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The Historical Context of Contemporary International Relations Class 3: Introduction to International Relations Eva wishanti.

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Presentation on theme: "The Historical Context of Contemporary International Relations Class 3: Introduction to International Relations Eva wishanti."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Historical Context of Contemporary International Relations Class 3: Introduction to International Relations Eva wishanti

2 Introduction International Relations (IR)  After Two World Wars  War  Realism : state, power  World Politics diversity  Pluralism

3 Six Periods of Historical Context of Contemporary International Relations 1.Before After Westphalia 3.Nineteenth Century Europe 4.Interwar Years 5.The Cold War 6.The Post-Cold War

4 Periodisasi Sejarah Penting dalam HI History and Philosophy A Series of world events The world in the 21 st century Greek’s (political) philosophy Renaissance First World War Second World War Cold War Changing world order New challenges

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8 Before 1648: The Pre-Westphalian World The Sovereignties of the Greek city-states (400 B.C.) Imperialism by The Roman Empire (50 B.C – 400 A.D.) Centralization & Decentralization in the Middle Ages (400 – 1000) Three civilizations: Arabic, Byzantine, Europe The development of transnational networks in the Late Middle Ages (1000 – 1500) a. Transnational Business Community b. Individualist & Humanist c. Writers on Classic Literature

9 Munculnya sistem Westphalia : Nation - States Development of practical sovereignty Sovereignty by Jean Bodin: absolute and perpetual power The Growth of Military Control The Thirty-years war ⇒ Treaty of Westphalia The Emergence of Capitalist Economic System Adam Smith: Invisible Hand of the Market ⇒ Capitalism

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11 Europe in the Nineteenth Century The Aftermath of Revolution: Core Principles - Legitimacy - Nationalism Peace at the Core of the European System - Solidarity sharing among European - Fear of Revolution among independent states - Unification of Germany and Italy Balance of Power Independent European states counteract predominant states The Breakdown: Solidification of Alliances The end of Balance of Power system

12 Interwar Years and World War II Three Empires are Weakened Russia ⇒ New leader and new ideology Austro-Hungary ⇒ Replaced by new states Ottoman ⇒ Reconfigured and ousted from Europe Fascism in Germany - Mobilized support from the masses - Superior civilization The Weakness of League of Nations - Prevent all future wars - No political weight, legal instruments, legitimacy

13 The Cold War Origins of the Cold War - The emergence of two superpowers: United States and Soviet Union - The incompatibilities in national interests and ideology - The end of colonial system - The realization of indirectly conflict The Cold War as a Series of Confrontations - High level tension with no military conflict - Confrontations between proxies - Confrontations between two blocs: NATO vs. Warsaw Pact The Cold War as a Long Peace John Lewis Gaddis: to dramatize the absence of war between superpowers

14 The Post-Cold War The Continuity of Glasnost and Perestroika in Soviet - Glasnost: Political Openness - Perestroika: Economic Restructuring Changes of Soviet Foreign Policy - Cooperate in multilateral activities to preserve regional security - Mark the post-Cold War era Iraq Invasion of Kuwait in The test of New World Order - U.N. Security Council ⇒ Economic sanctions The Disintegration of Yugoslavia - Disintegrates into independent states - Bosnia-Kosovo civil war leading to U.N. and NATO action

15 SUMMARY: Learning from History How can we begin to predict what the current era is or what the future will bring? How core concepts of international relations – the state, sovereignty, the nation, and the international system- have emerged and evolved over time?


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