4 North economy based on manufacturing and industrialization railroad construction very commonurbanization (growth of cities)immigration from European countries was common
5 Southeconomy based on agriculture and slavery – cotton was the major cash cropprimarily a rural region of plantations and small farmslack of railroads and industryno significant European immigration to the South
6 Slavery in the Territories Wilmot Proviso – def. – plan to ban slavery from expanding into lands won from Mexico during the Mexican WarSIG – sparked sectional conflict over slavery issue – North vs. SouthCalifornia applied for statehood as a free stateGold Rush of 1849 led to an explosion in California’s populationUpset Southerners – demanded that slavery be allowed to expand West
7 The Compromise of 1850Background: Henry Clay (aka “The Great Compromiser”) - wanted to avoid conflict between North and South, developed a compromiseCalifornia = free stateNew Mexico and Utah territories would use popular sovereignty to decide slavery issuePopular sovereignty – def. – the residents of a territory would vote for or against slavery
8 The Compromise of 1850New Mexico and Texas border dispute settled in favor of New Mexico, but Texas received debts paid by federal governmentSlave trade in Washington D.C. was abolishedVery popular in the North, very controversial in the SouthNew Fugitive Slave Law passed in order to return escaped slaves to plantations in the SouthVery popular in the South, very controversial in the North
9 Protest, Resistance, and Violence Chapter 10 - Section 2
10 Protest, Resistance, and Violence Main Idea – Proslavery factions in the South and antislavery factions in the North disagreed over the treatment of fugitive slaves and the spread of slavery to the territories. This resulted in increased sectionalism between the regions.
11 Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad Fugitive Slave LawUnderground RailroadUncle Tom’s CabinHarriet Tubman
12 Fugitive Slave LawNortherners angered by the new Fugitive Slave Law - part of the Compromise of 1850runaway slaves could NOT testify in court and no trial by juryHelping an escaped slave resulted in fines and jail time
13 Underground Railroad– def. – secret network of abolitionists who would help fugitive slaves escape to the North and CanadaUnderground RailroadHarriet Tubman – former slave and “conductor” on the underground railroadMade 19 trips and helped 300 people to freedomNicknamed “Moses” of her people for her effortsFrederick Douglass
14 Uncle Tom’s Cabin(1852) – antislavery novel written by Harriet Beecher StoweAttacked the institution of slavery as evil, became a bestseller in the NorthSIG – increased sectional tensions between North and South
15 Tensions in Kansas Kansas-Nebraska Act “Bleeding Kansas” “Bleeding Sumner”
16 Kansas-Nebraska Act(1854) – Stephen Douglas’ plan to organize territories in the WestPopular sovereignty - settlers in the territories would vote for or against slavery in both Kansas and NebraskaRepealed the Missouri Compromise – Kansas and Nebraska were both north of the ’ parallel line (slavery had been banned North of that line)SIG – sectional tensions exploded – Northerners resented the idea that slavery could expand to lands where slavery had been bannedled to the formation of the Republican Party
17 “Bleeding Kansas”– violence erupted as pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers rushed to Kansas and began fighting with each otherTwo rival governments were set up for the Kansas territoryPro-slavery capital = LecomptonAnti-slavery capital = Topeka“Sack of Lawrence” – pro-slavery men burned and looted an anti-slavery town“Pottawatomie Massacre” – John Brown (an abolitionist) murdered 5 slave owners with broad-swords in KansasSIG – Kansas erupted in its own civil war
18 “Bleeding Sumner”–Senator Charles Sumner (Massachusetts) was beaten with a cane by Preston Brooks (South Carolina) in the U.S. SenateSIG – sectional tensions increased – North defended Sumner, South cheered Brooks
19 ActivityOn the map provided label Free States and Slave States as well as territories open to slavery.Make sure your map is colored!!!
27 Slavery and SecessionMain Idea – A series of controversial events heightened the sectional conflict that brought the nation to the brink of civil war.
28 Slavery Dominates Politics President James BuchananDred Scott v. Sandford (aka Dred Scott Decision)Lincoln-Douglas DebatesJohn Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry
29 James Buchanan President elected in 1856 Weak and indecisive at dealing with the slavery issueTypical of ineffective presidential leadership in the 1850s
30 Dred Scott v. Sandford Dred Scott Decision (1857) Background: Dred Scott – African American slave from Missouri who sued for his freedom because his master had moved him to the free state of IllinoisRoger B. Taney (Chief Justice) - ruled thatAfrican Americans were not citizensMissouri Compromise line was unconstitutional because it violated property rightsSIG – sectionalism exploded – decision hated by North and cheered by SouthDred Scott
31 Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates on slavery in the western territories as part of their senate race in 1858SIG - Douglas won the senate race, but Lincoln became known throughout the North as a possible presidential candidate in 1860
32 John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry (1859)John Brown – abolitionist who wanted to lead a slave revolt in the SouthHarpers Ferry – federal armory and arsenalBrown’s goal was to capture weapons for slaves and lead revoltJohn Brown was captured and hanged for treasonSIG – sectionalism between North and South explodedIn the South, John Brown was viewed as an evil murdererIn the North, some people viewed Brown as a heroic martyr, others agreed with his views but thought that he was too radical in his actions
33 Lincoln is Elected President Election of 1860 – revealed sectionalism between the North and South
34 Election of 1860 Candidates Abraham Lincoln (Republican) Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat)John C. Breckenridge (Southern Democrat)John Bell (Constitutional Union Party)Lincoln Douglass Debate
35 Election of 1860Lincoln won electoral college but only won 39% of popular voteHe won all northern statesHe won no southern statesSIG – South was upset at Lincoln’s election – led directly to secession crisisLincoln
36 Southern SecessionSecession CrisisConfederate States of America
37 Secession Crisis( )South Carolina – seceded from the Union as a result of Lincoln’s electionFollowed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas
38 Confederate States of America (CSA) – Confederacy created by southern states that seceded from the UnionEmphasized states rightsDevoted to the protection of slaveryJefferson Davis = president of the CSAPresident Buchanan did nothing in response to the secession crisis = ineffective leader
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