Presentation on theme: "Biology EOC Review 1 largest smallest 8"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biology EOC Review 1 largest 4 2 3 5 6 7 9 smallest 8 Living and nonliving
2 Characteristics of Life To be alive you must….. Made of cells*unicellular – one celledor* multicellular – many celled with levels oforganization (cellstissuesorgans systems organism)Reproduce*asexual – offspring are genetic clones of parent*sexual – offspring have genetic variation from parents- MEIOSISUse and obtain materials for energy(metabolism)* energy is required for life processes* autotrophs make their own food (photosynthesis/chemosynthesis)* heterotrophs eat other organisms for foodMaintain Homeostasis* maintenance or regulation of body conditions such as body temperature, blood sugar level, water balance (cell membrane), pHGenetic/Hereditary Material* DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid – is the genetic material that codes for proteins of all organisms. The genetic code is “universal” A-T C-G /A-U C-GRespond to stimuli* responding to the biotic and abiotic factors in the environment are key to survival-hot, cold, hungry….etc.Grow and Development* growth – by cell division or cell enlargement- MITOSIS* development – any change from conception to death - embryonic, puberty, agingEvolutionary Adaptation- (genetic change over time)* adaptations – structures, behaviors, or processes that aid in an organisms survival are passed on from parent to offspring.
3 EcologyOrganelle cells tissue organs organ system Organisms Populations Community Ecosystem Biomes BiospherePopulations – are members of the same species living in the same areaEcosystem- all the living and non-living factors in a certain areaPopulation growth –*affected by natural disaster, disease, food, water, and shelter* Carrying capacity– the maximum number the environment can support due to food, water, and shelterCommunity Interactions* Competition – food, water, shelter* Predation- hunt, kill, eat* Symbiosis – parasitism +-, commensalism +0, and mutualism ++Food Chains and Food webs10% energy transferred to the next level.The rest lost as heat.27kcal270kcal2700kcal27000kcalEcological successionClimax communityPioneerspeices
4 Biochemistry Organic – contains Carbon Macromolecules are often built by dehydration synthesis and digested by hydrolysis Poly=many Mono= oneFour main typesCarbohydrates –glucose/starch, quick ENERGY, in cell membraneose=sugar2) Lipids – fatty acid/glycerol, stored energy/insulation, waxy coating, hydrophobic- no mix with H2O), in cell membrane3) Proteins –amino acids – ENZYMES, Polypeptide, cell transport, in cell membrane ase= enzyme4) Nucleic Acids –nucleotides , genetic/hereditary info DNA or RNA, in nucleusEnzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. They have a specific shape and interact with a specific substrate which binds at the active site. Lock and Key. Never changesEnzymes help break or build macromoleculesEnzymes are reusable and are notchanged during a chemical reaction.They can be damaged at temperatureand pH extremes.Cold- enzymes work slowlyWarm- work fasterToo Hot- denature/destroyed
5 Cells Cell theory - 3 parts 1) cells are basic unit of life 2) cells come from existing cells (cell division)3) all organisms are composed of cellsProkaryotic versus EukaryoticA) simple A) complexB) no nucleus B)nucleusC) no MB organelles C) has MB organellesD) only ribosomes D) protists, fungiD) bacteria plants, and animalsOrganelles – little cellular organs that carrying out specific jobs / chemical reactions1) chloroplast – photosynthesis creates glucose2) mitochondria – cellular respirationcreates ATP(energy)3) ribosomes – protein synthesis4) vacuoles – storage5) nucleus – contains DNA andcontrols cell actions6)lysosome- cellular digestion(enzymes)7) cell membrane- controls whatenters and leaves cellsemi-permeable/HomeostasisPlant versus AnimalA) has cell wall A) no cell wallB) has chloroplasts B) has no chloroplastsC)Photosynthesis C) has small vacuolesD) has large vacuoleribosomes, metabolism,4 biomolecules,unicellularRobert Hooke – 1st to look at and name celleukaryotes, go thru cellular respiration, & have mitochondriamulticellular
6 Cellular TransportPlasma/Cell membrane controls homeostasis (balance), phospholipid by layer with proteinsSemi-permeable; selective on what enters and leaves cellTypes of Passive Transport – NO ENERGY required1) Diffusion – moves substances from high to low concentrations (O2, CO2,perfume, dye in water) (equilibrium when particlesare distributed equally)2) Osmosis – the diffusion of WATER from high to lower water concentrations; water moves towards the most solute. (hypertonic-water out/cell shrinks; hypotonic-water in/cell swells; isotonic-water in/out/cell stays same)Ex) cell in salt water – shrivelsEx) cell in fresh water swells***SOLUTE SUCKS!!!Look at outside to inside Hyper, Hypo, IsotonicActive Transport – REQUIRES ENERGY– moves substances against the concentration gradient from low to high concentrations Endocytosis - in cell20%20%20%80%80%20%isohypohyperOut of cellPhago-solid and Peno-drink
7 Photosynthesis= makes glucose and O2 Producers/Autotrophs convert sunlight to chemical energy in glucoseEQUATION: 6CO2 + 6H2O + E C6H12O O2Carbon dioxide + water + energy glucose + oxygenTakes place in LEAVESAutotrophs use carbon dioxide and water and produceoxygen and glucoseGuard cells/Stomata control gas exchange &Water loss ( transpiration)CHLOROPLASTS -site of photosynthesis.Produces glucose and oxygen for consumersPigments-Chlorophyll / carotenereactantsproductsPhotosynthesis in picturesPhotosynthesis in wordsPhotosynthesis in symbols Carbon dioxide and water combine with light to create oxygen and glucose. lightCO + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2CO2O2 & H2OstomataStomataThylakoid: sac like membranes/LDRStroma space between thylakoidsGrana: stack of thylakiods
8 Cellular Respiration=makes Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP Cellular respiration is the process by which organisms break down food to release its energy. This energy is then stored in ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)Three parts to ATP1) adenine2) ribose3) 3 phosphates (high energy)ATP/ADP cycle – It fuels most cellularprocess. ATP loses a phosphate tobecome ADPATP Uses-movement,active transport (peno, phagocytocysis),building and breaking largemolecules (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)Aerobic AnaerobicO2 REQUIRED NO O2 REQUIREDmost organisms- plants animals (yeast/bacteria)2 ATP ATP ATP =36ATP 2 ATPGlycolysis, Krebs cycle, ETC Alcoholic & Lactic Acid Fermentation soreness***Steps of CRGlycolysis –breaks glucose into pyruvate in cytoplasm, makes 2 ATPKrebs- Pyruvate broken down in mitochondria, makes 2 ATPETC- oxygen boost used to make 32 ATPTOTAL= 36ATPATPAdenineRibose3 PhosphatesAdenosineEnergy from foodEnergy for cellular processes
9 Cell Division The cell cycle – Interphase – growth Haploid –set of chromosomes (n) – gametes – sperm/egg (23)Diploid two sets of chromosomes (2n) – body cells/somatic – one set (46) is maternal and one is paternalThe cell cycle – Interphase – growth- Mitosis – divisionMitosis creates identical daughter cellstissue repair and growth and reproductionin animals (somatic cells, body cells, eye, liver…)Stages of the cell cycle –Interphase-growth preparations , S phase- DNA repProphase- chromosomes condense/visibleMetaphase- chromosomes in middleAnaphase- chromosomes separateTelophase- cell pinches in,Cytokinesis- cell divides and have 2 identicaldaughter cells. Same kind & # of chromosomes***Mitosis in Plants- CELL PLATE produced inTelophase. No pinching inMeiosis – cell division that creates 4genetically different cells called gametes(sex cells/egg or sperm)Meiosis involves 2 divisions – Meiosis Iand Meiosis IIMeiosis I-Prophase I crossing over occurs. Thisrecombination increases geneticvariation for the species***Homologous chromosomes separateMeiosis II- Sister chromatids separate
10 DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Watson and Crick – DNA is Double HelixDNA and RNA are composed of nucleotidesDNA RNADeoxyribose RiboseA-T C-G A-U C-GThymine (T) Uracil (U)Double helix Single helixCodes for Copy of DNA infoproteins/RNAReplication –copies DNA – enzyme unzips DNA and each side of the ladder acts as a template for the building of the new half. Use the N-base paring rules : A-T ; C-GEX) TACGGAC (old strand)ATGCCTG (new strand***Transcription – the process of making RNA from DNA in nucleusEX) TACGGAC (template DNA strand)AUGCCUG (RNA built) (A-U C-G)mRNA – messenger from DNAto ribosome to make a specific protein2) tRNA – transfer - carries aminoacids to ribosome- truck3) rRNA – ribosomal – makes upa ribosome***Translation – tRNA carries aminoacids to the ribosome to assemble aProtein/polypeptideTRANSCRIPTIONDNAtranscriptiontranslationmRNAProteinTRANSLATIONnucleusribosome
11 Mutations Nondisjunction – having abnormal chromosome number s ANY CHANGE IN DNA SEQUENCE THAT CAN LEAD TO A CHANGE IN AMINO ACID SEQUENCESome good- better immune system, be antibiotic resistant, camouflageSome Bad- cancer- leukemiaSome neutral- eye colorTYPES OF MUTATIONSONLY MUTATIONS/CHANGESTO PARENTAL GAMETE DNA CAN BE TRANSFERRED TO OFFSPRINGNondisjunction – having abnormalchromosome number sabnormal separation of chromosomesEx) Down’s Syndrome aka Trisomy 21XX/xx- female- sex chromosomes are the same sizeXx- male- sex chromosomes are different sizessubstitutionHumans have 23 pairs of chromosomes1st 22 are homologous or autosomes23 pair are sex chromosomesSex chromosomes
12 Reproduction Reproduction is a characteristic of life Continues a species- allows genetic diversity,, meiosis, crossing over2 forms: asexual and sexualAsexual Sexual____________-1 parent parents (usually)-No gametes genetic variation, crossing over-Offspring are genetically identical Offspring genetically uniqueto the parent (clones)-Fast, efficient, less energy Slower, less efficient, more energy-No variation Huge amounts of variation-Stable Environment Changing EnvironmentAsexual Strategies Sexual strategies1) binary fission-bacteria 1) Internal fertilizationsperm meets egg in female2) External fertilizationreleased into the environmentusually aquatic2) budding
13 Note 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio Simple GeneticsGregor Mendel – Father of Genetics worked with pea plants to learn inheritance of traitsPhenotype – physical - tall, green eyes, no hornsGenotype – the gene combination – either Homozygous (TT or tt)or Heterozygous (Tt)Monohybrid Cross – follows 1 trait through several generationsP(parental) TT x tt **one dominant over the other; same letter (T & t)T T T tt geno- all Tt T geno – ¼ TT, ½ Tt, ¼ ttt pheno – all tall t pheno – ¾ Tall; ¼ short(3:1 ratio)Other important monohybrid crossesT t T tT geno- ½ TT; ½ Tt t geno – ½ Tt; ½ ttT pheno – all Tall t pheno– Tall; ½ shortDihybrid cross – follows two traits RRYy X Rryy= all offfspring will have round seedsTtTTTtttTtttTTTtNote 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio
14 Complex Genetics Incomplete Dominance – blended phenotype Ex) snap dragons Red (RR) X White (WW’) all Pink (RW)R R R WW geno- all RW R geno- ¼ RR; ½ RW; ¼ WWW pheno-all pink W pheno- ¼red; ½ pink; ¼ whiteCodominance – both parental phenotypes show up in offspringEx) Chickens Black x White Black and White feathersW BW WMultiple Alleles– trait with 3+ allelesex) A, B, O blood typesSex Linked– genes carried on sex chromosomesEx) hemophilia, color blindness Cross shows acarrier female and a normal male. For a female toinherit the trait the father must have it and themother must at least be a carrierRWRRRWWWB BB Wgeno- ¼ BB; ½ BW; ¼ WWPheno- ¼ black; ½ bl&wht; ¼ whtgeno- all BWPheno- all bl & whtBWBBBWWW
15 Evolution- genetic change over time within a population Charles Darwin – FATHER OF EVOLUTION, proposed that organisms (species or populations) change over time after studying finches in the Galapagos IslandsNatural Selection – “survival of the fittest”- can survive and reproduce in the environment they live inEvidence of Evolution1) Fossils (geologic time)2) Homologous Structures –same basic structure formed fromsame embryonic tissue-**shows common ancestry3) Vestigial Structures – structuresthat have lost function ex)Appendix Tailbone, femur bone in whale4) Embryology – embryos of variousspecies appear identical untilDNA becomes more specialized5) Genetics – DNA and protein amino acidsequence comparisons-** most accurate in relatedness- DNA or A.A. sequence6)Adaptive radiation /Descent w/Modifications– anancestral species radiates or diverges into manyspecies. Ex) Galapagos FinchesHomologousVestigial
16 Classification ***King Philip Came Over For Grape Soda Kingdom Carolus Linnaeus – Father of Taxonomy and Classification***King Philip Came Over For Grape SodaBinomial nomenclature – uses Genus and species to name an organismDichotomous keys – a series of paired statements that lead to the name of an organismTaxonomy- study of classifying an organismbroadestMost specificKingdomCell typeUni or multi cellularAutotroph HeterotrophCell wallArchae- bacteriaProkaryoteUni -BothyesEu-bacteriaProtistsEukaryoteUni/multisomeFungiHeterotrophsPlantsMulti-AutotrophsAnimalsNOArchaebacteria – are extremists that live in hot, acidic, saline, or other harsh environments; extremophilesEubacteria are “true” bacteria – strept, E. coli…..etc
17 Bacteria vs Virus Bacteria Virus PROkaryoteNO nucleus/NO nuclearmembraneUNIcellularLIVING cellAutotroph or heterotrophCured with antiobioticscell wallEubacteria- true bacteria-streptococcus, E. coliArchaebacteria- oldExtremophiles, halophiles,thermophilesDECOMPOSERAids in digestionBreaks down in NITROGEN CYCLEPREvention- heat, soap, cook foodRefrigerateAntibiotic resistant- does notrespond to antibioticsPathogen- any disease causing agentImmune response- how body response to diseaseOutbreak- spreading of a diseaseNOT livingNOT a cellPrevented with VACCINESPROTEIN CAPSID holds DNA or RNANeeds/hijacks HOST to replicateUsed for researchStored for possible germ warfare or natural epidemicsFLU- influenzaHIV- destroys helper T cellsHerpes, Chicken PoxViruses < bacteria cells<eukaryote cellsflagellacilia
18 Plants Plant cell structure – cell walls, large vacuole, chloroplasts Autotrophs(Photosynthesis), eukaryotic, multicellular, cell wall of celluloseNonvascular – no true roots/stems/leaves – ex) mosses (Bryophytes)2) Vascular with seeds in cones – Gymnosperms (pines, fir, spruce) “GYM”3) Vascular with seeds in fruits – Angiosperms – flowering plants “Angie”Types of Vascular TissueA) Xylem – transports water from roots to leavesB) Phloem – transports sugars from leaves to roots5) Adaptations- Large leafs plants- catch what sunlight they can/very little sun exposure- jungle, tropical rainforest-Small leaf plants- small surface area to catch sunlight because exposed to sun-Fibrous roots- get water from surface/ top soilTaproot- extends down in ground to absorb deep ground water-Cuticle- waxy covering on plant leaves to prevent water loss or to soggy – Desert or Tropical rainforest- lipids hydrophobic6)Tropisms – growth responses to stimuli – often controlled by hormones.Phototropism Gravitropism Thigmotropism
19 Animals– no cell wall, small vacuoles, no chloroplast, cellular respiration for EnergyHeterotrophs, Multicellular, no cell wall, mobile, eukaryoteClassification – 2 main groupsVertebrates InvertebratesPhylum Chordatafish Arthropods – insects (6 legs)Amphibians (exoskeleton) - arachnids (8 legs)Reptiles crustaceansAves (birds) Mollusks – have shell created byMammals structure called mantelHuman Anatomy – Look through the chapters in your book regarding anatomy.* Neurons- nerves* circulatory- veins /arteries- transport O2, CO2, glucose, hormones* Endocrine- hormones* Reproductive- ovaries- eggs testes- sperm MEIOSIS genetic variation* Muscular- many mitochondriaAnimal Behavior – responses that allow an organism to respond to stimuli1) Innate Behavior – instincts, inherited, inborn behaviorsex) circadian rhythms – daily patterns of activity – including feeding behaviors - nocturnalex) annual rhythms – yearly patterns of activity – including courtship, estivation, hibernation, migration2) Learned Behavior – based on experienceex) imprinting – recognition of parentsex) Trial and error learningex) Conditioning (Pavlov’s dog) – learning by association3) Social Behavior – division of labor as in a termite or ant colony
20 Human Systems System function major structures Immune protects body from disease, kills pathogensWhite blood cells, lymph nodesEndocrinecontrols growth, metabolism and hormoneshormonesReproductiveCreates gametes(eggs & sperm)Testes, ovariesCirculatorytransports nutrients/wastes and oxygen/carbon dioxide though bodyHeart, blood vesselsRespiratoryProvides oxygen, removes CO2lungsIntegumentaryskin, protection & helps regulate body temperatureSkin, hair, and nailsMuscularmovementSmooth, cardiac and skeletal musclesSkeletalsupport, protects vital organs, movementBonesNervouscontrols/coordinates body movementBrain, spinal cord, nervesDigestivedigest and absorb nutrientsMouth, stomach, intestinesExcretoryeliminates wastes from bodyKidneys, Bladder (urine) lungs (CO2)
21 Homeostasis- Positive & Negative Feedback Loops Homeostasis depends on the action and interaction of body systems to maintain a balance in the body.Body responds to an extreme condition by working towards going back to homeostasisNEGATIVE FEEDBACK reversing the responseA child goes outside in December without a jacket. Within a few minutes the child begins to shiver uncontrollably.Five minutes into a run on a warm sunny day, I began to sweat.After eating a candy bar, blood sugar levels rise triggering insulin to be released to return the blood to normal sugar levelsSensor - detects the change (body is getting too warm)Control Center - receives signal (usually the brain) from sensor and sends message to effectorEffector - reverses the initial change (skin pores begin to perspire and blood vessels dilate)POSITIVE FEEDBACK- promoting or increasing that response ++++As child labor intensifies (intensity to push), the body releases oxytocin to increase uterine contraction and the urge to push until deliveryA person gets cut and the body responds by releasing blood platelets to stop the cut from bleeding. Blood platelets are continuously released until the bleeding stops completely.Receptors in the blood monitor pH level. If the blood pH is too acidic or too basic the body will make more buffers to bring the blood pH back to a more neutral pH level.
22 BiologistsRobert Hooke – discovered and named the cell with crude microscopeAnton van Leeuwenhoek - saw “wee little beasties” living cells for the first timeGregor Mendel – is the father of genetics – discovered the basic patterns of inheritance in pea plantsCharles Darwin – is the father of evolution proposed that organisms that are most fit or best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive – called Natural SelectionJames Watson and Francis Crick – discovered the double helix structure of DNALinnaeus- Father of Taxonomy and Classification-----Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species----King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda
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