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Culturally Responsive Teaching A Pedagogical Paradigm Shift Épryl King, M.Ed. Doctoral Candidate Indiana University of Pennsylvania This session is designed.

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Presentation on theme: "Culturally Responsive Teaching A Pedagogical Paradigm Shift Épryl King, M.Ed. Doctoral Candidate Indiana University of Pennsylvania This session is designed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Culturally Responsive Teaching A Pedagogical Paradigm Shift Épryl King, M.Ed. Doctoral Candidate Indiana University of Pennsylvania This session is designed to allow participants to think differently about the instruction of diverse groups of students. Through the research of Geneva Gay (2000) and Gloria Ladson-Billings (1995), culturally responsive and relevant pedagogical practices have espoused to meet the needs of diverse learners. This session helps educators to better understand their role in meeting the needs of these learners and equips them with strategies to close educational gaps, while addressing the whole child.

2 Why Culturally Responsive Teaching? And why me? 2006, Masters, Gannon Univ. - Black/White Achievement Gap Focus Countywide Professional Development, Closing Achievement Gaps Contact/collaboration with University of Pittsburgh, Duquesne University, Harvard University Communication with PSEA leadership, Legislative, MAC Committees Research Advisory Committees, Pitt, IUP PSEA Northwest Regional, Minority Leadership Conferences, Gettysburg NEA/RA, Washington DC Founding of non-profit, RAMP (Raising Achievement in Monroeville and Pitcairn, Inc.) Presentations – International Conference at University of Pittsburgh Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University PA-NAME (National Association of Multicultural Education), Millersville Univ. Dissertation Focus

3 Differentiated Instruction Interest Readiness Learning profile

4 Culturally Responsive Teaching Interest getting to know your students through their cultural background, and using that information to help them learn

5 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT Identify characteristics of CRT Apply characteristics of CRT to develop CRT lessons Become equipped with to guide implementation of CRT resources

6 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT Indications of differences by race honors/AP courses standardized test scores (NAEP, PSSA) graduation rates college entrance, matriculation rates career/profession obtainment wealth health conviction rates

7 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT from a historical perspective… How did inequities arise with diverse cultural groups?

8 Historical Challenges of Being a Country with Diverse Ethnic Groups Early laws/court rulings enacted to marginalize minority groups 1793, 1850 Fugitive Slave Act 1793, 1850 Fugitive Slave Act 1790 Naturalization Act excluded Asians from naturalized citizenship Southern States outlawed educating slaves to read and write 1830 The Indian Removal Act 1830 The Indian Removal Act 1872 California school code provides no public education for any minority 1882 Chinese Exclusion Law banned all Chinese workers from U.S Plessy Decision (separate but equal) 1941 Internment of Japanese Americans into concentration camps (Nelson, Palonsky & McCarthy, 2010; Spring, 2010; NCLB 2001)

9 Historical Challenges of Being a Country with Diverse Ethnic Groups Later laws which set to help minority groups 1927 U.S. Supreme Court rules in favor of Japanese language in Hawaii schools 1954 Brown vs. Board (ended segregation) Hernandez vs. Texas 1961, 1965 Affirmative Action 1965 Immigration Act – ended discrimination against Asians 1968 Bilingual Education ActBilingual Education Act 1970 Cisneros v. Corpus Christi (Brown vs. Board applied to Mexican-Americans) 1972 Indian Education ActIndian Education Act 1974 Lau v. Nichols (guaranteed assistance for non-English speaking students to learn English) (Nelson, Palonsky & McCarthy, 2010; Spring, 2010; NCLB 2001)

10 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT Indications of differences by race honors/AP courses standardized test scores (NAEP, PSSA) graduation rates college entrance, matriculation rates career/profession obtainment wealth health conviction rates

11 Gateway’sGateway’s 2012 PSSA Scores2012 PSSA Scores Mathematics All 77% White 82% Black 60% Hispanic 62% ED 68% IEP 44% Reading All 78% White 83% Black 60% Hispanic 65% ED 66% IEP 45%

12 Gateway’s 2012 PSSA Scores Mathematics All 77% White 82% Black 60% Hispanic 62% ED 68% IEP 44% Reading All 78% White 83% Black 60% Hispanic 65% ED 66% IEP 45%

13 Gateway’s 2012 PSSA Scores “There are virtually no racial or social class differences in mental ability among infants before their first birthday and a few social class indicators are able to explain the small differences that do exist.” – Harvard Achievement Gap Initiative

14 Holistic Approach The body of research points to all stakeholders in an effort to close achievement gaps All Stakeholders Parents Teachers Administrators Community

15 Holistic Approach The body of research points to all stakeholders in an effort to close achievement gaps All Stakeholders Parents Teachers Administrators Community

16 Culturally Responsive Teaching “can be defined as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of reference, and performance styles of ethnically diverse students to make learning encounters more relevant to and effective for them. It teaches to and through the strengths of these students” (Gay, 2000, p.29). Culturally Responsive Teaching

17 …is something that we already do, and for centuries has been directed at mainstream culture. Pictures in textbooks Choices of literature taught Learning of scientist, inventors, musicians, theories, history These have mostly appealed to mainstream (white, middle class) society. Culturally Responsive Teaching…

18 “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal curriculum. “Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the following characteristics:”

19 “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal curriculum. It builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school experiences as well as between academic abstractions and lived socio-cultural realities. “Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the following characteristics:”

20 “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal curriculum. It builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school experiences as well as between academic abstractions and lived socio-cultural realities. It uses a wide variety of instructional strategies that are connected to different learning styles “Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the following characteristics:”

21 “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal curriculum. It builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school experiences as well as between academic abstractions and lived socio-cultural realities. It uses a wide variety of instructional strategies that are connected to different learning styles It teaches students to know and praise their own and each others’ cultural heritages. “Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the following characteristics:”

22 “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal curriculum. It builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school experiences as well as between academic abstractions and lived socio-cultural realities. It uses a wide variety of instructional strategies that are connected to different learning styles It teaches students to know and praise their own and each others’ cultural heritages. It incorporates multicultural information, resources, and materials in all the subjects and skills routinely taught in schools” (Gay, 2000, p29). “Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the following characteristics:”

23 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT Identify characteristics of CRT Apply characteristics of CRT to develop CRT activities Become equipped with resources to guide implementation of CRT

24 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT Identify characteristics of CRT Apply characteristics of CRT to develop CRT activities Become equipped with resources to guide implementation of CRT

25 Is Validating Comprehensive Multidimensional Empowering Transformative Emancipatory Descriptive Characteristics of Culturally Responsive Teaching

26 Use cultural references “using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes” (Ladson-Billings, 1992, p.382). How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?

27 Use cultural references “using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes” (Ladson-Billings, 1992, p.382). This is empowering and helps to combat the learned helplessness that permeates our many cultural groups How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?

28 The gravity of “CARING” According to Ronald Ferguson (2002), the MSAN student survey of 2001 shows that African- American and Hispanic students attributed their successes to “teacher encouragement” as opposed to “teacher expectations” to do well. How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?

29 Know and use your resources: Internet, Journal Articles Television and movies are one of the most impactful ways that people are socialized. Carefully select those that will inform you of historical and current cultural practices and values. Text is wide and expansive. Magazines that espouse the general values of cultural groups are helpful…Ex. Jet, Ebony Magazines How do I get to know my students’ cultural backgrounds better?

30 Incorporate characteristics of CRT throughout instruction and across content areas (this is our main focus for today) How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?

31 Use parents as resources and extensions of the educational team Parents face many different challenges in educating their children. Many will benefit from your expertise in sending newsletters or other educational material home with students to help parents better support their children’s education at home How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?

32 Include parents in the homework process (Epstein & Voorhis) – TIPS * 1x or 2x a month * Includes directions for parent * Student must interact with parent to complete the assignment * This helps promote student/parent interaction with homework How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?

33 90/90/90 Schools (Douglas Reeves) – Dame-Dame Schools (University of Pittsburgh) 75% or more African-American 75% or more low-income backgrounds 75% or more proficient (Gold standard is 85% in all three categories, and proficient in both reading and math) What are some examples of successful schools?

34 NameEnrollmentCity % Black % Poor % At/Above in Reading Proficiency % At/Above in Math Proficiency Franklin Square Elementary (preK-5) 286 Baltimore MD KIPP Ujima Village Academy (5-8) 394 Baltimore MD Independence High (9-12) 909Columbus OH

35 What are some examples of successful schools? Locally Pittsburgh Public Schools (Fulton Academy) High percentage of African-American students High percentage of students from low-income backgrounds 2012 PSSA Scores All Students Math = 87% Black Students Math = 86% (n=113/129) All Students Reading = 62% Black Students Reading = 60%

36 For Comparison 5 Year Trend in Reading PSSAs by Subgroup Gateway School District Overall Results (3-8, 11) Subgroup % Proficient WhiteAfrican AmericanHispanic

37 For Comparison 5 Year Trend in Math PSSAs by Subgroup Gateway School District Overall Results Subgroup % Proficient WhiteAfrican AmericanHispanic

38 For Comparison 2005 PSSAs in Math and Reading Moss Side Middle School Subgroup % Proficient WhiteAfrican AmericanHispanic 2005 Math 6240n/a 2005 Reading 7347n/a

39 What does a culturally responsive classroom or lesson look like? Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning (8:53), 2:40 – lesson example * Introduction to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (4:40) (1:08 – 3:00) (3:52-4:15) (Gay, 2000) * Gloria Ladson-Billings Cultural Competency (3:10)

40 What do the expert scholars say? Who are Culturally Competent Teachers? * Introduction to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (4:40) (1:08 – 3:00) (3:52-4:15) (Gay, 2000) * Gloria Ladson-Billings Cultural Competency (3:10) ( :47-2:21) * Culturally Responsive Teaching (Multiple Histories) – (3:00) Looking at multiple histories…how people change their trajectories

41 What Culturally Responsive Teaching Is Not: Standardized test prep – teaching students how to take test Culturally Responsive Teaching… Immerses students in activities and contexts that are culturally meaningful and relevant. It builds bridges from that meaning to other contexts (text to text). It makes learning more efficient and teaching more effective. Because students have learned they will do better on tests.

42 Multicultural Curriculum – Fifth Grade Science/Math Lesson Plan: Egyptian hieroglyphs Diversity in Mathematics: Census Statistics in Utah What does a sample culturally responsive lesson plan look like?

43 Reading: authentic multicultural literature skills areas situated within a cultural context Science, Math: skills areas situated within a cultural context contributions of different backgrounds reflected in lessons Social Studies: minority perspectives reflected in historical accounts, key events, implications on today’s society What does CRT look like in different subjects?

44 What might a culturally responsive lesson plan look like using our KUD Lesson Plan Template? Second Grade Reading Comprehension Lesson: Character

45 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT Identify characteristics of CRT Apply characteristics of CRT to analyze or develop CRT lesson Become equipped with resources to guide implementation of CRT

46 Steps to developing a Culturally Responsive repertoire First, get to know your students’ background Identify cultures develop relationships talk to parents use media resources Draw from that knowledge to develop culturally responsive lessons.

47 Culturally Responsive Teaching Resources Contributions of Minorities to United States Culture (quick examples) The Hispanic American.com american-scientist-02/ american-inventor-02/ Native American Scientists Buzzle Contributions of Minorities to U.S. Culture

48 Culturally Responsive Teaching Resources Contributions of Minorities to U.S. History (quick examples) Trail of Tears, Pt. 1 Documentary Slavery and the Making of America (Chapter 1) "The Capture" (clips from Amistad) A Short History of Asians in America Hispanic Americans Univision: The New American Reality Immigration to the United States, (Harvard University Library)

49 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT Identify characteristics of CRT Apply characteristics of CRT to analyze or develop CRT activities Become equipped with resources to guide implementation of CRT

50 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT Identify characteristics of CRT Apply characteristics of CRT to analyze or develop CRT activities Become equipped with resources to guide implementation of CRT

51 Where can you find information about the cultures represented in your classroom? Here’s a start. Historical Contributions, Cultural History Scientists, mathematicians, inventors Representative Literature Literature by and/or about the race/culture represented.

52 Agenda/Objectives Understand the background/rationale for CRT Identify characteristics of CRT Apply characteristics of CRT to analyze or develop CRT activities Become equipped with resources to guide implementation of CRT

53 Develop a culturally responsive lesson plan Let’s put what we’ve learned into action! K-4 th Grade Teachers (Storytown Manuals) Group by grade level if you can. Select a major concept/skill in Reading and develop a culturally responsive Reading Lesson 5 th -6 th Grade Teachers (Either Storytown or Math Manuals) Group by subject/grade area: Reading Math Select a major concept/skill in Reading or Math and develop a culturally responsive lesson

54 References Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. (pp ). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Ferguson & Martin, The love to read survey. The Achievement Gap Initiative at Harvard University. Retrieved from: Ladson-Billings, G. (1992a). Culturally relevant teaching: The key to making multicultural education work. In C.A. Grant (Ed.), Research and multicultural education (pp ). London: Falmer Press. Ladson-Billings, G. (1992b). Liberatory consequences of literacy: A case of culturally relevant instruction for African-American students. Journal of Negro Education, 61, Ladson-Billings, G. (1992c). Reading between the lines and beyond the pages: A culturally relevant approach to literacy teaching. Theory Into Practice, 31, Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). But that’s just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory Into Practice, 34, Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012, August 19). State Report Card Retrieved August 19, 2012 from: Taylor, J., Orgass, S., Kouyatè, M., & King, E. (in preparation). A Gardening Metaphor: Framework for Closing and Reversing Racial Achievement Gaps in America. Department of Africana Studies, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

55 Evaluation I value your feedback as to what could help make this presentation more effective in the future. Please take a moment to complete a short, anonymous evaluation of this session. Thank you. Épryl King, M.Ed., Doctoral Candidate Indiana University of Pennsylvania


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