Presentation on theme: "Consider: Can anarchism work? Give one reason why it might. The Last Word: Assignment 1 for tomorrow."— Presentation transcript:
Consider: Can anarchism work? Give one reason why it might. The Last Word: Assignment 1 for tomorrow
The Big Idea What kinds of things can we all agree that government should do? Is there anything that we can all agree it might do but it should not? Why do governments exist? Is life without government possible?
Consider: According to Locke, why do governments exist? The Last Word: Assignment 2 for tomorrow
Locke and the State of Nature How does Locke describe the State of Nature (SoN)? According to Locke, why do men leave the SoN? IF man in the state of nature be so free, …why will he part with his freedom? …To which it is obvious to answer, that though in the state of nature he hath such a right, yet the enjoyment of it is very uncertain, and constantly exposed to the invasion of others: …This makes him willing to quit a condition, which, however free, is full of fears and continual dangers: and …join in society with others,… for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and … property. … Hence, it comes to pass, that we seldom find any number of men live any time together in this (SoN) state. The inconveniences that they are therein exposed to by the irregular and uncertain exercise of the power every man has of punishing the transgressions of others, make them take sanctuary under the established laws of government, and therein seek the preservation of their property.
Locke and the Ends of Government According to Locke, what is the “great and chief end of government”? Does this “end” still ring true today? What is missing from the SoN that society needs?
The Big Questions Once we realize that government is necessary, we now need to answer these 2 great questions: – Who governs (power), and to what ends (purpose)? Politics exists because people differ about these two great questions; however… “You cannot always predict what goals government will establish knowing only who governs, nor can you always tell who governs by knowing what activities government undertakes.” Can you think of examples where this is true? How have different societies throughout history answered those 2 questions?
Key Aspects of Government All governments need these in order to function effectively… Power – What is your definition? A cop stops you; has gun, will use it. – What are some of the different ways that people exercise (or we measure) power? Authority – The right to make decisions, give orders, and enforce obedience – Authority is socially accepted Your mom tells you to clean your room – Accepted use of power What is the difference between the two? Who has power in our society? Who has authority? Forbes Most Powerful List – who is at the top this year? In a democracy, the right to use power is based on…
Legitimacy The mass feeling that governmental authority is rightful and should be obeyed. Disagreeing with a policy or a politician and believing in a lack of legitimacy of the government are two different things. Why might we feel that democratic governments are more legitimate than other governments? – What is the ultimate source of governmental legitimacy in the United States? Is it possible for an authoritarian regime, or a system other than democracy, to be legitimate?
How far can “legitimate” government go? “But though men, when they enter into society, give up the equality, liberty, and executive power they had in the state of nature, into the hands of the society, the power of the society, or legislative…, can never be supposed to extend farther, than the common good; but is obliged to secure every one's property, by providing against those three defects (of the SoN, i.e., lack of settled laws, executors of the law, and impartial judges) above mentioned, that made the state of nature so unsafe and uneasy.” - - Locke’s 2 nd Treatise
Are any of these legitimate “ends”, or uses, of governmental power? Limiting the amount of gas you can use during a fuel crisis? Requiring all citizens to carry a national ID card? Banning smoking in restaurants and bars? Requiring higher fuel economy standards on cars produced in 2016? Providing free health care to children? To adults?
The Dissolution of Government When can governments be “dissolved”? Who gets to decide when this happens?