Learning from comparison Generation of hypotheses, greater variation Cross-national data not causation Self-reported data in surveys Transfer in context, no single policy lever Some questions are not resolved by empirical evidence How does the practice work in context? How does the context differ? What adjustments are necessary?
Difficult tradeoffs Local control vs. national standards – Most countries have national standards – They enable economies of scale in the preparation of instructional material – Allow alignment of instruction to those standards and as a result can get students to perform better in those assessments – Is this better than allowing parents and local communities to decide what their children should learn?
Limitations of knowledge base Selective view of reality. For instance, much information on literacy, numeracy and science. Limited information on civic competencies. But most countries teach civics and citizenship skills. Finland. Limitations to define teacher quality as ability to produce value added in a limited set of assessment instruments.
What do teachers need to know and be able to do? Subject matter Pedagogical knowledge Differentiate instruction Learners development Technology Work with others
Professional Standards for Teachers (1) Application. The Professional Standards for Teachers define the pedagogical and other professional knowledge and skills required of all teachers. These Standards are used by teacher preparation providers in preparing their candidates, by the Department in reviewing programs seeking state approval, and by the Department as the basis of performance assessments of candidates. Candidates shall demonstrate that they meet the Professional Standards by passing a Performance Assessment for Initial License: (a) In the practicum or practicum equivalent phase of preparation for the Initial License; or (b) As part of the Performance Assessment Program. The Department will issue guidelines for each type of performance assessment to reflect differences in growth in professional knowledge and skills.
(a) Plans Curriculum and Instruction. (b) Delivers Effective Instruction. (c) Manages Classroom Climate and Operation. (d) Promotes Equity. (e) Meets Professional Responsibilities.
(a) Plans Curriculum and Instruction. Draws on content standards of the relevant curriculum frameworks to plan sequential units of study, individual lessons, and learning activities that make learning cumulative and advance students' level of content knowledge. Draws on results of formal and informal assessments as well as knowledge of human development to identify teaching strategies and learning activities appropriate to the specific discipline, age, level of English language proficiency, and range of cognitive levels being taught. Identifies appropriate reading materials, other resources, and writing activities for promoting further learning by the full range of students within the classroom. Identifies prerequisite skills, concepts, and vocabulary needed for the learning activities. Plans lessons with clear objectives and relevant measurable outcomes. Draws on resources from colleagues, families, and the community to enhance learning. Incorporates appropriate technology and media in lesson planning. Uses information in Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) to plan strategies for integrating students with disabilities into general education classrooms.
(b) Delivers Effective Instruction. Communicates high standards and expectations when beginning the lesson: – Makes learning objectives clear to students. – Communicates clearly in writing and speaking. – Uses engaging ways to begin a new unit of study or lesson. – Builds on students' prior knowledge and experience.
How do we produce those skills? Fundamental attribution error Good teachers and Good teaching Developing Quality results from a series of processes
Recruitment Pay and benefits Working conditions. Management styles and leadership styles. Status Initial Preparation Teacher Development and support Employment Conditions Teacher Evaluation and Compensation Teacher engagement in reform