would get the US closer to attacking the Japanese mainland.

265 Truman’s Decision The decision by President Truman to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was designed to prevent large number of American casualties.

266 Destruction and Death

267 Mobilization on the Home Front The fighting of World War II required the total mobilization of the economy, the government and society. To finance the war, propaganda campaigns were organized to get Americans to buy war bonds.

268 Home Front Although citizens were urged to plant victory gardens and conserve resources, persuasion was not enough. Rationing of scarce resources was made mandatory through the allocation of ration coupon booklets.

269 Rationing

270 Home Front and Women Because young men were needed on the battle field, women were urged to join the workforce and often took male jobs. “Rosie the Riveter” became an icon of the period.

271 Nuremberg Trials At the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, 24 Nazi officers and civilians were charged with crimes against humanity. Although many pleaded that they were “just following orders”, the death sentence of 12 Nazis demonstrated that individuals were responsible for their own actions.

272 Nuremberg War Crime Trials

273 Advancements in Technology What advancements were made in technology as a result of World War II? radar, microwaves, computers and synthetic rubber

274 Advances in Medicine The postwar period also saw medical advancements that impacted the health of the American people. Advances included the polio vaccine, use of penicillin, open heart surgery These life-saving techniques impacted demographic patterns as Americans lived longer and the infant mortality rate fell.

275 Agricultural Technology The demand for foodstuffs during the war and prosperity of the postwar period led to improvement in agricultural technology. These advances included: chemical fertilizers, disease resistant strains of grain crops. The use of chemicals and pesticides would result in damage to the environment and global warming.

276 Standard 7-Cold War Era

277 Social and Cultural Changes Educational programs expanded as result of postwar conditions. Veterans returning home from war took advantage of the GI Bill (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act) to attend college and trade schools. The baby boom led to an increase in the number of school age children and placed a strain on the educational system.

278 Social and Cultural Changes Returning veterans who married and began families needed more housing, spurring suburbanization (growth of the suburbs).

279 Origins of the Cold War The origins of the Cold War lay in the mutual suspicions of the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. that grew out of basic ideological, economic and political differences. (Problems began during World War II over the Second Front)

280 Germany Germany was divided between the Western allies (USA, Great Britain, and France) and the Soviet Union. Berlin (capital of Germany) was also divided.

281 February, 1946 U.S. diplomat to the USSR, George Kennan, suggested that the USA follow a policy of containment concerning communism. Containment (keeping communism within its present territories)was initially carried out by the Truman Doctrine.

282 Containment Cartoon

283 March 1946 By 1946, the US-USSR tensions had gone public. Winston Churchill said that an “Iron Curtain” has descended upon Europe.

284 Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 President Truman asked Congress for $400 million to fight communism in Greece and Turkey. His speech outlined a policy that became known as the Truman Doctrine. It pledged the United States to fight communism worldwide.

285 June 1947 The Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan (European Recovery Plan) was designed to help Europe rebuild. This plan was also designed to help countries resist the appeal of communism.

286 Berlin Airlift June 1948 The first test of US policy was the Berlin blockade. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered the blockade of Berlin (his goal was to get the US to abandon West Berlin). For 11 months, cargo planes supplied Berliners with food, medicine and coal. Stalin finally lifted the blockade. This showed the determination of the USA to stand by Berlin.

287 Berlin Airlift

288 Berlin Airlift Cartoon

289 NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established a military alliance aimed at the USSR.

290 Who Lost China? After a long civil war, China under the leadership of American-backed nationalist Chiang Kai-shek, fell to communist forces led by Mao Tse-tung. The nationalists fled to Taiwan (Formosa). China became two countries.

291 Korean War 1950 North Korea invades South Korea. President Truman believed that the attacks were influenced by the Soviet Union. Most of the financial support and troops for the Korean War (1950-1953) came from the United States. When US forces approached the Chinese Border, the communist Chinese attacked.

292 Korean War When US forces approached the Chinese Border, the communist Chinese attacked and drove the US forces back to the 38 th parallel. The Korean War was a victory for containment at a cost of 34,000 lives.

293 President Dwight Eisenhower 1953-1961 Eisenhower was the President at the end of the Korean War. Eisenhower believed in the domino theory, the belief that if one country in Southeast Asia fell to communism so would others.

294 Vietnam Eisenhower applied the domino theory to Vietnam. When the French lost in Vietnam, Eisenhower sent military advisers to South Vietnam.

295 Red Scare A Red Scare developed in the US over fears of communist. Republican Joseph McCarthy accused Americans of being communist. McCarthy used the tactic of the Big Lie.

296 McCarthyism McCarthy’s “witch hunt” finally ended when televised hearings showed what a bully McCarthy was.

297 Warsaw Pact 1955 The Soviet Union organized the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance of Eastern European nations and the USSR against NATO.

298 Space Race 1957 The Space Race took off in 1957 when the Soviets launched the first satellite (Sputnik) to orbit the earth. Congress passed the National Defense Education Act to promote science and math skills.

299 John F. Kennedy 1961-1963

300 Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban exiles trained by CIA invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs hoping to initiate a popular uprising against Cuban leader, Castro. The invasion failed and US prestige suffered.

301 Cuban Missile Crisis

302 Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall was built dividing East and West Berlin. It became a symbol of the Cold War.

303 Vietnam President Kennedy increased the number of military advisers sent to South Vietnam. Kennedy was assassinated in 1963. Lyndon Johnson became our president.

304 Lyndon Johnson 1963-1969

305 Lyndon Johnson Johnson continued Kennedy’s policies in Vietnam. In 1964, the Gulf of Tonkin Incident led Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which authorized the buildup of American troops to help the South Vietnamese. War was never declared.

306 Operation Rolling Thunder Johnson initiated Operation Rolling Thunder, a bombing campaign against North Vietnam. Americans began to protest against the war. Vietnam was becoming an unpopular war.

307 Protest Movement Vietnam was becoming an unpopular war. Americans, especially college students, began to protest American involvement in the war.

308 Tet Offensive In January 1968, media coverage of the Tet Offensive showed the Viet Cong forces could attack anywhere and anytime. The news about the Tet Offensive turned public opinion even more against the war. President Johnson announced that he would not run for reelection in 1968.

309 Anti-Johnson Cartoon

310

311 Johnson’s Legacy Johnson’s Great Society legislation led to the establishment of Medicare and Medicaid. Johnson declared a “war on poverty”. His legislation included Head Start and the National Endowment for the Arts. His attempts to fund both “guns and butter” led to inflation and the inability to full fund domestic initiatives.

312 Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

313 Environment The Democratic Congress passed and President Nixon signed into law landmark environmental legislation in the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts and the Endangered Species Act. Nixon also established the Environmental Protection Agency in response to public concerns reflected in the first celebration of Earth Day.

314 Nixon and Vietnam Nixon had promised in the election to end the war. Nixon did begin a policy of Vietnamization. But at the same time, he escalated American involvement. The Paris Peace Accords officially ended the war in Vietnam in 1973.

315 Nixon and China Nixon began talks with China. Nixon pursued a policy of rapprochement with China in order to drive a wedge between the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China

316 Nixon and Russia Nixon also pursued a policy of détente with the USSR.

317 Watergate Scandal Supporters of Nixon would break into the Democratic National headquarters. These men were looking for information help Nixon win re-election in 1972. Nixon would participate in the cover-up of the crime.

318 Watergate Scandal Facing the threat of impeachment Nixon resigned in August, 1974.

319 Nixon and Watergate Scandal

320 War Powers Act 1973 The Congress took actions to curb the President’s war-making powers with the passage of the War Powers Act. With the hopes of preventing another Vietnam War, Congress established new rules about committing troops to foreign involvement.

321 Gerald Ford (1974-1977)

322 Gerald Ford became the only unelected President or Vice-President in history Ford pardoned former President Nixon of all charges. President Ford tried to improve the economy through tax cuts and a reduction of government spending.

323 Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) President Carter’s personal commitment to human rights led him to act as a facilitator for peace in the Middle East. The result was a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. This treaty was called the Camp David Accords (1978).

324 Iran Hostage Crisis The invasion of the American embassy and the holding of 179 American hostages by the government of Iran contributed to Carter’s defeat in the 1980 presidential election.

325 Enter Ronald Reagan Ex-movie star Former governor of California Conservative

326 The Reagan Revolution Reagan brought in a new era of conservative policy making in Washington. Reagan promised lower taxes, smaller government and a stronger military.

327 Reaganomics Reagan believed in trickle- down economics. Reagan wanted to cut taxes and encourage the wealthy to spend. In 1981, Congress passed a 25% tax cut over a three year period. Industries were deregulated. Deregulation of the savings and loan industry would cause economic problems later.

328 Reagan and the Court Reagan wanted more conservative justices on the court. Reagan was able to appoint three justices to the court. Reagan would appoint the first women justice to the court, Sandra Day O’Connor.

329 Foreign Policy In 1987, Reagan visited Soviet Union. It was during Reagan Presidency that the Cold War would begin to end. Reagan and Gorbachev


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