Presentation on theme: "THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AND the restoration of europe"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AND the restoration of europe Chapter 23.5THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AND the restoration of europe
2 What was the Congress of Vienna? First Question:What was the Congress of Vienna?
3 The Congress of Vienna was a series of meetings of European heads of government looking to establish long-lasting peace and stability in Europe after the defeat of Napoleon.
4 When did the Congress of Vienna take place? Question #2:When did the Congress of Vienna take place?
5 The Congress of Vienna took place from 1814 to 1815 The Congress of Vienna took place from 1814 to It was originally supposed to last only four weeks. Instead, it went on for eight months! It was punctuated by Napoleon Bonaparte’s return to power from March to July 1814 (although work continued uninterrupted).
6 NAPOLEON WAS DEFEATED AT THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO, June 18th, 1814; a sigh of relief for the participants of the Congress of Vienna!
7 What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna? Question #3:What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna?
8 PURPOSE OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA TO PREVENT FURTHER FRENCH AGGRESSION (CONTAINMENT)TO “UNDO” THE CHANGES BROUGHT BY THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON BONAPARTE and STOP THE SPREAD OF “DANGEROUS” IDEASTO RESTORE THE “OLD ORDER” OF MONARCHY AND ARISTOCRATIC POWER- LEGITiMACYPerhaps most importantly: TO RESTORE THE BALANCE OF POWER AMONG THE EUROPEAN STATES
9 Who were the major participants of the Congress of Vienna? Question #4:Who were the major participants of the Congress of Vienna?
10 There were hundreds of participants in the Congress of Vienna, including kings, princes, dukes and duchesses; each with their own agenda, but only a handful of representatives made the real decisions.
11 The Five Great Powers Austria (the host country) Russia Prussia Great BritainFrance
12 PRINCE METTERNICH OF AUSTRIA ARISTOCRATIC FOREIGN MINISTER OF AUSTRIAWAS A CONSERVATIVETHE OLD ORDER OF MONARCHY AND ARISTOCRATIC RULE WITH A STRONG BUREAUCRACYOPPOSED THE IDEALS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: NATIONALISM & LIBERALISMSAW THEM AS A THREAT TO THE BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPE“When France sneezes, all of Europe catches a cold.”WAS SO INFLUENTIAL, THE PERIOD FROM BECAME KNOWN AS THE AGE OF METTERNICH AND PLAN TO RESTORE PEACE TO EUROPE BECAME KNOWN AS THE METTERNICH SYSTEM
13 LORD ROBERT CASTLEREAGH OF GREAT BRITAIN BRITISH FOREIGN MINISTERSOUGHT TO MAKE SURE THAT THE POWERS IN EUROPE WERE BALANCEDFEARED RUSSIAN, PRUSSIAN, AND FRENCH POWER“ENGLAND HAS NO PERMANENT FRIENDS, ONLY PERMANENT INTERESTS.”
14 CHARLES MAURICE DE TALLEYRAND OF FRANCE FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTERSOUGHT TO PRESERVE FRENCH TERRITORY GAINED BY NAPOLEONFOUGHT TO INCLUDE HIMSELF (AND FRANCE) IN THE INNER NEGOTIATIONS
15 CZAR ALEXANDER I OF RUSSIA CONSIDERED HIMSELF A GUARANTOR OF EUROPEAN SECURITYSOUGHT TO GAIN CONTROL OVER ALL OF POLANDHEAVILY INFLUENCED BY RELIGIOUS MYSTICISM
16 KING FREDERICK WILLIAM III OF PRUSSIA HE AND HIS MINISTERS WERE ABLE TO SECURE IMPORTANT TERRITORIAL GAINS FOR PRUSSIABECAME A POLITICAL REACTIONARY AND RENEGED ON HIS PROMISE TO SUPPLY PRUSSIA WITH A CONSTITUTION
17 How did representatives at the C.O.V. plan to keep France in check? Question #5How did representatives at the C.O.V. plan to keep France in check?
18 Nations around France were made stronger The Austrian Netherlands and the Dutch Republic were combined to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, providing for a strong country on France’s northern border38 independent German states were joined together to create the German Confederation, providing a strong power to the east of FranceSwitzerland was recognized as an independent (but neutral) nationThe Kingdom of Sardinia was strengthened, providing for a strong power to the south of France
19 National boundaries were changed to contain France’s power
20 What was the goal of restoring the “balance of power”? Question #6:What was the goal of restoring the “balance of power”?
21 Balance of power is when nations have relatively the same amount of power which prevents any one nation from getting too powerful. It’s the best way of preventing war.
23 Question #7:What is the principle of legitimacy and how was it used by the Congress of Vienna?
24 Defining LegitimacyLegitimacy means lawful. A legitimate ruler is one who has the right to rule whether it be because of his/her hereditary right to rule or the people give him/her the right to rule through a fair election.During Napoleon’s rule, he had replaced many of the legitimate rulers and placed his siblings on the throne.
25 Illegitimate Rulers… Jerome Bonaparte - King of Westphalia. Joseph Bonaparte - King of SpainLouise Bonaparte - King of HollandPauline Bonaparte - Princess of ItalyNapoléon Francis Joseph Charles - King of RomeElisa Bonaparte - Grand Duchess of TuscanyCaroline Bonaparte - Queen of Naples
26 Example of restoring a legitimate ruler to the throne: LOUIS XVIII IS RESTORED AS THE BOURBON MONARCH OF FRANCE
27 What political philosophies clashed at the Congress of Vienna? Question #8:What political philosophies clashed at the Congress of Vienna?
28 The Competing Philosophies at the Congress of Vienna Conservatives- usually wealthy property owners and nobility. They argued for protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe. They want little to no change to the old order.Liberals- mostly middle-class business leaders and merchants. They wanted to give more power to elected parliaments, but only the educated and the landowners would voteIn a nutshell, liberalism means wanting a constitution. Having a constitution gives power to the people, thereby taking power away from the monarchs and nobility. Constitutional reforms often coincided with demands for national self-determinationRadicals- favored drastic change to restore democracy to all people. They believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French Revolution: liberty, equality, fraternity
29 Question #9:What is nationalism and why was it feared by the conservative representatives at the Congress of Vienna?
30 NationalismPromoted national and cultural unity that could become a political “reality”LanguageEthnicityTerritoryReligionFrench nationalism propelled Napoleon to power, but it also led to his downfall as countries under French domination eventually rebelled against Napoleon
31 Fear This!The conservative old order (Metternich and the Congress of Vienna) feared nationalism’s threat to the balance of power in EuropeThe emergence of new nation-states and the redrawing of national borders was seen as a threat to the major powers of EuropeNationalism’s focus on democratic and liberal reforms also worried Europe’s power eliteRising nationalism would create an environment of “aggression and conflict”Did they have a right to be afraid? history- Bosnia/Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Russia
32 Is it possible to stop the spread of a “dangerous” idea? Question # 10:Is it possible to stop the spread of a “dangerous” idea?
33 THE CARLSBAD DECREES IN THE GERMAN CONFEDERATION ISSUED IN 1819SUPPRESSED ANY OPPOSITION TO METTERNICH’S CONSERVATIVE POLICIESPRESS CENSORSHIP WAS IMPOSEDA SECRET POLICE AND SPY NETWORK KEPT TRACK OF AND ROOTED OUT OPPOSITIONTHE GOVERNMENT CRACKED DOWN ON UNIVERSITIES (STUDENTS AND TEACHERS) WHICH OFTEN CHALLENGED GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND TENDED TO FAVOR A MORE LIBERAL COURSE
34 What was the Concert of Europe and what was its purpose? Question #11:What was the Concert of Europe and what was its purpose?
35 The Concert of EuropeThe Concert of Europe was a series of alliances devised by Metternich that assured nations would help one another if any revolution broke out.
36 THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE GREAT BRITAINRUSSIAPRUSSIAAUSTRIAWould briefly become the Quintuple Alliance when France joined, but Great Britain would eventually drop out over the argument of Greek independence (another example of the power of nationalism).
37 THE HOLY ALLIANCE 1815Formed by Czar Alexander I, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and King William Francis I of Prussia to combat the forces of revolution (liberalism and nationalism)They pledged to base their relationships with other nations on Christian principlesShort-lived
39 Revolutions after the C.O.V. and the Revolutions of 1830/31 Liberal and nationalist revolts take place in Spain, Portugal and Naples (1820)Greek War of Independence from Turkey ( )Decembrist Revolt in Russia (1825)The burgeoning middle classes who derived their wealth from commerce and industry had hoped for greater political power (at the expense of the old landed aristocracy.1830-Revolution in France leads to the creation of a conservative constitutional monarchy1830-Belgian revolt leads to independence from the Netherlands1830- The Polish revolt against Russian rule
40 The Revolutions of 1848Unrest starts in France. The French King is deposed and the Second Republic is declared (short-lived, b/c in 1851 the nephew of Napoleon (Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte) stages a coup and declared himself Emperor Napoleon III)Uprisings follow in Germany, Czech-speaking Bohemia, Poland, Italy, Hungary, Sicily, and even Vienna itself (home of the C.O.V.)Prussians force King William Frederick IV to agree to the creation of a constitution and national assembly, and to support the goal of German unificationMost of these uprisings are crushed/short-lived
41 What was the legacy of the Congress of Vienna? Question #12:What was the legacy of the Congress of Vienna?
42 The Congress of Vienna… Short-term Success; Long-term Failure Influenced world politics for the next 100 yearsLed to peace in Europe for the next 18 yearsDecreased the size and power of FranceIncreased the power of Britain and PrussiaIncreased nationalism in Italy, Germany, Greece, and other areas put under foreign control- eventually leads to World War IThese nationalistic feelings would lead to revolutions in 1830/31 and 1848These revolutions would lead to new nations being formed and the independence of Spanish colonies in the Americas.The mulch story!