Presentation on theme: "The Rialto Police Department’s Body-Worn Video Camera Experiment"— Presentation transcript:
1The Rialto Police Department’s Body-Worn Video Camera Experiment 6th International Conference on Evidence-Based PolicingThe Rialto Police Department’s Body-Worn Video Camera ExperimentChief William Farrar & Dr Barak Ariel
5The Problem:The public’s perception of police use of force continues to be a concern“Too many” incidents in which officers resort to use of forceOfficers misinterpreting the contact or aggressive suspects?“High number” of citizens’ complaints against police officersOfficers misbehaving or bogus complaints?
6AlterNet by John Knefel Bad Cop: 7 Cities Where Shocking Police AbusesCost Taxpayers MillionsBad police behavior runs roughshod over civilliberties, and costs cities millions of dollars inpayouts to those who successfully sue.March 4, 2013
7Rialto Milwaukee 14 Million Past 10 Years New York MillionOakland MillionCleveland 8 Million Past 10 YearsDenver 10 Million Past 8 YearsChicago 82.5 Million Past 10 YearsLos Angeles 125 Million Past 10 YearsRialto
8The ChallengesReducing use of force and complaints without changing the frequency and nature of contact with the publicRequires third-party systematic observation that would scientifically measure both the implementation and the outcome of the practiceCost EffectivenessLeadership – can we implement this type of research?
10Socio-Cognitive Mechanism Behind the Idea that Cameras Might Change our Behaviour In social contexts, knowing that one is being-observed leads to modifications of behaviour and often into socially-desirable-responsesWhen individuals are observed by rule or norm-enforcing agents, this self-awareness effect is believed to be stronger, given the potentially negative implications for the rule violationChartrand & Bargh (1999); Jones & Nisbett (1971); Wicklund (1975); Paulhus (1988); Munger & Shelby (1989)
11Socio-Cognitive Mechanism Behind the Idea that Cameras Might Change our Behaviour Deterrence theory predicts that when the perceived probability of apprehension is high, unacceptable behavior is less likely to occurNagin (2013)It follows that if the certainty of getting caught for noncompliance is intensified, than socially-desirable behaviour is more likely to occurYet rigorous evidence on being watched in real-life settings is minimal, insofar as it can be ascertained that self-awareness leads to compliance
12Cameras in Police Use61% of police departments used video cameras in patrol cars in (U.S. Department of Justice 2010)Cameras are likely to:improve accountabilityreduce complaints of police misconductsave thousands of dollars in court costslower overtime costs for investigations and court appearancesability to collect evidence for trialincreased professionalism by “forcing officers” to give more attention to following agency rules(International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2004)
13Evidence on CamerasSystematic review on CCTV – 44 studies show 16% reduction in crime compared to control conditions, but half accountable to car theft, not violent crimes(Welsh and Farrington 2009)Systematic review on cameras on roads – 35 studies show 44% reduction in fatal accidents(Wilson, el al. 2010)What about wearable cameras? No Formal Evaluation until now
14Research QuestionsWill wearing body-worn video cameras reduce the number of complaints against officers compared to the control group?Will wearing body-worn video cameras reduce the number (instances) of use-of-force compared to the control group?
16Rialto (California) Rialto Police Department 28.5 square miles population of 100,000 residentsMid-sized police department in California54 front-line, uniformed officersTotal of 115 sworn police officers and 42 non- sworn personnel
17The Research DesignRandom assignment of all front-line officer to shifts with or without camerasTaser Inc. HD cameras Recording all police-public interactions, for 12 monthsWent live 13 February 2012, after two weeks of Phase I.
18Assignment of 988 Shifts in 12 months into ‘Experiment Shifts’ and ‘Control Shifts’ MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturdaySundayDAY SHIFTTEAM 2TEAM 1TEAM 3NIGHT SHIFTTEAM 5TEAM 4COVERTEAM 6
19OFFICER SHIFTS PER WEEK OFFICERS SHIFTS IN 12 MONTHS 162 OFFICER SHIFTS PER WEEK RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO TREATMENT AND CONTROL CONDITIONS, EVERY SUNDAY FOR THE FOLLOWING 7 DAYS, FOR 52 WEEKS (N=8424)TEAMSN OFFICERS PER TEAMDAYSTIMEOFFICER SHIFTS PER WEEKOFFICERS SHIFTS IN 12 MONTHS(¬52 weeks)Team 1 (days)10Tues/Wed/Thurs3 days x 10 officers = 301,560Team 2 (days)9Sat/Sun/Mon3 days x 9 officers = 271,404Team 4 (nights)Thurs/Fri/SatTeam 5 (nights)Mon/Tues/WedTeam 6 (night cover)*7Tues/Wed/Thurs/Fri4 days x 7 officers = 211,092Team 3 (day cover)FriSatSunday1 day x 9 officers = 9468TOTAL541628,424
25Measurements Scheduling: Tele-Staff = automated scheduling system for public safety includes a comprehensive workforce management platform that optimizes the scheduling, communications, and deployment of personnel
26Measurements Crime Mapping: Omega Dashboard =Data can be imported from any records or dispatch system and quickly viewed in several formats including heat maps, repeat call locations, day of the week charts and time of day graphs
27Measurements Dispatch: Computer Aided Dispatch = automated communications system for receiving and dispatching all calls for service
29Officer ComplaintsFebruary 13, 2011 to February 12, 2012 = 24 February 13, 2012 to February 12, 2013 = 3 (-87.5%) 2009 = 36 (91.66%) 2010 = 51 (94.11%) 2011 = 28 (89.28%) Control = 1 Experiment = 2 * Reduction was so large – not enough complaints for meaningful analysis
32Officer Use-of-Force February 13, 2011 to February 12, 2012 = 61 2009 = 70 (64.28%)2010 = 65 (61.53%)2011 = 60 (58.33%)Control = 17Experiment = 8*This is important as it shows the reduction is the result of the cameras.*All 8 experiment use of force incidents were captured on video.
40Summary of Findings Reduction in use-of-force incidents from 61 to 25 Of the 25 use-of-force incidents , 17 were control and 8 ExperimentOf the 8 use-of-force incidents on the Experiment days, all 8 were recorded on videoReduction in complaints from 24 to 3 or from 0.7 complaints per 1,000 contacts to 0.07 per 1,000 contactsContacts increased from the previous years - no backfiring effectSurvey of all officers before and during RCT shows no significant changes in officers’ self-legitimacy
41Wider ImplicationsA Nagian approach: drilling down into the nitty- gritty of deterrence theoryPractical implications of self-awareness to heightened certainty of being observed in other social contexts in which allegation of wrongdoing can be madeAn untapped research venue for those interested in police legitimacy and police-public relations more broadly
42Further Work Convictions due to video evidence Domestic Violence CasesCost savings on complaint investigationsCost savings on use-of-force investigationsCost savings on use-of-force lawsuitsReductions in frivolous complaintsPaperless reports RCT
44The Rialto Police Department’s Body-Worn Video Camera Experiment 6th International Conference on Evidence-Based PolicingThe Rialto Police Department’s Body-Worn Video Camera ExperimentChief William Farrar & Dr Barak Ariel