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Enlightenment and Revolution Mr. Fernandez US I New Ideas and New Struggles Shape the Modern World 1766-1848.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment and Revolution Mr. Fernandez US I New Ideas and New Struggles Shape the Modern World 1766-1848."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment and Revolution Mr. Fernandez US I New Ideas and New Struggles Shape the Modern World

2 Enlightenment Ideas lead to New Ways of Thinking About Social and Political Relationships. Enlightenment Political Philosophers sought to: Enlightenment Political Philosophers sought to: Interpret (explain) the world around them. Interpret (explain) the world around them. Search for a socially relevant truth that they in general agreed was understandable by way of logic and reason. Search for a socially relevant truth that they in general agreed was understandable by way of logic and reason. Change the world so that social reality and ideal reality were one and the same. Change the world so that social reality and ideal reality were one and the same.

3 How can we think of the relationship between Ideas and Action? Recall, that I suggested in class that ideas serve to “organize” experience, but of course you don’t necessarily need formal ideas to act. Recall, that I suggested in class that ideas serve to “organize” experience, but of course you don’t necessarily need formal ideas to act. As we will see, there were a series of extraordinary events between that led to many actions that “begged” for special “organization”. As we will see, there were a series of extraordinary events between that led to many actions that “begged” for special “organization”.

4 Linkage of the Scientific Revolution to the Enlightenment Belief in Progress Belief in Progress The successes of the Scientific Revolution gave Enlighten thinkers the confidence that human reason could solve social problems. The successes of the Scientific Revolution gave Enlighten thinkers the confidence that human reason could solve social problems. More secular Perspective More secular Perspective Scientists made discoveries that contradicted & challenged religious teachings. Scientists made discoveries that contradicted & challenged religious teachings. Importance of the Individual Importance of the Individual People turned away from the Church & royalty for guidance - looked to themselves. People turned away from the Church & royalty for guidance - looked to themselves. Encouraged to use their own abilities & reason to problem solve Encouraged to use their own abilities & reason to problem solve

5 Vocabulary/New Words Secular: Not primarily religious in point of view. Secular: Not primarily religious in point of view. Revolution: A “relatively” short term and encompassing change in the way people relate to each other. Revolutions can be economic, social, political…or all of these at once! Revolution: A “relatively” short term and encompassing change in the way people relate to each other. Revolutions can be economic, social, political…or all of these at once!

6 “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it” Voltaire

7 Voltaire Prolific writer who used satire against his enemies. Prolific writer who used satire against his enemies. Attacked clergy, aristocrats & gov Attacked clergy, aristocrats & gov Fought for religious freedom & speech. Fought for religious freedom & speech. Was jailed & exiled for his beliefs. Was jailed & exiled for his beliefs. Fought superstition, intolerance and prejudice. Fought superstition, intolerance and prejudice. He corresponded directly with many rulers He corresponded directly with many rulers

8 Hobbes Influenced by the English Civil War Influenced by the English Civil War Human nature was wicked & life was like state of war Human nature was wicked & life was like state of war Social Contract req’d people to give up liberties to an absolute monarch. Social Contract req’d people to give up liberties to an absolute monarch. In return they gain order & security. In return they gain order & security. Wrote the Leviathan Wrote the Leviathan

9 Locke Locke believed that human nature was essentially good. Locke believed that human nature was essentially good. Humans were born with natural rights of life, liberty, property….. Humans were born with natural rights of life, liberty, property….. Purpose of gov was to protect those rights Purpose of gov was to protect those rights If gov abused it’s authority as Britain had done people had a right to overthrow the gov If gov abused it’s authority as Britain had done people had a right to overthrow the gov

10 Locke’s Chief Influence Principles include: Principles include: – Natural rights – Purpose of gov – Justification to overthrow gov – Author of the Two Treatise on Government

11 Montesquieu Believed the best organization of gov included: Believed the best organization of gov included: Separation of powers & Separation of powers & Checks and balances Checks and balances SOP was by itself a C/B SOP was by itself a C/B Both ideas are part of the US Constitution. Both ideas are part of the US Constitution. Wrote Spirit of the Laws Wrote Spirit of the Laws

12 “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.” Rousseau

13 Rousseau Civilization corrupted man. Civilization corrupted man. Only good government had to be freely formed & guided by the “general will” of society. Only good government had to be freely formed & guided by the “general will” of society. Favored “direct democracy” in which individuals agree to give up some freedoms in favor of the common good. Favored “direct democracy” in which individuals agree to give up some freedoms in favor of the common good. Consent of government Consent of government Titles of nobility should be abolished Titles of nobility should be abolished Influenced French Revolution/ Influenced French Revolution/ Consent of the governed in US Constitution Consent of the governed in US Constitution

14 Beccaria Interested in the justice system Interested in the justice system Condemned torture & irregular procedings. Condemned torture & irregular procedings. Favored: Favored: Speedy trial Fair treatment Punishment commensurate with the crime Abolishing capital punishment

15 Thomas Jefferson Jefferson was a main author of the Declaration of Independence and argued for a republic based on human equality and dedicated to “Life, Liberty and The Pursuit of Happiness.” in which a free people and not a monarch would captain the ship the State. Jefferson was a main author of the Declaration of Independence and argued for a republic based on human equality and dedicated to “Life, Liberty and The Pursuit of Happiness.” in which a free people and not a monarch would captain the ship the State.

16 Mary Wollstonecraft Women were not treated fairly by most thinkers of this time. Argued that women were not naturally irrational and “weak” but were made that way by culture. Women were not treated fairly by most thinkers of this time. Argued that women were not naturally irrational and “weak” but were made that way by culture. She argued that therefore educating and treating them with equality was the path toward social progress for all. She argued that therefore educating and treating them with equality was the path toward social progress for all. Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women

17 “Children, I grant, should be innocent; but when the epithet is applied to men, or women, it is but a civil term for weakness.” Wollstencraft

18 How did Enlightenment Ideas Spread?

19 Diderot Published the Encyclopedia. Published the Encyclopedia. Censorship used to prevent the spread of ideas. Censorship used to prevent the spread of ideas. Enlightened despots, absolute rulers, were those willing to consider some reforms Enlightened despots, absolute rulers, were those willing to consider some reforms

20 Salons & Salonieres Originated in 1600s Originated in 1600s Noblewomen began inviting enlightenment philosophes in all fields to their homes Noblewomen began inviting enlightenment philosophes in all fields to their homes By the 1700s middle class women began holding salons. By the 1700s middle class women began holding salons. Another way in which ideas were disseminated Another way in which ideas were disseminated

21 Catherine the Great Experimented with Enlightenment ideas Experimented with Enlightenment ideas Communicated with Voltaire & Diderot. Communicated with Voltaire & Diderot. Gave some rights to nobles Gave some rights to nobles However she allied herself with nobles who opposed change. However she allied herself with nobles who opposed change. Suppressed serf revolt Suppressed serf revolt

22 Frederick the Great King of Prussia King of Prussia Religious tolerance Religious tolerance Hired Voltaire to set up Prussian Academy Hired Voltaire to set up Prussian Academy Instituted reforms to help commoners Instituted reforms to help commoners However reforms were largely to make Prussian gov more efficient However reforms were largely to make Prussian gov more efficient

23 Vocabulary/New Terms Legitimacy: What is “appropriate”, “acceptable” considered “as should be” in social (economic and political) relationships. Legitimacy: What is “appropriate”, “acceptable” considered “as should be” in social (economic and political) relationships. State: The organization that has the legitimate monopoly on the use of deadly force in a particular territory. Governments administer or “run” states, they aren’t states as such. (Though many people who routinely confuse the two terms.) State: The organization that has the legitimate monopoly on the use of deadly force in a particular territory. Governments administer or “run” states, they aren’t states as such. (Though many people who routinely confuse the two terms.) Taxation: The resources that the state takes from those under it’s power— citizens, subjects, businesses, residents etc., in order to pay for it’s own activities. (Everything from building and maintaining roads to paying for wars) Taxation: The resources that the state takes from those under it’s power— citizens, subjects, businesses, residents etc., in order to pay for it’s own activities. (Everything from building and maintaining roads to paying for wars) Monarchy: A kind of state in which a member of a ruling family (dynasty) represents the state and governs as the embodiment of the state. “I am the State” Louis XIV. Monarchy: A kind of state in which a member of a ruling family (dynasty) represents the state and governs as the embodiment of the state. “I am the State” Louis XIV. Republic: Is a state in which the nation is sovereign and not a dynasty. A republic’s government is formed by elected representatives of the people who rule for and in the people’s name. Republic: Is a state in which the nation is sovereign and not a dynasty. A republic’s government is formed by elected representatives of the people who rule for and in the people’s name.

24 The American Revolution In 1776 the representatives of the Thirteen Colonies of English North America after an extended crisis of legitimacy caused by disagreements regarding taxation and representation on the part of Monarchical England decided to stop being part of the United Kingdom in order to form their own Republican Union. In 1776 the representatives of the Thirteen Colonies of English North America after an extended crisis of legitimacy caused by disagreements regarding taxation and representation on the part of Monarchical England decided to stop being part of the United Kingdom in order to form their own Republican Union.

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26 The American Revolution The declaration lead to a brutal war with England—A war that became a virtual world war when England’s historical enemy France joined the American revolutionaries. The declaration lead to a brutal war with England—A war that became a virtual world war when England’s historical enemy France joined the American revolutionaries.

27 The American Revolution The Americans became a free republic at wars end in The Americans became a free republic at wars end in The French Monarchy went into extremely serious debt—a fact which ironically led to a legitimacy crisis of their own and eventual revolution in The French Monarchy went into extremely serious debt—a fact which ironically led to a legitimacy crisis of their own and eventual revolution in The American argument for a government of the people influenced millions of non Americans around the world. The American argument for a government of the people influenced millions of non Americans around the world.

28 The American Revolution The American Revolution is not over. Or is it? Is a republic in which all citizens are open to pursuing their happiness in equality and fullest expression of all of life’s possibility real or still ideational? Could it ever be real? Is it important that it could or could not be? The American Revolution is not over. Or is it? Is a republic in which all citizens are open to pursuing their happiness in equality and fullest expression of all of life’s possibility real or still ideational? Could it ever be real? Is it important that it could or could not be? To be continued…..


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