Presentation on theme: "Mexico Modified from Mr. Caroddo’s Education Website at http://caroddoapclasses.com/id4.html."— Presentation transcript:
1 MexicoModified from Mr. Caroddo’s Education Website at
2 Geographic InfluenceNatural Resources – petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timberU.S.-Mexican Border – 2,000 mile long border means relationships are inevitable (migration, dependency, conflict)
3 Population Over 112 million people live in Mexico 60% Mestizo 30% Amerindian (Indigenous)10% other (European, Asian)Most populated Spanish-speaking country in the world75% of Mexico’s population lives in urban areas (Mexico City’s population is nearly 9 million; it is the 16th largest city in the world)Population in the northern part of Mexico is more prosperous than central and southern Mexico. The farther south, the greater the poverty.
4 Political CultureNational Identity: Mexicans share a strong sense of national identity, based on history, religion and language.Clientelism: Mexican politics has a long history of patron client relationships.
5 Historical Traditions Authoritarianism –Mexico has long tradition of authoritarian rule. Presidents still hold a great deal of power.Populism – revolutions of 19th and 20th century had a significant peasant base; led by charismatic leaders that called for more rights for ordinary Mexicans, particularly indigenous citizens. The Zapatista movement is a reflection of this tradition
6 Historical Traditions Power Plays/Divisions within Elite – There is a division within the elite over whether the politicos or tecnicos should run government.Instability and Legitimacy Issues – Mexico’s political history is full of chaos, conflict, bloodshed, and violent resolution to political differences. Even though most Mexicans believe the government is legitimate, the current regime is unstable.
7 LegitimacyInstitutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) – helped legitimize the revolution, served as an important source of government legitimacy until the late 20th centuryConstitution of 1917 – created a democratic, three-branch government, but allowed the PRI to stabilize and consolidate power. An authoritarian one party state was created but within a democratic framework.
8 Colonial EraCultural Heterogeneity – Spanish took control over numerous indigenous populations dominated by the Aztecs once they conquered TenochtitlanMestizo – ethnic mixture of two peoples (European and indigenous)Catholicism – most Spaniards settled in or near Mexico City, but Spanish priests settled throughout Mexico, converting the population to Christianity. Priests developed strong relationships with the people.Economic Dependency – all trade wasdone with SpainSpanish Hierarchy – elaborate political and social status hierarchy structure, with deference to elites
9 IndependenceInstability and Legitimacy Issues – the Spanish left and took hierarchy structure with them; reorganizing government was difficult task; Mexico had 36 presidents fromRise of Military – Instability led to military control, ex. Santa AnnaU.S. Domination – US challenges Mexican land claims, Mexican-American War ( ), Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (US gets TX, NM, CA, AZ, UT, part of CO)
11 “The Porfiriato” Porfirio Diaz Staged military coup in 1876 Instituted himself as president of Mexico; promised he would serve no more than one termRuled Mexico for 34 years with an iron handCientificos – young, educated advisors of Diaz who believed in bringing scientific and economic progress to Mexico
12 Influences of Porfiriato Stability – Diaz dictatorship ended years of conflict and chaosAuthoritarianism – no sharing of political power beyond a small, closed elite groupForeign Investment/Economic Growth – cientificos encouraged entrepreneurship and foreign investment, primarily from the U.S., which resulted in growth of business and industryGrowing Gap between Rich & Poor – as a result of development and industrialization
13 20th CenturyPorfirio Diaz was ousted in a coup by other elites dissatisfied with Diaz’s rule and sensitive to the greed of the PorfiriansDiaz abdicated to General Francisco MaderoRevolution of 1910 begins and warlordism (caudillos) and chaos would persist in Mexico until 1934
14 Influences of the Mexican Revolution Patron-client SystemConstitution of 1917Conflict with Catholic ChurchEstablishment of the PRI
15 Mexican RevolutionPatron-Client System – in an effort to unseat Diaz, caudillos rose to challenge each other for power. Popular leaders Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata emerged leading peasant armies. Around each leader a patron-client system emerged that involved large numbers of citizensMany caudillos were ultimately assassinated (including Villa and Zapata)Large numbers of followers were also killed in the competing world of the caudillos
16 Constitution of 1917 Ended the Revolution The Mexican constitution is very long and easily amendedSet up structure for Democratic Government (political Institutions resemble those of the U.S.)Three branches of GovernmentCompetitive electionsFederalism
17 Conflict with the Church after Revolution Although most Mexicans are Catholic, church and state are legally separateUntil recently, priests were not allowed to vote.
18 Establishment of PRIPRI brings all caudillos under one big umbrella political partyBring stability through the idea of “passing around” power from one leader to the next as the presidency changed handsSexenios – president could only serve one 6-year termOther leaders would be given major positions in government to establish their influencePRI- “institutionalized” the revolution by stabilizing conflict between leaders
19 Cardenas Upheaval ( )Gave voice to peasant demands from the Revolution of 1910Charismatic leader“The Roosevelt of Mexico” as labeled by American scholars
20 Cardenas’ ChangesRedistribution of Land – land was taken away from big landlords and foreigners and redistributed as ejidos – collective land grants – to be worked by peasantsNationalization of Industry – foreign business owners were kicked out of country, most industry was put under control of the state. Ex: PEMEX – giant, government controlled oil companyInvestment in Public Works – government builds roads, provides electricity, creates public services to modernize MexicoEncouragement of Peasant and Union Organizations – Cardenas welcomes their input in government, they form their own camarillas with leaders that represent their interests on president’s cabinetConcentration of Power in Presidency – Cardenas stabilizes presidency, when his sexenio was up he peacefully let go of power
21 Cardenas and ISICardenas used a strategy of state-led development known as Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI)Employs high tariffs to protect locally produced goods from foreign competitionGovernment ownership of key industries (PEMEX)Government subsidies to domestic industriesGovernment takes the lead in promoting industrialization (very little capital in private hands during this era)
22 Pendulum TheoryMiguel Aleman becomes president in 1946Encouraged entrepreneurshipForeign investmentFree-market strategies on exportsFollowed by president who returned to Cardenas- style reformPendulum Theory – back-and-forth effect in Mexican politics from socialist reform to free- market economic development and back again.By the 1970s the pendulum appeared to stop with the emergence of the tecnicos
23 TecnicosTecnicos – educated, business-oriented leaders usually with degrees in economics, political science or business.Tecnicos in the PRI espouse a free-market approach to the economyBy the 1980s Mexico had settled into an economic approach based upon NeoliberalismFree marketsBalanced budgetsPrivatizationFree tradeLimited government intervention in the economy
25 Tecnicos & Politicos Mexico welcomed foreign investment GNP experienced spectacular growth until the 1980sThis “Mexican Miracle”was based largely on huge supplies of natural gas and oilMexico became a model for developing states everywhereDuring the oil bust in the early 1980s, prices of oil sunk the Mexican economy and inflated the value of the pesoThis caused added political tension within the PRIDivision between the politicos – old style politicians who headed camarillas – and the tecnicos began to grow wider
26 Citizens, Society, & the State Traditionally Mexican citizens have interacted with government through a patron-client systemBecause camarillas so interwoven in Mexican politics, most people have had some contact with government during their livesClientelism has generally meant that the government had the upper hand through its ability to determine which interests to address and which to ignoreThe role of citizens in Mexico is changing as political parties have become competitive and democracy becomes more firmly entrenched
27 Camarillas Hierarchical network Exchange of offices and other benefits for political supportWithin the PRI, up until the election of 2000, most positions within the president’s cabinet were filled by supporters or heads of camarillas that the president wanted to appeasePeasants in camarillas received jobs, financial assistance, family advice, and even food & shelter in return for votes for the PRI.
28 Patron-Client System (Mexico) Corporatism favors the largest businesses and labor unionsPatron-client system still very important in determining the nature of political participationModernization and legitimate democracy tend to break up the patron-client system as networks get blurred in large population centers, and more formal forms of participation are instituted
29 Political Participation Historically characterized by revolution and protestMexican citizens have generally been subjects under authoritarian rule of the political eliteCitizens sometimes benefited from patronage, but legitimate channels to policy-makers were fewToday citizens participate through increasingly legitimate and regular elections
30 CleavagesUrban vs. Rural –Today Mexico is 75% urban, with a literacy rate of about 90%. Urban voters are less likely to support PRI and are more receptive to political and economic reformMestizo vs. Amerindian – only about 10% of Mexicans speak indigenous languages, but about 30% consider themselves Amerindians. Amerindians are marginalized, predominantly rural, and poor. This cleavage tends to define social class, with most of Mexico’s wealth in the hands of the mestizo population.North vs. South – The north is almost like a different country then the area south of Mexico City. Majority of educated citizens and Mexico’s wealth lies in the north. Southern Mexico is primarily populated by Amerindians, characterized and led by Zapatista Movement in Chiapas.
31 ProtestsWhen citizens demands have gotten out of hand, the government generally responded by not only accommodating their demands, but by including them in the political process through cooptationTlatelolco (1968) – student protest led to a massacre by government troops. The next president recruited large numbers of students into government, increased spending on social servicesZapatista Uprising (1994) – Partly a reaction to NAFTA, the Chiapas rebellion reminded Mexicans that some people still lived in appalling conditions, and poverty and lack of education were still serious problems
32 Voter BehaviorUntil 2000PRI controlled local, state, and national electionsVoting rates were high because of patron-client systemElection day was festive, accompanied by free food, music, and celebrationsCorruption extensiveChallengers easily defeated with tacos,” stuffed ballot boxesPresence of competing parties, have existed since 1930s, but no real legitimacy until 1994 when electoral reforms were put in placeIn 1988, 49% voter turnout. This election was marred by fraud.78% of eligible citizens voted in 1994, when election reform was promised64% voted in 2000, when PAN won the presidency
33 Factors influencing Voters AgeYounger voters were more likely than older voters to support PAN, and older voters more likely to support the PRIEducationMore educated vote for PANRegionPRI is evenly supported throughout the regions of the countryPAN received majority of its support from the north and center-west
34 Mexico in TransitionMexico is characterized by economic and political transitionAuthoritarianism under the PRI has been replaced by competitive elections, which makes Mexico a transitional democracyEconomic dependency and underdevelopment are slowly being transformed as public policies support a free market economy, yet a backlash against neoliberalism has continued
35 Linkage InstitutionsMexico’s political parties, interest group, and media all worked to link Mexican citizens to their governmentDuring the PRI era all of this took place under the authority of the PRI party so a true civil society did not existAs democratization began and civil society began to develop, these structures were already in place, so activating democracy was easier than it would have been otherwise.
36 Political Parties Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) National Action Party (PAN)Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD)
37 Voter Profiles PRI – small town or rural, less educated, older, poorer PAN – from the north, middle-class professional or business, urban, better educated (at least high school, some college) religious (or those less strict regarding separation of church & state)PRD – younger, politically active, from the central states, some education, small town or urban
38 PRI In power from 1920-2000, re-elected in 2012 Corporatist structure –Party has ultimate authority, but other voices were heard by bringing interest groups under the umbrella of the party. Structure is not democratic, but allows for more input into government than other types of authoritarianism.Patron-client system – party traditionally gets its support from rural areas where patron-client system is still in control. Patron-client system allowed the PRI to remain in control of Mexicans as long as majority of population was rural-based, this began to change in the late 1980s
39 PAN (Right of Center) Represents business interests PAN support strongest in the northPAN generally considered PRI’s opposition to the RightPAN candidate Vicente Fox won 2000 presidential election, Felipe Calderon won 2006 electionPlatformRegional autonomyLess government intervention in the economyFair electionsGood relationship with Catholic ChurchSupport for private and religious education
40 PRD (Left of Center) PRD considered PRI’s opposition to the Left Presidential candidate in 1988 & 1994 was Cuahtemoc Cardenas (son of Lazaro Cardenas)In 1988 Cardenas won 31.1% of the official vote, and PRD captured 139 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (500 total)Many believe had it been an honest election Cardenas would have wonPRD has been plagued by poor organization, lack of charismatic leadership, and most importantly the lack of an economic alternative to the market-oriented policies of the PRI and PANAndres Lopez Obrador, former mayor of Mexico City, was the PRD candidate for president in the election. He lost by a slim margin to Calderon (PAN)
41 ElectionsCitizens in Mexico directly elect the president, Chamber of Deputy Representatives, and Senators as well as most local & state officials.Elections are generally competitive, specifically in urban areas
42 ElectionsEach of Mexico’s 31 states elects three senators, 2 are determined by majority vote, the other is determined by whichever party receives the second highest number of votes32 senate seats are determined nationally through a system of proportional representation that divides the seats according to the number of votes cast for each party (128 Senate seats in total)In the Chamber of Deputies, 300 seats are determined by plurality within single-member districts, and 200 are chosen by proportional representation
43 Election of 2000PAN/PRD candidate Vicente Fox won presidency (43% of the vote compared to 36% garnered for PRI candidate Francisco Labastida)PAN captured 208 of 500 deputies in lower housePRI captured 209 deputy seats in the lower housePAN won 46 senate seats; PRI won 60 senate seatsNew, competitive election system has encouraged coalitions to form to the right & left of the PRISplit in votes has encourage gridlock, phenomenon unknown to Mexico under the old PRI-controlled governmentsElection of 2006 – closely contested election, won by PAN candidate Felipe Calderon by narrow margin over PRD candidate Andres Lopez Obrador
44 Interest Groups & Popular Movements Corporatist structure allowed for accommodation of interest groupBusiness Interests – networked with political leaders to protect the growth of commerce, finance, industry, and agricultureLabor – accommodated within system, wage levels for union workers increased from , until economic crisis of lowering oil prices caused wages to drop. Power of union bosses has decreased as unions weaken and members become more independentRural/Peasant Organizations – encouraged under PRI through the ejido system that granted land from the government to these organizations. Since 1980s groups have demanded greater independence from the government, and supported movements for better prices for crops, and access to markets and credit. Joined with other groups to promote better education, health services, and environmental practicesUrban/Popular Movements – concerned about social welfare spending, city services, neighborhood improvement, economic development, feminism, and professional identity. As groups become more independent and grow in strength the government and political system must negotiate with them, and in doing so transform the political culture
45 MediaPart of the patron-client system under the PRI, with rewards and favors doled out in return for political supportHave become more independent as PRI-political structure has been reorganizedMany Mexicans have access to international newspapers, magazines, CNN and the BBC“Toallagate” Scandal – overpriced towels at President Fox’s mansion“Comes y te vas” – Fidel Castro-U.N. meeting incident
46 XVIII. Government Institutions Mexico is a federal republic, though state and local governments have little independent power and few resourcesExecutive branch has held majority of the power historicallyLegislative & Judicial branch followed the executive’s lead, rubber-stamping most presidential decisionsMexico has traditionally been an authoritarian and corporatist regime
47 Executive Branch Center of policy-making Sexenio: non-renewable six-year term (Under PRI similar to dictator)Selected successorAppointed officials to all positions of power in the governmentNamed PRI candidates for other public officesUntil mid-1970s Mexican presidents were above criticism and people revered them as symbols of national progress and well-beingManaged huge patronage systemControl over “rubber-stamp” CongressPresident Ernesto Zedillo ( ) –relinquished number of traditional powers of the president, including naming the PRI candidate for the 2000 electionPresident Fox inherited the presidency in a time of transitionPresident still viewed as all powerful, but blamed for shortcomingsHarder for Fox to accomplish political goals without strong party support in the post-PRI Congress
48 BureaucracyAbout 1.5 million people employed by federal government (Most in Mexico City)High & Middle level officials have a good deal of powerUnder PRI corruption and bribes quite common amongst officials in the bureaucracyParastatal Sector – semiautonomous government agencies that often produce goods & servicesPEMEXAfter 1980’s oil bust reforms cut the number of para-statals, and many are now privately ownedPresident Fox tried unsuccessfully to privatize PEMEX
49 Legislature Bicameral Chamber of Deputies (500-member)300 deputies from single-member districts (plurality)200 deputies chosen by proportional representationSenate (128-member)3 senators from each of the 31 states & the federal district(96)Remaining 32 selected by proportional representationAll legislators directly electedUntil 1980s legislature remained under strict control of the presidentPRI’s lost hold on legislature earlier than it did on the presidencyLost majority in the Chamber of Deputies in 1997Women in both houses has risen significantly since 1996 election law required parties to sponsor female candidatesParties must run at least 30% female candidates for proportional representation and single-member district elections113 of 500 deputies in Chamber are female20 of 128 Senators are also female
50 JudiciaryStrong judicial branch necessary for a country to operate on the “Rule of Law”Mexico does not have an independent judiciary or judicial review systemMost laws are federal, limiting the authority of state courtsSupreme CourtOn paper has judicial review, but it never overrules important government policy or actionsHistorically has been controlled by the executive branchJudges appointed for life, but in practice resigned at the beginning of each sexenioPresident Ernesto Zedillo ( ) attempted to strengthen courts by emphasizing the rule of law, he refused to interfere with court judgments and President Fox continued this policyFox tried to work for an independent judiciary but seems to have come up short on this endeavor
51 Military Dominated Mexican political life into the early 20th century PRI dramatically cutback the political power of generals (even former military generals who became presidents acted to separate the military from politics)Calles and Cardenas de-politicized the militaryContinually moved generals to different regions of the country not allowing them to develop a regional base of powerPresidents traded favors with military officers to allow them economic power, if not political powerGovernment control of the military one of PRI’s most important accomplishmentsStrong ties between military officers and drug baronsMilitary heavily involved in drug-enforcementPatron-client system of favors and loyalty has led some military officers to accept money from drug lords in return for allegiance and securityGeneral Jesus Gutierrez Rebollo (Head of anti-drug task force) arrested in 1997 on accusations of protecting a drug lord
52 XIX. Policies & Issues Economy “Mexican Miracle” Problems economy grew more than 6% per yearIndustrial production up nearly 9% per year during 1960sAgricultural share of production down: 25% to 11%Manufacturing share of production up: 25% to 34%ProblemsGrowing gap between rich & poorRapid/Unplanned Urbanization
53 Economics II Debt Crisis Mexican government borrowed heavily in order to industrializeMost of the economic growth based on oil economyOil plummet in 1982, caused Mexican economy to plummet as well1987, Mexico over $107 billion in debt, debt represented 70% of GNP
54 Economics IIIReformBegun by President Miguel de la Madrid in 1982, continued by presidents Salinas & Zedillo (the tecnicos)Sharp cuts in Government Spending – according to agreements with the IMF, World Bank, and the U.S. Mexico greatly reduced government spending by eliminating public enterprises, cutting government subsidies, and cutting hundreds of thousands of public jobsDebt Reduction – with assistance from U.S. the Mexican government reached agreement to reduce interest rates on loans and allow for more lenient repayment plans. Mexico still pays on average about $10 billion a year on loan interestsPrivatization – many government industries were privatized, in 1990 President Salinas returned the banks to the private sector. Special laws like duty-free importing of components and cheap labor led foreign companies to invest in Mexican manufacturing plantsBetween 2001 and 2003 Mexico economy suffered from the post-September 11 U.S. recession. In 2004, the economy grew by 4.1% but an estimated 40% of the Mexican population still lived below the poverty line
55 Foreign PolicyGATT/WTO – in 1986 Mexico joined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the precursor to the World Trade OrganizationNAFTA – economics still dominates even in terms of foreign policyImmigration & Drug Trafficking – America still the key focus for Mexican foreign policy
56 Issues of Democracy Election Reform CFE (Federal Election Reform) – created as an independent regulatory body to safeguard honest and accurate election resultsCampaign Finance Restriction – laws that limit campaign contributionsInternational Watch Teams – so Mexico could convince other countries that elections are fair and competitiveElection monitoring – done by opposition party members
57 Fox’s Legacy Pluralism Decentralization Electoral Reform Rule of Law Anti-Narcotics Policy
58 “Ya Basta” Zapatista Movement Lives On (EZLN) EZLN – began in 1994 in Chiapas in protest of the signing of the NAFTA treatyViewed agreement as a continued exploitation of landowners and PRI bossesEZLN captured four towns demanding jobs, land, housing, food, health, education, independence, freedom, democracy, justice and peaceRebellion originally based on ethnicity – Amerindian – but spread to other factions of societyZapatista supporters were black ski masks to hide their identity from the governmentAlthough a moderate truce was announced with the government, the Fox administration was unable to negotiate a settlement to the dispute with the Zapatistas despite numerous efforts to do soZapatistas represent the stance against all that is still wrong with Mexican politics