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Chapter 10 Mexico.

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1 Chapter 10 Mexico

2 I. Sovereignty, Authority, & Power
Legitimacy Viceroy – Governor appointed by Spanish king during colonial period Centralized, authoritarian rule with virtually no participation by the indigenous population

3 A. Legitimacy Continued
Revolution of – Mexicans have admired revolutionary leaders throughout their history. Revolutions in general are seen quite positively, and charisma is highly valued as a leadership characteristic Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) – helped legitimize the revolution, served as an important source of government legitimacy until the late 20th century Constitution of 1917 – created a democratic, three-branch government, but allowed the PRI to stabilize and consolidate power within the hands of its leaders.

4 II. Historical Traditions
Authoritarianism – from Spanish colonial structure and strong-armed tactics of military-political leaders (caudillos) such as Porfirio Diaz, Mexico has long tradition of authoritarian rule. President currently still holds a great deal of power. Populism – revolutions of 19th and 20th century had significant peasant base led by charismatic leaders that called for more rights for ordinary Mexicans, particularly indigenous citizens. Zapatista movement is reflection of this tradition

5 Historical Traditions continued
Power Plays/Divisions within Elite – elites who led dissenters during 1810 & 1910 revolutions; warlords & caudillos of the early 20th century; and the politicos & tecnicos of the late 20th century Instability and Legitimacy Issues – Mexico’s political history full of chaos, conflict, bloodshed, and violent resolution to political differences. Even though most Mexicans believe the government is legitimate, the current regime still leans toward instability

6 III. Political Culture National Identity – Mexicans share a strong sense of national identification based on common history, dominant religion and language Importance of religion (Catholicism) Patron-clientelism (“You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours”) Economic dependency

7 IV. Geographic Influence
Mountains & Deserts – make communication and transportation difficult; promotes regionalism; limits areas where productive agriculture is possible Varied Climates – cold, dry mountains to tropical rain forests because of Mexico’s varying terrain and long expanse from North to South Natural Resources – petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber U.S.-Mexican Border – 2,000 mile long border means relationships are inevitable (migration, dependency, conflict)

8 V. Population Over 100 million people in Mexico
60% Mestizo 30% Amerindian (Indigenous) 10% other (European, Asian, etc.) Most populated Spanish-speaking country in the world 75% of Mexico’s population live in urban areas (Mexico City’s population is 18 million) Population in northern part of Mexico more prosperous than central & southern Mexico. Farther south you go the greater the poverty of the people.

9 VI. Colonial Era (colonialism)
Cultural Heterogeneity – Spanish took control over numerous indigenous populations dominated by the Aztecs once they conquered Tenochtitlan Mestizo – ethnic mixture of two peoples (European & indigenous) Catholicism – most Spaniards settled in or near Mexico city, but Spanish priests settled throughout Mexico’s hinterland converting the population to Christianity. Priests developed strong relationships with the people of Mexico Economic Dependency – all trade done with Spain Spanish Hierarchy – elaborate political & social status hierarchy structure

10 VII. Independence: “MEXICO”
Instability & Legitimacy Issues – Spanish left and took hierarchy structure with them, reorganizing government was difficult task, Mexico had 36 presidents from Rise of Military – Instability led to military control, ex. Santa Anna U.S. Domination – US challenges Mexican land claims, Mexican-American War ( ), Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo (US gets TX, NM, CA, AZ, UT, part of CO) Liberals vs. Conservatives – Constitution of 1857 based on democratic principles. Liberal president Benito Juarez “liberalizes” Mexico. Conservatism reflected in joint French, Spanish, and English takeover of Mexico under Maximilian ( ). After Maximilian’s execution Juarez brought back to power but liberal/conservative struggle would continue

11 “The Porfiriato” Porfirio Diaz Military general under Benito Juarez
Staged military coup in 1876 Instituted himself as president of Mexico, promised he would serve no more than one term Ruled Mexico for 34 years with an iron hand Cientificos – young, educated advisors of Diaz that believed in bringing scientific and economic progress to Mexico

12 Influences of Porfiriato
Stability – Diaz dictatorship ended years of conflict and chaos Authoritarianism – no sharing of political power beyond small, closed elite group Foreign Investment/Economic Growth – cientificos encouraged entrepreneurship and foreign investment, primarily from the U.S., resulted in growth of business and industry Growing Gap between Rich & Poor – as a result of development and industrialization

13 VIII. 20th Century Porfirio Diaz ousted in coup by other elites dissatisfied with Diaz’ rule and sensitive to the greed of the Porfirians Diaz abdicates to General Francisco Madero, a landowner from Coahuila Revolution of 1910 begins and warlordism and chaos would persist in Mexico until 1934

14 Influences of the Mexican Revolution
Patron-client System Constitution of 1917 Conflict with Catholic Church Establishment of the PRI

15 Mexican Revolution continued
Patron-Client System – in an effort to unseat Diaz, caudillos rose to challenge each other for power. Popular leaders Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata emerged leading peasant armies. Around each leader a patron-client system emerged that involved large numbers of citizens Many caudillos were ultimately assassinated (including Villa and Zapata) Large numbers of followers were also killed in the competing world of the caudillos

16 Constitution of 1917 Ended the Revolution
Violence & Political Assassinations continued Mexican constitution very long and easily amended Set up structure for Democratic Government (Political Institutions resemble those of the U.S.) Three branches of Government Competitive Elections Most public officials directly elected by the people

17 Conflict with Church after Revolution
Cristeros Rebellion (1920) Hundreds of Thousands Killed (Priests murdered) Liberals legally separate Church & State, viewed church as a bastion of conservatism Forbid priests from voting Placed federal restrictions on church-affiliated schools (parochial schools) Suspended religious services Priests continue to lead rebellions after Liberal changes, contributes to chaos of 20th century

18 Establishment of PRI After years of conflict, President Calles brings caudillos together for agreement in 1929 Attempts to bring all caudillos under one big, umbrella political party Bring stability through the idea of “passing around” power from one leader to the next as presidency changed hands Sexenios – president could only serve one 6-year term Other leaders would be given major positions in government to establish their influence PRI- “institutionalized” the revolution by stabilizing conflict between leaders

19 IX. Cardenas Upheaval (1934-1940)
Succeeded Calles’ as president Stabilized and Radicalized Mexican politics Gave voice to peasant demands from the Revolution of 1910 Charismatic leader “the Roosevelt of Mexico” as labeled by American scholars

20 Cardenas’ Changes Redistribution of Land – land taken away from big landlords, foreigners and redistributed as ejidos – collective land grants – to be worked by peasants Nationalization of Industry – foreign business owners kicked out of country, most industry put under control of the state. Ex: PEMEX – giant, government controlled oil company Investment in Public Works – government builds roads, provides electricity, creates public services to modernize Mexico Encouragement of Peasant & Union Organizations – Cardenas welcomes their input in government, they form their own camarillas with leaders that represent their interests on presidents’ cabinet Concentration of Power in Presidency – Cardenas stabilizes presidency, when his sexenio was up he peacefully let go of power

21 Cardenas and ISI Cardenas’ strategy of state-led development known as Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) ISI Employs high tariffs to protect locally produced goods from foreign competition Government ownership of key industries Government subsidies to domestic industries Government takes lead in promoting industrialization (very little capital in private hands during this era)

22 X. Tecnicos & the Pendulum Theory
Miguel Aleman becomes president in 1946 Encouraged entrepreneurship Foreign investment Free-market strategies on exports Followed by president who returned to Cardenas-style reform Pendulum Theory – back-and-forth effect in Mexican politics from socialist reform to free-market economic development and back again. By the 1970s the pendulum appeared to stop with the emergence of the tecnicos

23 Tecnicos continued Tecnicos – educated, business-oriented leaders usually with degrees in economics, political science, business, etc. Tecnicos in the PRI espouse the free-market approach to politics By the 1980s Mexico had settled into an economic approach based upon Neoliberalism Free markets Balanced budgets Privatization Free trade Limited government intervention in the economy

24 “Tecnicos & Politicos”
By 1950s Mexico welcomed foreign investment GNP experienced spectacular growth until the 1980s This “Mexican Miracle” based largely on huge supplies of natural gas & oil Mexico became a model for LDC’s everywhere “Oil Bust” of the early 1980s, plummeting price of oil sunk the Mexican economy and inflated the value of the peso This caused added political tension within the PRI Division between the “politicos” – old style caciques who headed camarillas – and the “tecnicos” began to grow wider

25 XI. Citizens, Society, & the State
Traditionally Mexican citizens have interacted with government through patron-client system Because camarillas so interwoven in Mexican politics, most people have had some contact with government during their lives Clientelism has generally meant that the government had the upper hand through its ability to determine which interests to respond to and which to ignore Role of citizens in Mexico is changing as political parties have become competitive and democracy becomes more firmly entrenched

26 XII. Cleavages Urban vs. Rural – Mexico’s political structure put into place in early 20th century when most of population was rural. PRI and patron-client system were intended to control large numbers of illiterate peasants in exchange for small favors from politicos. Today Mexico is 75% urban, with a literacy rate of about 90%. Urban voters less likely to support PRI, more receptive to political and economic reform Mestizo vs. Amerindian – only about 10% of Mexicans speak indigenous languages, but about 30% consider themselves Amerindians. Amerindians marginalized, predominantly rural, and poor. This cleavage tends to define social class, with most of Mexico’s wealth in the hands of the mestizo population. North vs. South – north almost like a different country then the area south of Mexico City. Majority of educated citizens and Mexico’s wealth lies in the north. Southern Mexico primarily populated by Amerindians, characterized and led by Zapatista Movement in Chiapas.

27 XIII. Political Participation
Historically characterized by revolution & protest Mexican citizens have generally been subjects under authoritarian rule of the political elite Citizens sometimes benefited from patronage, but legitimate channels to policy-makers were few Today citizens participate through increasingly legitimate and regular elections

28 XIV. Patron-Client System (Mexico)
Roots in warlordism and loyalty to caudillos during 19th century Each caudillo had supporters – in return for their loyalty – he granted favors to them Establishment of Camarillas that still exist today Mexican citizens participate in government through formal & informal mechanisms Emphasizes compromise among contending elites “Behind the Scenes” conflict resolution Distribution of political rewards to those willing to play by formal/informal “rules of the game” Keeps control in the hands of the elite Elite has upper hand in deciding who gets favors and who doesn’t Patron-client system still very important in determining the nature of political participation Modernization and legitimate democracy tend to break up the patron-client system as networks get blurred in large population centers, and more formal forms of participation are instituted

29 Camarillas Hierarchical network Exchange of offices and other benefits
Within the PRI, up until the election of 2000, most positions within the president’s cabinet were filled by supporters or heads of camarillas that the president wanted to appease Peasants in camarillas received jobs, financial assistance, family advice, and even food & shelter in return for votes for the PRI in the past

30 Protests When citizens demands have gotten out of hand, the government generally responded by not only accommodating their demands, but by including them in the political process through cooptation Tlatelolco (1968) – student protest led to a massacre by government troops. Next president recruited large numbers of students into government, increased spending on social services Zapatista Uprising (1994) – Chiapas rebellion reminded Mexicans that some people still lived in appalling conditions, and poverty and lack of education were still serious problems

31 Voter Behavior PRI era Post-PRI era
PRI controlled local, state, & national elections Voting rates high because of patron-client system Election day festive, accompanied by free food, music, and celebratrions Corruption extensive Challengers easily defeated with “tacos” – stuffed ballot boxes Post-PRI era Presence of competing parties, have existed since 1930s, but no real legitimacy until 1994 78% of eligible citizens voted in 1994 64% voted in 2000 Both much better than 49% of 1988 when PRI corruption was at its height

32 Factors influencing Voters
Age Younger voters were more likely than older voters to support Vincente Fox’s PAN, and older voters more likely to support the PRI 59% of all student voters chose PAN 19% voted for the PRI Education The more educated voted for Fox and the PAN 60% of those with a college education voted for Fox 22% of college educated voted for Labastida, the PRI candidate Region PRI evenly supported throughout the regions of the country PAN received majority of its support from the north and center-west

33 XV. Political Institutions: Mexico in Transition
Mexico characterized by economic and political transition Authoritarianism under the PRI has been replaced by competitive elections, although political hostilities still exist Economic dependency and underdevelopment slowly being transformed as public policies have been supportive of a free market economy, yet a backlash against neoliberalism has continued “Developed”, “Developing”, or “Less Developed”, how do we classify Mexico? Regime type: from corporatist structure to transitional democracy

34 How Development is Measured
GNP per capita – estimate of a country’s total economic output divided by its total population, converting to a single currency, usually the U.S. dollar. Does not take into account what goods & services can actually be purchased with local currency. PPP – Purchasing Power Parity – takes into account cost of living in a particular country figuring out what it costs to buy the same goods in different countries (Mexico is $9800 per year) HDI – Human Development Index – longevity, knowledge, income (Mexico’s literacy rate is 94% for men & 90.5% for women, life expectancy is 72.4 years for men and 78 years for women Economic Dependency – a less developed country is often dependent on developed countries for economic support and trade. Balanced trade is generally the key, a country is said to be “developing” when it begins relying less on the stronger country to keep it afloat financially Mexico is in the middle in terms of its development, it is generally considered to be a “developing” country that has shown gradual improvement in all of its indices

35 Transitional Democracy
Political Accountability Political Competition Political Freedom Political Equality Mexico has developed some democratic characteristics in recent years, but still has many distinctions present from its authoritarian history. Longevity of democratic practices is another way of determining whether a country is a stable democracy, usually 40 years or more. Mexico does not yet fit this description.

36 XVI. Linkage Institutions
Mexico’s political parties, interest group, and media all worked to link Mexican citizens to their government During the PRI era all of this took place under the authority of the PRI party so a true civil society did not exist As democratization began and civil society began to develop, these structures were already in place, so activating democracy was easier than it would have been otherwise

37 XVII. Political Parties
Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) National Action Party (PAN) Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD)

38 PRI In power from Founded by coalition of elites led by President Calles Originally elites agreed to trade favors and pass around power from one cacique to another (Sexenio) Corporatist structure – interest groups woven into the structure of the party. Party has ultimate authority, but other voices heard by bringing interest groups under the umbrella of the party. Structure is not democratic, but allows for more input into government than other types of authoritarianism. Particularly since Cardenas peasant and labor organizations have been represented in the party and hold positions of responsibility Patron-client system – party traditionally gets its support from rural areas where patron-client system is still in control. Patron-client system allowed the PRI to remain in control of Mexicans as long as majority of population was rural-based, this began to change in the late 1980s

39 PAN (Right of Center) Founded in 1939
Represents business interests opposed to centralization and anti-clericalism PAN support strongest in the north PAN generally considered PRI’s opposition to the Right PAN candidate Vicente Fox won 2000 presidential election, Felipe Calderon won 2006 election Platform Regional autonomy Less government intervention in the economy Clean & fair elections Good rapport with Catholic Church Support for private and religious education

40 PRD (Left of Center) PRD considered PRI’s opposition to the Left
Presidential candidate in 1988 & 1994 was Cuahtemoc Cardenas (son of Lazaro Cardenas) He was ejected from the PRI for demanding reform that emphasized social justice and populism In 1988 Cardenas won 31.1% of the official vote, and PRD captured 139 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (500 total) Many believe had it been an honest election Cardenas would have won PRD has been plagued by poor organization, lack of charismatic leadership, and most importantly the lack of an economic alternative to the market-oriented policies of the PRI & PAN Andres Lopez Obrador, former mayor of Mexico City, was the PRD candidate for president in the 2006 election. He lost by a slim margin to Calderon (PAN)

41 Elections Citizens in Mexico directly elect the president, Chamber of Deputy Representatives, and Senators as well as most local & state officials Elections are generally competitive, specifically in urban areas Members of congress elected through dual system of “first-past-the-post” and proportional representation Proportional representation was increased in a major reform law in 1986, a change that gave power to political parties that challenged PRI control Each of Mexico’s 31 states elects three senators, 2 are determined by majority vote, the other is determined by whichever party receives the second highest number of votes 32 senate seats are determined nationally through a system of proportional representation that divides the seats according to the number of votes cast for each party (128 Senate seats in total) In the Chamber of Deputies, 300 seats are determined by plurality within single-member districts, and 200 are chosen by proportional representation

42 Voter Profiles PRI – small town or rural, less educated, older, poorer
PAN – from the north, middle-class professional or business, urban, better educated (at least high school, some college) religious (or those less strict regarding separation of church & state) PRD – younger, politically active, from the central states, some education, small town or urban

43 Election of 2000 PAN/PRD candidate Vicente Fox won presidency (43% of the vote compared to 36% garnered for PRI candidate Francisco Labastida) PAN captured 208 of 500 deputies in lower house PRI captured 209 deputy seats in the lower house PAN won 46 senate seats; PRI won 60 senate seats New, competitive election system has encouraged coalitions to form to the right & left of the PRI Split in votes has encourage gridlock, phenomenon unknown to Mexico under the old PRI-controlled governments Election of 2006 – closely contested election, won by PAN candidate Felipe Calderon by narrow margin over PRD candidate Andres Lopez Obrador

44 Interest Groups & Popular Movements
Corporatist structure allowed for accommodation of interest group Business Interests – networked with political leaders to protect the growth of commerce, finance, industry, and agriculture Labor – accommodated within system, wage levels for union workers increased from , until economic crisis of lowering oil prices caused wages to drop. Power of union bosses has decreased as unions weaken and members become more independent Rural/Peasant Organizations – encouraged under PRI through the ejido system that granted land from the government to these organizations. Since 1980s groups have demanded greater independence from the government, and supported movements for better prices for crops, and access to markets and credit. Joined with other groups to promote better education, health services, and environmental practices Urban/Popular Movements – concerned about social welfare spending, city services, neighborhood improvement, economic development, feminism, and professional identity. As groups become more independent and grow in strength the government and political system must negotiate with them, and in doing so transform the political culture

45 Media Part of the patron-client system under the PRI, with rewards and favors doled out in return for political support Have become more independent as PRI-political structure has been reorganized Many Mexicans have access to international newspapers, magazines, CNN and the BBC “Toallagate” Scandal – overpriced towels at President Fox’s mansion “Comes y te vas” – Fidel Castro-U.N. meeting incident

46 XVIII. Government Institutions
Mexico is a federal republic, though state and local governments have little independent power and few resources Executive branch has held majority of the power historically Legislative & Judicial branch followed the executive’s lead, rubber-stamping most presidential decisions Mexico has traditionally been an authoritarian and corporatist regime

47 Executive Branch Center of policy-making
Sexenio: non-renewable six-year term (Under PRI similar to dictator) Selected successor Appointed officials to all positions of power in the government Named PRI candidates for other public offices Until mid-1970s Mexican presidents were above criticism and people revered them as symbols of national progress and well-being Managed huge patronage system Control over “rubber-stamp” Congress President Ernesto Zedillo ( ) –relinquished number of traditional powers of the president, including naming the PRI candidate for the 2000 election President Fox inherited the presidency in a time of transition President still viewed as all powerful, but blamed for shortcomings Harder for Fox to accomplish political goals without strong party support in the post-PRI Congress

48 Bureaucracy About 1.5 million people employed by federal government (Most in Mexico City) High & Middle level officials have a good deal of power Under PRI corruption and bribes quite common amongst officials in the bureaucracy Parastatal Sector – semiautonomous government agencies that often produce goods & services PEMEX After 1980’s oil bust reforms cut the number of para-statals, and many are now privately owned President Fox tried unsuccessfully to privatize PEMEX

49 Legislature Bicameral All legislators directly elected
Chamber of Deputies (500-member) 300 deputies from single-member districts (plurality) 200 deputies chosen by proportional representation Senate (128-member) 3 senators from each of the 31 states & the federal district(96) Remaining 32 selected by proportional representation All legislators directly elected Until 1980s legislature remained under strict control of the president PRI’s lost hold on legislature earlier than it did on the presidency Lost majority in the Chamber of Deputies in 1997 Women in both houses has risen significantly since 1996 election law required parties to sponsor female candidates Parties must run at least 30% female candidates for proportional representation and single-member district elections 113 of 500 deputies in Chamber are female 20 of 128 Senators are also female

50 Judiciary Strong judicial branch necessary for a country to operate on the “Rule of Law” Mexico does not have an independent judiciary or judicial review system Most laws are federal, limiting the authority of state courts Supreme Court On paper has judicial review, but it never overrules important government policy or actions Historically has been controlled by the executive branch Judges appointed for life, but in practice resigned at the beginning of each sexenio President Ernesto Zedillo ( ) attempted to strengthen courts by emphasizing the rule of law, he refused to interfere with court judgments and President Fox continued this policy Fox tried to work for an independent judiciary but seems to have come up short on this endeavor

51 Military Dominated Mexican political life into the early 20th century
PRI dramatically cutback the political power of generals (even former military generals who became presidents acted to separate the military from politics) Calles and Cardenas de-politicized the military Continually moved generals to different regions of the country not allowing them to develop a regional base of power Presidents traded favors with military officers to allow them economic power, if not political power Government control of the military one of PRI’s most important accomplishments Strong ties between military officers and drug barons Military heavily involved in drug-enforcement Patron-client system of favors and loyalty has led some military officers to accept money from drug lords in return for allegiance and security General Jesus Gutierrez Rebollo (Head of anti-drug task force) arrested in 1997 on accusations of protecting a drug lord

52 XIX. Policies & Issues Economy “Mexican Miracle” Problems
economy grew more than 6% per year Industrial production up nearly 9% per year during 1960s Agricultural share of production down: 25% to 11% Manufacturing share of production up: 25% to 34% Problems Growing gap between rich & poor Rapid/Unplanned Urbanization

53 Economics II Debt Crisis
Mexican government borrowed heavily in order to industrialize Most of the economic growth based on oil economy Oil plummet in 1982, caused Mexican economy to plummet as well 1987, Mexico over $107 billion in debt, debt represented 70% of GNP

54 Economics III Reform Begun by President Miguel de la Madrid in 1982, continued by presidents Salinas & Zedillo (the tecnicos) Sharp cuts in Government Spending – according to agreements with the IMF, World Bank, and the U.S. Mexico greatly reduced government spending by eliminating public enterprises, cutting government subsidies, and cutting hundreds of thousands of public jobs Debt Reduction – with assistance from U.S. the Mexican government reached agreement to reduce interest rates on loans and allow for more lenient repayment plans. Mexico still pays on average about $10 billion a year on loan interests Privatization – many government industries were privatized, in 1990 President Salinas returned the banks to the private sector. Special laws like duty-free importing of components and cheap labor led foreign companies to invest in Mexican manufacturing plants Between 2001 and 2003 Mexico economy suffered from the post-September 11 U.S. recession. In 2004, the economy grew by 4.1% but an estimated 40% of the Mexican population still lived below the poverty line

55 Foreign Policy GATT/WTO – in 1986 Mexico joined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the precursor to the World Trade Organization NAFTA – economics still dominates even in terms of foreign policy Immigration & Drug Trafficking – America still the key focus for Mexican foreign policy

56 Issues of Democracy Election Reform
CFE (Federal Election Reform) – created as an independent regulatory body to safeguard honest and accurate election results Campaign Finance Restriction – laws that limit campaign contributions International Watch Teams – so Mexico could convince other countries that elections are fair and competitive Election monitoring – done by opposition party members

57 Fox’s Legacy Pluralism Decentralization Electoral Reform Rule of Law
Anti-Narcotics Policy

58 “Ya Basta” Zapatista Movement Lives On (EZLN)
EZLN – began in 1994 in Chiapas in protest of the signing of the NAFTA treaty Viewed agreement as a continued exploitation of landowners and PRI bosses EZLN captured four towns demanding jobs, land, housing, food, health, education, independence, freedom, democracy, justice and peace Rebellion originally based on ethnicity – Amerindian – but spread to other factions of society Zapatista supporters were black ski masks to hide their identity from the government Although a moderate truce was announced with the government, the Fox administration was unable to negotiate a settlement to the dispute with the Zapatistas despite numerous efforts to do so Zapatistas represent the stance against all that is still wrong with Mexican politics

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