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Biology EOC Review 1 largest smallest 8

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1 Biology EOC Review 1 largest 4 2 3 5 6 7 9 smallest 8
Living and nonliving

2 Characteristics of Life To be alive you must…..
Made of cells *unicellular – one celled or * multicellular – many celled with levels of organization (cellstissuesorgans systems organism) Reproduce *asexual – offspring are genetic clones of parent *sexual – offspring have genetic variation from parents- MEIOSIS Use and obtain materials for energy(metabolism) * energy is required for life processes * autotrophs make their own food (photosynthesis/chemosynthesis) * heterotrophs eat other organisms for food Maintain Homeostasis * maintenance or regulation of body conditions such as body temperature, blood sugar level, water balance (cell membrane), pH Genetic/Hereditary Material * DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid – is the genetic material that codes for proteins of all organisms. The genetic code is “universal” A-T C-G /A-U C-G Respond to stimuli * responding to the biotic and abiotic factors in the environment are key to survival-hot, cold, hungry….etc. Grow and Development * growth – by cell division or cell enlargement- MITOSIS * development – any change from conception to death - embryonic, puberty, aging Evolutionary Adaptation- (genetic change over time) * adaptations – structures, behaviors, or processes that aid in an organisms survival are passed on from parent to offspring.

3 Ecology Organelle  cells  tissue  organs  organ system  Organisms  Populations  Community  Ecosystem  Biomes  Biosphere Populations – are members of the same species living in the same area Ecosystem- all the living and non-living factors in a certain area Population growth – *affected by natural disaster, disease, food, water, and shelter * Carrying capacity– the maximum number the environment can support due to food, water, and shelter Community Interactions * Competition – food, water, shelter * Predation- hunt, kill, eat * Symbiosis – parasitism +-, commensalism +0, and mutualism ++ Food Chains and Food webs 10% energy transferred to the next level. The rest lost as heat. 27kcal 270kcal 2700kcal 27000kcal Ecological succession Climax community Pioneer speices

4 Biochemistry Organic – contains Carbon
Macromolecules are often built by dehydration synthesis and digested by hydrolysis Poly=many Mono= one Four main types Carbohydrates –glucose/starch, quick ENERGY, in cell membrane ose=sugar 2) Lipids – fatty acid/glycerol, stored energy/insulation, waxy coating, hydrophobic- no mix with H2O), in cell membrane 3) Proteins –amino acids – ENZYMES, Polypeptide, cell transport, in cell membrane ase= enzyme 4) Nucleic Acids –nucleotides , genetic/hereditary info DNA or RNA, in nucleus Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. They have a specific shape and interact with a specific substrate which binds at the active site. Lock and Key. Never changes Enzymes help break or build macromolecules Enzymes are reusable and are not changed during a chemical reaction. They can be damaged at temperature and pH extremes. Cold- enzymes work slowly Warm- work faster Too Hot- denature/destroyed

5 Cells Cell theory - 3 parts 1) cells are basic unit of life
2) cells come from existing cells (cell division) 3) all organisms are composed of cells Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic A) simple A) complex B) no nucleus B)nucleus C) no MB organelles C) has MB organelles D) only ribosomes D) protists, fungi D) bacteria plants, and animals Organelles – little cellular organs that carrying out specific jobs / chemical reactions 1) chloroplast – photosynthesis creates glucose 2) mitochondria – cellular respiration creates ATP(energy) 3) ribosomes – protein synthesis 4) vacuoles – storage 5) nucleus – contains DNA and controls cell actions 6)lysosome- cellular digestion(enzymes) 7) cell membrane- controls what enters and leaves cell semi-permeable/Homeostasis Plant versus Animal A) has cell wall A) no cell wall B) has chloroplasts B) has no chloroplasts C)Photosynthesis C) has small vacuoles D) has large vacuole ribosomes, metabolism, 4 biomolecules, unicellular Robert Hooke – 1st to look at and name cell eukaryotes, go thru cellular respiration, & have mitochondria multicellular

6 Cellular Transport Plasma/Cell membrane controls homeostasis (balance), phospholipid by layer with proteins Semi-permeable; selective on what enters and leaves cell Types of Passive Transport – NO ENERGY required 1) Diffusion – moves substances from high to low concentrations (O2, CO2, perfume, dye in water) (equilibrium when particles are distributed equally) 2) Osmosis – the diffusion of WATER from high to lower water concentrations; water moves towards the most solute. (hypertonic-water out/cell shrinks; hypotonic-water in/cell swells; isotonic-water in/out/cell stays same) Ex) cell in salt water – shrivels Ex) cell in fresh water swells ***SOLUTE SUCKS!!! Look at outside to inside Hyper, Hypo, Isotonic Active Transport – REQUIRES ENERGY– moves substances against the concentration gradient from low to high concentrations Endocytosis - in cell 20% 20% 20% 80% 80% 20% iso hypo hyper Out of cell Phago-solid and Peno-drink

7 Photosynthesis= makes glucose and O2
Producers/Autotrophs convert sunlight to chemical energy in glucose EQUATION: 6CO2 + 6H2O + E  C6H12O O2 Carbon dioxide + water + energy  glucose + oxygen Takes place in LEAVES Autotrophs use carbon dioxide and water and produce oxygen and glucose Guard cells/Stomata control gas exchange & Water loss ( transpiration) CHLOROPLASTS -site of photosynthesis. Produces glucose and oxygen for consumers Pigments-Chlorophyll / carotene reactants products Photosynthesis in pictures Photosynthesis in words Photosynthesis in symbols  Carbon dioxide and water combine with light to create oxygen and glucose.   light CO + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 O2 & H2O stomata Stomata Thylakoid: sac like membranes/LDR Stroma space between thylakoids Grana: stack of thylakiods

8 Cellular Respiration=makes Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP
Cellular respiration is the process by which organisms break down food to release its energy. This energy is then stored in ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) Three parts to ATP 1) adenine 2) ribose 3) 3 phosphates (high energy) ATP/ADP cycle – It fuels most cellular process. ATP loses a phosphate to become ADP ATP Uses-movement, active transport (peno, phagocytocysis), building and breaking large molecules (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) Aerobic Anaerobic O2 REQUIRED NO O2 REQUIRED most organisms- plants animals (yeast/bacteria) 2 ATP ATP ATP =36ATP 2 ATP Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, ETC Alcoholic & Lactic Acid Fermentation soreness ***Steps of CR Glycolysis –breaks glucose into pyruvate in cytoplasm, makes 2 ATP Krebs- Pyruvate broken down in mitochondria, makes 2 ATP ETC- oxygen boost used to make 32 ATP TOTAL= 36ATP ATP Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphates Adenosine Energy from food Energy for cellular processes

9 Cell Division The cell cycle – Interphase – growth
Haploid –set of chromosomes (n) – gametes – sperm/egg (23) Diploid two sets of chromosomes (2n) – body cells/somatic – one set (46) is maternal and one is paternal The cell cycle – Interphase – growth - Mitosis – division Mitosis creates identical daughter cells tissue repair and growth and reproduction in animals (somatic cells, body cells, eye, liver…) Stages of the cell cycle – Interphase-growth preparations , S phase- DNA rep Prophase- chromosomes condense/visible Metaphase- chromosomes in middle Anaphase- chromosomes separate Telophase- cell pinches in, Cytokinesis- cell divides and have 2 identical daughter cells. Same kind & # of chromosomes ***Mitosis in Plants- CELL PLATE produced in Telophase. No pinching in Meiosis – cell division that creates 4 genetically different cells called gametes (sex cells/egg or sperm) Meiosis involves 2 divisions – Meiosis I and Meiosis II Meiosis I-Prophase I crossing over occurs. This recombination increases genetic variation for the species ***Homologous chromosomes separate Meiosis II- Sister chromatids separate

10 DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis
Watson and Crick – DNA is Double Helix DNA and RNA are composed of nucleotides DNA RNA Deoxyribose Ribose A-T C-G A-U C-G Thymine (T) Uracil (U) Double helix Single helix Codes for Copy of DNA info proteins/RNA Replication –copies DNA – enzyme unzips DNA and each side of the ladder acts as a template for the building of the new half. Use the N-base paring rules : A-T ; C-G EX) TACGGAC (old strand) ATGCCTG (new strand ***Transcription – the process of making RNA from DNA in nucleus EX) TACGGAC (template DNA strand) AUGCCUG (RNA built) (A-U C-G) mRNA – messenger from DNA to ribosome to make a specific protein 2) tRNA – transfer - carries amino acids to ribosome- truck 3) rRNA – ribosomal – makes up a ribosome ***Translation – tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome to assemble a Protein/polypeptide TRANSCRIPTION DNA transcription translation mRNA Protein TRANSLATION nucleus ribosome

11 Mutations Nondisjunction – having abnormal chromosome number s
ANY CHANGE IN DNA SEQUENCE THAT CAN LEAD TO A CHANGE IN AMINO ACID SEQUENCE Some good- better immune system, be antibiotic resistant, camouflage Some Bad- cancer- leukemia Some neutral- eye color TYPES OF MUTATIONS ONLY MUTATIONS/CHANGESTO PARENTAL GAMETE DNA CAN BE TRANSFERRED TO OFFSPRING Nondisjunction – having abnormal chromosome number s abnormal separation of chromosomes Ex) Down’s Syndrome aka Trisomy 21 XX/xx- female- sex chromosomes are the same size Xx- male- sex chromosomes are different sizes substitution Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes 1st 22 are homologous or autosomes 23 pair are sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes

12 Reproduction Reproduction is a characteristic of life
Continues a species- allows genetic diversity,, meiosis, crossing over 2 forms: asexual and sexual Asexual Sexual____________ -1 parent parents (usually) -No gametes genetic variation, crossing over -Offspring are genetically identical Offspring genetically unique to the parent (clones) -Fast, efficient, less energy Slower, less efficient, more energy -No variation Huge amounts of variation -Stable Environment Changing Environment Asexual Strategies Sexual strategies 1) binary fission-bacteria 1) Internal fertilization sperm meets egg in female 2) External fertilization released into the environment usually aquatic 2) budding

13 Note 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio
Simple Genetics Gregor Mendel – Father of Genetics worked with pea plants to learn inheritance of traits Phenotype – physical - tall, green eyes, no horns Genotype – the gene combination – either Homozygous (TT or tt) or Heterozygous (Tt) Monohybrid Cross – follows 1 trait through several generations P(parental) TT x tt **one dominant over the other; same letter (T & t) T T T t t geno- all Tt T geno – ¼ TT, ½ Tt, ¼ tt t pheno – all tall t pheno – ¾ Tall; ¼ short (3:1 ratio) Other important monohybrid crosses T t T t T geno- ½ TT; ½ Tt t geno – ½ Tt; ½ tt T pheno – all Tall t pheno– Tall; ½ short Dihybrid cross – follows two traits RRYy X Rryy= all offfspring will have round seeds Tt TT Tt tt Tt tt TT Tt Note 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio

14 Complex Genetics Incomplete Dominance – blended phenotype
Ex) snap dragons  Red (RR) X White (WW’)  all Pink (RW) R R R W W geno- all RW R geno- ¼ RR; ½ RW; ¼ WW W pheno-all pink W pheno- ¼red; ½ pink; ¼ white Codominance – both parental phenotypes show up in offspring Ex) Chickens  Black x White Black and White feathers W B W W Multiple Alleles– trait with 3+ alleles ex) A, B, O blood types Sex Linked– genes carried on sex chromosomes Ex) hemophilia, color blindness Cross shows a carrier female and a normal male. For a female to inherit the trait the father must have it and the mother must at least be a carrier RW RR RW WW B B B W geno- ¼ BB; ½ BW; ¼ WW Pheno- ¼ black; ½ bl&wht; ¼ wht geno- all BW Pheno- all bl & wht BW BB BW WW

15 Evolution- genetic change over time within a population
Charles Darwin – FATHER OF EVOLUTION, proposed that organisms (species or populations) change over time after studying finches in the Galapagos Islands Natural Selection – “survival of the fittest”- can survive and reproduce in the environment they live in Evidence of Evolution 1) Fossils (geologic time) 2) Homologous Structures – same basic structure formed from same embryonic tissue- **shows common ancestry 3) Vestigial Structures – structures that have lost function ex) Appendix Tailbone, femur bone in whale 4) Embryology – embryos of various species appear identical until DNA becomes more specialized 5) Genetics – DNA and protein amino acid sequence comparisons- ** most accurate in relatedness- DNA or A.A. sequence 6)Adaptive radiation /Descent w/Modifications– an ancestral species radiates or diverges into many species. Ex) Galapagos Finches Homologous Vestigial

16 Classification ***King Philip Came Over For Grape Soda Kingdom
Carolus Linnaeus – Father of Taxonomy and Classification ***King Philip Came Over For Grape Soda Binomial nomenclature – uses Genus and species to name an organism Dichotomous keys – a series of paired statements that lead to the name of an organism Taxonomy- study of classifying an organism broadest Most specific Kingdom Cell type Uni or multi cellular Autotroph Heterotroph Cell wall Archae- bacteria Prokaryote Uni - Both yes Eu-bacteria Protists Eukaryote Uni/multi some Fungi Heterotrophs Plants Multi- Autotrophs Animals NO Archaebacteria – are extremists that live in hot, acidic, saline, or other harsh environments; extremophiles Eubacteria are “true” bacteria – strept, E. coli…..etc

17 Bacteria vs Virus Bacteria Virus
PROkaryote NO nucleus/NO nuclear membrane UNIcellular LIVING cell Autotroph or heterotroph Cured with antiobiotics cell wall Eubacteria- true bacteria- streptococcus, E. coli Archaebacteria- old Extremophiles, halophiles, thermophiles DECOMPOSER Aids in digestion Breaks down in NITROGEN CYCLE PREvention- heat, soap, cook food Refrigerate Antibiotic resistant- does not respond to antibiotics Pathogen- any disease causing agent Immune response- how body response to disease Outbreak- spreading of a disease NOT living NOT a cell Prevented with VACCINES PROTEIN CAPSID holds DNA or RNA Needs/hijacks HOST to replicate Used for research Stored for possible germ warfare or natural epidemics FLU- influenza HIV- destroys helper T cells Herpes, Chicken Pox Viruses < bacteria cells<eukaryote cells flagella cilia

18 Plants Plant cell structure – cell walls, large vacuole, chloroplasts
Autotrophs(Photosynthesis), eukaryotic, multicellular, cell wall of cellulose Nonvascular – no true roots/stems/leaves – ex) mosses (Bryophytes) 2) Vascular with seeds in cones – Gymnosperms (pines, fir, spruce) “GYM” 3) Vascular with seeds in fruits – Angiosperms – flowering plants “Angie” Types of Vascular Tissue A) Xylem – transports water from roots to leaves B) Phloem – transports sugars from leaves to roots 5) Adaptations- Large leafs plants- catch what sunlight they can/very little sun exposure- jungle, tropical rainforest -Small leaf plants- small surface area to catch sunlight because exposed to sun -Fibrous roots- get water from surface/ top soil Taproot- extends down in ground to absorb deep ground water -Cuticle- waxy covering on plant leaves to prevent water loss or to soggy – Desert or Tropical rainforest- lipids hydrophobic 6)Tropisms – growth responses to stimuli – often controlled by hormones. Phototropism Gravitropism Thigmotropism

19 Animals – no cell wall, small vacuoles, no chloroplast, cellular respiration for Energy Heterotrophs, Multicellular, no cell wall, mobile, eukaryote Classification – 2 main groups Vertebrates Invertebrates Phylum Chordata fish Arthropods – insects (6 legs) Amphibians (exoskeleton) - arachnids (8 legs) Reptiles crustaceans Aves (birds) Mollusks – have shell created by Mammals structure called mantel Human Anatomy – Look through the chapters in your book regarding anatomy. * Neurons- nerves * circulatory- veins /arteries- transport O2, CO2, glucose, hormones * Endocrine- hormones * Reproductive- ovaries- eggs testes- sperm MEIOSIS genetic variation * Muscular- many mitochondria Animal Behavior – responses that allow an organism to respond to stimuli 1) Innate Behavior – instincts, inherited, inborn behaviors ex) circadian rhythms – daily patterns of activity – including feeding behaviors - nocturnal ex) annual rhythms – yearly patterns of activity – including courtship, estivation, hibernation, migration 2) Learned Behavior – based on experience ex) imprinting – recognition of parents ex) Trial and error learning ex) Conditioning (Pavlov’s dog) – learning by association 3) Social Behavior – division of labor as in a termite or ant colony

20 Human Systems System function major structures Immune
protects body from disease, kills pathogens White blood cells, lymph nodes Endocrine controls growth, metabolism and hormones hormones Reproductive Creates gametes (eggs & sperm) Testes, ovaries Circulatory transports nutrients/wastes and oxygen/carbon dioxide though body Heart, blood vessels Respiratory Provides oxygen, removes CO2 lungs Integumentary skin, protection & helps regulate body temperature Skin, hair, and nails Muscular movement Smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscles Skeletal support, protects vital organs, movement Bones Nervous controls/coordinates body movement Brain, spinal cord, nerves Digestive digest and absorb nutrients Mouth, stomach, intestines Excretory eliminates wastes from body Kidneys, Bladder (urine) lungs (CO2)

21 Homeostasis- Positive & Negative Feedback Loops
Homeostasis depends on the action and interaction of body systems to maintain a balance in the body. Body responds to an extreme condition by working towards going back to homeostasis NEGATIVE FEEDBACK reversing the response A child goes outside in December without a jacket. Within a few minutes the child begins to shiver uncontrollably. Five minutes into a run on a warm sunny day, I began to sweat. After eating a candy bar, blood sugar levels rise triggering insulin to be released to return the blood to normal sugar levels Sensor - detects the change (body is getting too warm) Control Center - receives signal (usually the brain) from sensor and sends message to effector Effector - reverses the initial change (skin pores begin to perspire and blood vessels dilate) POSITIVE FEEDBACK- promoting or increasing that response ++++ As child labor intensifies (intensity to push), the body releases oxytocin to increase uterine contraction and the urge to push until delivery A person gets cut and the body responds by releasing blood platelets to stop the cut from bleeding. Blood platelets are continuously released until the bleeding stops completely. Receptors in the blood monitor pH level. If the blood pH is too acidic or too basic the body will make more buffers to bring the blood pH back to a more neutral pH level.

22 Biologists Robert Hooke – discovered and named the cell with crude microscope Anton van Leeuwenhoek - saw “wee little beasties” living cells for the first time Gregor Mendel – is the father of genetics – discovered the basic patterns of inheritance in pea plants Charles Darwin – is the father of evolution proposed that organisms that are most fit or best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive – called Natural Selection James Watson and Francis Crick – discovered the double helix structure of DNA Linnaeus- Father of Taxonomy and Classification -----Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species ----King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda

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