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Non-governmental organizations Workshop II Anna Grudzińska.

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1 Non-governmental organizations Workshop II Anna Grudzińska

2 Projekt : „Odpowiedź na wyzwania gospodarki opartej na wiedzy: nowy program nauczania na WSHiP”. Projekt współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu Społecznego.

3 DEFINITIONS/BASIC QUESTIONS: 1. What is civil society? 2. What is „third sector”? 3. What is a non-profit organization? 4. What is a non-governmental organization? 5. Can „non-profits” be called a sector? 6. What is the relationship between: third sector, civil society and public administration? Basic conceptual models of the relationship between public administration and ngo`s Global Civil Society

4 Gellner: „[Civil] society is that set of non-governmental institutions, which is strong enough to counterbalance state, and, whilst not preventing the state from fulfilling the role of the keeper of the peace and arbitrator between major interests, can, nevertheless, prevent the state from dominating and atomising the rest of society”. (Gellner 1994) Civil Society

5 „Global”? nteractive/2011/oct/18/occupy-protests- map-world

6 For/Against GCS Network of intergovernmental organization Non-state transnational pressure groups Cross-cultural global trends in consumption Human rights regime „North Atlantic” civil society – „yes”, „global” – „no” Quantitative argument (web too small)

7 ALAN FOWLER – problems/ classifications /etc. A „collective noun” – just seen as a „set of institutions” Citizen groups driven by shared values and norms A „space” for action A historical process („in the West”) Anti-hegemonist approach Anti-state approach – stresses the autonomy of non-state institutions What is civil society?

8 From this perspective, civic agency is a value- based imperative; it is what citizens do when they apply their energy to affecting the way society functions. It is a self-directed capability for purposeful action where past experience is brought together with ideas about creating a desired new situation, assessed against the practicality and risks involved. ISS-CDC Policy Brief #1, October 2008 „civic” /2/

9 The core of civic is normative behaviour. Important civic values: are a broad understanding of inclusion, tolerance of difference and a concern for the whole of society. In the modern era, such a concern includes the environment and nature. ‘Uncivic’ behaviour would be intolerant, exclusionary and indifferent or hostile to justice in public life or shared well-being. ISS-CDC Policy Brief #1, October 2008 „civic”

10 Values Mission Results NGO?

11 Different from Privte sector: do not exist to generate profit Different from Government 1.Values and Mission (purpose, funtion) 2.Legal form (formal or to some extend institutionalized) 3.Source of Income (support by members, service provison, etc.) 4. Structure 5. Voluntary participation („to some degree”) Identity of NGOs

12 Third sector Charitable sector Independent sector Voluntary sector Tax-exempt sector NGO Social economy Nonprofit sector What kind of „sector”?

13 For What and For Whom? -The service role -The innvation role -The advocacy role -Leadership role -Democratization role Salamon, Hems, Chinnock

14 Organizational autonomy (maintaining two different identities – self-interest & collective interest) A. self-interest – achieving individual organizations mission/maintaining identity B. collective interest – achieving joint goals and accountability Mutuality (each partner has resources that other needs) A. contribution to their shared aims B. „Complementary” or Shared Values C. „Need to acquire resources from other organization that they do not have, but are critical for their continuing functioning (Chen, Graddy, 2005)” Norms of trust & reciprocity PARTNERSHIP?

15 Norms of trust & reciprocity „It is very energy intensive. You have to be willing to invest inordinate amounts of time at low productivity to establish relationships and trust building. Organizations dont initialyy start with a cost-benefit analysis. They start with a kind of idealism. Then, as they start to accomplish things, they realize they`re going to have to pay a cost. When organizations are willing to make the cost that is when you have moved to collaboration (Thomas, 2001)”. „ When personal relationships supplement, formal organizational role relationships, psychological contracts substitute for legal contracts, and formal organizational relationships may be sustained over time (Ring and Van de Ven, 1994)”. PARTNERSHIP ?

16 Mutual Benefithighlow Org. Identity highcontractpartnership lowextensionfusion Model by Brinkerhoff


18 Is cross-sector partnership possible? Major challenges for CSOs: 1.Access to resources (funds) 2. Legal framework (red tape) 3.Conflicting values (accepting public funding threatens independence of the third sector, change in the way CSO operate affects their mission – too much bureaucracy– less time for the core activity) 4.Legitimacy of CSOs toward their members and beneficiaries CSOs – the „extension ladder” of the state?

19 Allies? Most typical problems when CSOs and government work hand in hand

20 For the third sector, independence from the government can be defined as having freedom from control and influence by the government, but also as having a positive freedom to set priorities and values and challenge the government. Third sector organizations can often deliver effective and responsive services and help to shape them, but to do so they need to have enough freedom to use their distinctive experience and expertise. This requires them to be independent from the state. Just as the third sector is an essential component of a healthy democratic society, so independence is an essential component of an effective third sector. Source: Freedom from..

21 In other words, independence is the ability organizations have to: Agree values based on their own experience and vision and not external pressures Carry out work that delivers the stated purpose of the organization Negotiate robustly with funders and partners Challenge others and engage in public debate. These freedoms are essential for third sector organizations to decide how best they can further their mission and support their members or beneficiaries. Source: …

22 „A local charity that campaigns for the legal rights of immigrants and others receives grant funding from the council in recognition of the work that it does. At a public event, the director of the charity stands up and criticizes the council’s attitude to its service users, causing much embarrassment for the council. The charity is warned that its funding could be cut if it doesn’t change its attitude”. Source: Funding and Independence:

23 „Critical friend” Government: „Desire not to be publicly criticized” Third Sector: Right to represent users and members views regardless of funding relationships

24 When the council is determining local policy priorities, a community group argues that the needs of its constituent group are being ignored and petitions the council to change its policy. The council’s response is to challenge the community group’s legitimacy when it says that it represents a whole segment of the population. One councillor says that he has been democratically elected by thousands of residents to represent the community and that he therefore has more legitimacy than a group with only a couple of hundred members. Legitimacy of CSOs

25 „ Third sector organizations thinking about their own legitimacy and representation. The example described here demonstrates the importance of third sector organizations thinking about the legitimacy of the voice that they provide. Third sector organizations need to consider who they are representing and how they involve those whom they represent, for example engaging them in their decision-making processes. This will enable a third sector organization to stand up to any challenge to its legitimacy and defend the authenticity of its voice ”. Legitimacy of CSOs:

26 Whose voice? Government „Need to ensure representation of community as whole” Third sector „Need to ensure representation of membership and beneficiaries”

27 A purchaser puts out a tender for a service, but a third sector organization disagrees with the nature of the service being tendered and thinks that the terms of the contract are too prescriptive. The third sector organization would like to bid to deliver the service but is put off by the terms that are being offered. Who determines the service delivery?

28 Design of services Government: Need to determine services in accordance with government priorities Third sector: Need to design services consistent with organisational objectives and appropriate to member and beneficiary needs

29 1. Consultation of the program design; 2. Transparency and Accountability; 3. Discussion and Dialogue; 4. Learning from previous work; 5. Third sector confidence about negotiating; 6. Third sector considering whether delivering a contract is relevant to its mission and values. Service delivery process:

30 A statutory body is running a complicated funding application process, with detailed procedures and paperwork for third sector organizations to apply for funding. Once successful organizations have got funding, they will then be expected to meet strict requirements around monitoring and evaluation. Small community groups [migrant NGOs, women support groups, etc.] are worried that they cannot cope with the paperwork involved and so do not apply for funding, even though they are well placed to deliver appropriate services to the intended beneficiaries. Red Tape: problems

31 Monitoring Government: Need for financial accountability Third Sector: Need to focus on delivery and avoid overly burdensome funding conditions

32 Focus on outcomes Ensure processes are in proportion to the amount of money involved Manage risks Consistency and coordination Good financial management Red Tape – solutions:

33 A charity relies on local government for 50 per cent of its funding. However, it has only managed to get one year contracts from the statutory bodies that fund it. This has resulted in instability for the charity, which employs staff without knowing whether it can sustain their posts beyond the next funding round. The charity also provides help and services to its beneficiaries without knowing whether it will be able to continue to do so next year. When the charity talks to the local authority – its main funder – it has been told that longer contracts are difficult because the authority’s budget is tight and it doesn’t know what resources it will have in future years. Sustainability: shared responsibility?

34 Planning? Government: Need to prioritize within restricted and often uncertain budgets Third sector: Need to provide services and plan ahead in an uncertain economic climate

35 Dialogue between the funder and the third sector organization Funders passing on the benefits of longer term planning and three year budgets to third sector organizations. Diversifying funding streams Sustainability: solutions

36 „Recognizing the right of a third sector organization to challenge government policies. The Compact commits the government to recognize and support the right of the sector within the law to campaign against or challenge government policy, irrespective of any funding relationship that might exist. Presenting views to government effectively. When challenging government policy third sector organizations should try to do so constructively, by focussing on the needs of end users of services and being clear about whom they represent and how they came to their views”. …

37 „Providing guidance to alleviate any concerns. Funders can spell out their commitment to third sector independence in guidance to organizations that they fund. Guidance should never be a substitute for action but it can help to demonstrate to third sector organizations that their concerns about losing their independence are recognized and understood. Offering opportunities to contribute views. Funders can offer formal opportunities for third sector organizations to contribute their views to policy development as a ‘critical friend’”. …

38 „Presenting views to government effectively. When challenging government policy third sector organizations should try to do so constructively, by focusing on the needs of end users of services and being clear about whom they represent and how they came to their views.” …

39 Welfare state Service: Voluntary?, Professional?

40 Liberal model In the liberal model: represented by the US and the UK, a lower level of government social welfare spending is associated with a relatively large nonprofit sector. middle class elements are clearly in the ascendance, opposition either from traditional landed elites or strong working class movements has either never existed or been effectively held at bay. This leads to significant ideological and political hostility to the extension of government social welfare protections and a decided preference for voluntary approaches instead. The upshot is a relatively limited level of government social welfare spending and a sizeable nonprofit sector.

41 Social democratic model The social democratic model: Represented in Sweden state-sponsored and state-delivered social welfare protections are extensive and the room left for service- providing nonprofit organisations quite constrained. historically, this type of model emerged most likely where working class elements were able to exert effective political power, albeit typically in alliance with other social classes. nonprofit sector performs a different function in social democratic regimes ( advocacy, self-expression)

42 The corporatist model: represented in France and Germany; the state has either been forced or induced to make common cause with nonprofit institutions; in late nineteenth century Germany, when the state, confronting radical demands from below, began to forge alliances with the major churches and the landed elites to create a system of state-sponsored welfare provision that over time included a substantial role for nonprofit groups, many of them religiously affiliated (Anheier and Seibel 1998, Seibel 1990). a state-dominated social welfare system sizeable religious presence (Germany: Diakonie, Caritas) “subsidiarity” as the guiding principle of social policy Corporatist model

43 Statist model represented by Japan state retains the upper hand in a wide range of social policies exercises power on its own behalf, or on behalf of business and economic elites, limited government social welfare protection does not translate into high levels of nonprofit action

44 Welfare state and CSOs – changing perceptions Service provision: the role of CSOs in the public policy design/implementation Case study: UK Case study: Poland Social economy Case study: Sweden Case study: Poland

45 Health care Education Social services Culture Environment protection Advocacy NGO – service provision

46 Service provision as a source of funding for NGOs John Hopkins study – 35 countries Mexico: 85% Kenya: 81% Brazil: 74% Philippines: 92% Service provision in NGO sector

47 19th c. beginning of CSOs in response to social needs (weak state response): mutuals, foundations, associations 20th c. the rise of the welfare state (different models of social policy – according to national or local traditions) 70s: economic crisis – slow collapse of the welfare state („fiscal illusion”, „absence of choice: the advance of market models of welfare”, ‘insensitive to special needs’) 1973: Oil crisis - new models of economy - deeper structure of disadvantage – race, class, gender, etc. New Right Agenda: market model of welfare U.K: 1979 – reform of the welfare state (Margaret Thatcher) Welfare state, social policy chaning place of CSOs

48 Privatization Market model approach to welfare state reform „role for the state was to protect the individual against infringement of their freedom”; „third sector was seen as an attractive means of outsourcing (or “dumping”) state functions”; “active citizen”, who did not leave to the state the responsibility of seeing to their own welfare” „compensation for state failure through charitable activity”

49 Administrative reorganization approach to welfare state reform; state is too far from problems – „needs a more local level of public service provision”; „vehicle for the empowerment of citizens and communities” „citizen was to be empowered as a participant in local decision making” Emphasis on small community CSOs Decentralization

50 Welfare state reform through structural reform of institutions „chronic ineffectiveness of traditional bureaucratic methods”; „promoting more rational forms of decision taking and implementation”; Examples : planned programming and budgeting systems (PPBS); Methods: policy analysis, strategic planning and coordination. „In this model, citizens are seen as merely voters (although occasionally engaged in consultation)”. third sector is an „addition” – a potential adjunct to administrative reform or a source of critical feedback New Institutionalism

51 „The challenges for the third sector in this model have been to learn the jargon and adapt to the terms set by the rational planners, but also to resist the abuse of professional power, support citizens as stakeholders and equip them to negotiate the system effectively.” …

52 hybrid approach to welfare system reform– an attempt to implant private sector procedures on to public sector activities; State remains the major provider of welfare; „third party government” ‘steering, not rowing’ (Osborne and Gaebler 1992) contracting + techniques of business management; efficiency +performance + audit; new regime of regulation and quality control (Hambleton et al., 1997); „social worker reborn as care manager” (Deakin and Tylor, 2005) Third sector: competition, quality (“best value”), price and efficiency New public managment

53 In this model the citizen remains a consumer, with a particular emphasis on consumer rights but with strong encouragement to become as active as possible in exercising them The third sector in this model is a service provider but subject to a rigorous system of audit and control. Generally, the introduction of the new public management has focused attention inwards towards systems, inputs and outputs rather than on broader outcomes, turning means into ends. Programs have been characterized by complex application, accounting and monitoring systems which are in danger of excluding all but the most well-resourced professionalized voluntary organizations. ….

54 1997: Labour Government, Third Way „best of both worlds, state and market: importance both of the US spirit of enterprise and the European spirit of solidarity” (Blair, 2001) Partnership – center stage issue „multi-sectoral approach to policy development” Shift from „government” to „governance” End to “survival of the fittest” regime –end of compulsory competitive tendering (Deakin and Tylor, 2005) “evidence-based” policy and a “best value” regime for service delivery Partnership

55 90s – shift from welfare state to welfare society paradigm (Rodger, 2000) Searching for new models that are cheaper and more effective = social economy (UK: Community Interest Company, Ireland: Local Development Agencies) Third sector – high profile! CSOs –”competitors in the welfare market” Good governance

56 Big Society

57 The third sector includes voluntary and community organizations, charities, social enterprises, cooperatives and mutuals. A widely used definition of the third sector is “non-governmental organizations that are value- driven and which principally reinvest their surpluses to further social, environmental or cultural objectives.” Third sector organizations are independent. This is evident in their origins and their purpose: they have been set up by individuals, independently of the government, in order to make a positive difference to people’s lives, rather than to make a profit. Being independent means they have the right to determine their own affairs and decide how best they can further their mission and support their members or beneficiaries. United Kingdom

58 The Compact’s first three “shared principles” emphasize the importance of this: 1. “Voluntary action is an essential component of democratic society.” 2. “An independent and diverse voluntary and community sector is fundamental to the well-being of society.” 3. “In the development and delivery of public policy and services, the government and the voluntary and community sector have distinct but complementary roles.” Source: Compact principles:

59 „The Compact is a national agreement between the government and the third sector that sets out the principles guiding their relationship. Almost all local authority areas have a Local Compact. Some of the key issues that have an impact on independence are covered in the Compact”. The Compact commits the government to “recognize and support the independence of the sector, including its right within the law, to campaign, to comment on government policy, and to challenge that policy, irrespective of any funding relationship that might exist, and to determine and manage its own affairs.” Source: COMPACT

60 Projekt : „Odpowiedź na wyzwania gospodarki opartej na wiedzy: nowy program nauczania na WSHiP”. Projekt współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu Społecznego.

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