Exercise: Scenario Farm 2 Farm 1 Split Full Split Full $300, $300 $0, $500 $500, $0 $100, $100 AMike’s Rules: 1. Provide the greatest demand first, anything after gets shorted 2. If there is a tie, and not enough water for both, send only a minimum to each (Just enough to prevent starvation)
Exercise: Instructions Farm 2 Farm 1 Split Full Split Full $300, $300 $0, $500 $500, $0 $100, $100
Exercise Instructions: 1. Split into groups (4 of 2 people, 2 of 1 person). Match up 2v2 and 1v1. 2. Each group will have 2 minutes to figure out their decision for each round. 3. Once decided, write it on a slip of paper, and bring it to me. When everyone has turned in a decision, I will reveal the actions for the round and we will score it.
Exercise: Results Breakdown What happened? Why did it happen? Group-by-group... How is this similar to real life situations? Consider both scenario and results! How is this different? Consider both scenario and results!
NEGOTIATIONS PRIMER How to get what you need, explained in 30 minutes or less 13
Step 1 – Understand Yourself: The Dual Concern Model Know your tendencies so you don’t let them interrupt your process! Make sure your method is best suited to the conflict. Do you typically:Compete - Do you try to “win”? Collaborate - Do you work together without giving up anything? Accommodate - Do you give concessions to get out of the conflict? Avoid - Do you walk out or change the subject? Compromise - Do you find the middle ground for a fast solution? 14
9 Elements of Interest-Based Negotiations I. Context setting: 1. Parties: Who is necessary to reach agreement and to implement the agreement successfully? 2. Issues - What are the underlying causes for the conflict? What issues need to be discussed or decided? II. Core Elements 3. Interests - What are the parties really after? Interests include tangible and intangible needs. 4. Options - List all ways the situation can be mutually resolved and understand that consent is needed. 5. Standards - for fair process. Look at objective (and/ qualitative) standards that help judge whether an agreement is fair. III. Influencing 6. Communications - What do you need to know from each other? What is the current quality of communication vs. what you need for a working relationship 7. Relationships – What is the current quality of the relationship? How should it be different to help negotiations? How might this change come about? IV. Exit Elements 8. Alternatives - What is your BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement)? 9. Commitment - What are the set of options that the parties agree to and are they feasible options? 15 Context Setting Parties Issues Core Elements Interests Options Standards Influencing Communications Relationships Exit Elements Alternatives Commitment Step 2 – Understand the Conflict: The 9 Elements
Step 3 – How do I get to Yes? (The X Plan) What actions (options) address each favorable interest in the target balance sheet? Do the actions address the significant issues? Do the actions meet the interests of the parties? Be sure the actions also satisfy your interests! Are the actions legitimate - standards of fairness? Are the actions feasible and operational – doable? Reformulate the Question asking for a YES or NO response 16
Step 4 - Make it Easy to Say Yes: Circle Chart Analysis II DIAGNOSIS Why— - is the current situation the way it is? - are there gaps between the current situation and the preferred state? - how do I explain the gaps? GROUP ANALYSIS - bundle your explanation into key issues to be addressed [ Before going to III, ask: Have I identified all significant parties? Do I know their interests? Refined the issues in play? Looked at questions of communication and relationship between parties? Considered alternatives? Considered standards of legitimacy?] III OBJECTIVES State in positive terms what quantifiable long-term objectives you would pursue to address each issue. These objectives should be long-term aspirations and challenging. They should say “what” it is that you want to accomplish, not “how”. [These are refinements of the vision tied to each issue identified in II.] I PROBLEM State the Problem: As you see it. As the other parties see it. Describe the current situation in terms of its symptoms. What is happening, not “why.” E.g. We disagree on “X.” Parties aren’t talking to each other. What is your preferred long-term vision 3-5 years from now if you were very successful in addressing it? IV SPECIFIC ACTIONS For each objective list the specific near, mid-range and long term actions that would be necessary for success. These actions should say “how” the objective would be reached. For each action, indicate who would be responsible, resources needed, and timing. 17 Systems thinking to identify the problem:
Systems thinking to identify the problem II DIAGNOSIS III OBJECTIVES I PROBLEM Statement Symptoms PREFERRED VISION IV SPECIFIC ACTIONS 18 Step 4 - Make it Easy to Say Yes: Circle Chart Analysis
5 strategies: Step 5 – How to Get Past No The Goal: Joint Problem Solving Barriers to CooperationStrategy to Overcome: People Sitting Side-by-Side Hasty Reactions Negative Emotions 1. Go to the Balcony - Step back for a big picture view - Let negativity flow past you 2. Step to their side - Active Listening, Acknowledge the person, etc. Facing the ProblemRigid Positions 3. Reframe the issue - Ask problem solving questions - Reframe tactics (expose tricks) - Negotiate the Rules Reaching a Mutually Satisfactory Agreement Strong Dissatisfactions Perceived Power 4. Build them a Golden Bridge - “Their” idea - Consider all “unmet” needs - Save face - Don’t go for too much too fast - Expand the pie 5. Use power to educate - Don’t make it hard for them to say “no,” make it easy to say yes” 19
The Process is the Result Preliminaries Identify stakeholders Meet with key stakeholders to discuss set-up matters: (Use of facilitator, Meeting sequences, Representation in negotiation, Need for conflict assessment) Negotiations Key stakeholders meet to decide on negotiation rules and procedures Identify other relevant stakeholders, establish an air traffic controller group Agree on task/meeting sequence, and ratification by decision makers Agree on issue defining meeting (9 step, circle chart) Create working groups to deal with substantive issues (prepare drafts, check in with decision-makers) Create agreement: Draft by negotiators, and ratification by decision makers Implementation Assessment of progress (decide on timings) Use of problem solving meetings Set up Renegotiations Multiparty Negotiations: Process Suggestions 20