Presentation on theme: "Diabetes ABCs Provided Courtesy of RD411.com"— Presentation transcript:
1 Diabetes ABCs Provided Courtesy of RD411.com Where health care professionals gofor informationDiabetes ABCsContributed by Shawna Gornick-Ilagan, MS, RD, CWPCReview Date 8/09 D-0549
2 DisclaimerThis presentation should not substitute or replace any medical advice prescribed by your doctorThe presentation is meant to provide you with general health information to empower you and your family to prevent or manage diabetes
3 Objectives What is diabetes? What are my risks of getting it? How can I prevent diabetes?How do I manage diabetes if I get it?What do the ABCs stand for?
4 What Is DiabetesDiabetes is a condition in which the body is unable to properly utilize blood sugarEvery time you eat, your body converts your food into blood sugar. The larger the meal (carbohydrates break down into blood sugar the quickest), the more blood glucose you will have circulating in your bloodstream. Insulin is a hormone secreted by your pancreas that gets the blood sugar into the cell. Every cell in your body needs blood sugar to survive. As you can see in the first chart, this person ate a small breakfast and lunch and a very large dinner. This would not bother most people, because the pancreas will release insulin to stabilize your blood sugar to a normal value, but when you have diabetes, this will not happen.
5 What’s Your Diabetes IQ? If you want, you can hand out paper and pencils, so that attendees can write down their answers.
6 Diabetes IQ Test Every 24 hours: More than 1000 adults are diagnosed with diabetesMore than 2000 adults are diagnosed with diabetesMore than 3000 adults are diagnosed with diabetesMore than 4000 adults are diagnosed with diabetes
7 Diabetes IQ Test Every 24 hours: About 10 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 1 diabetesAbout 20 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 1 diabetesAbout 30 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 1 diabetesAbout 40 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes
8 Diabetes IQ Test Every 24 hours: 2 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes5 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes8 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes10 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes
9 Diabetes IQ Test Every 24 hours: Approximately 50 people die from diabetesApproximately 100 people die from diabetesApproximately 150 people die from diabetesApproximately 200 people die from diabetes
10 Diabetes IQ Test Every 24 hours: 50 people with diabetes have a nontraumatic lower-limb amputation100 people with diabetes have a nontraumatic lower-limb amputation150 people with diabetes have a nontraumatic lower-limb amputation200 people with diabetes have a nontraumatic lower-limb amputation
11 Diabetes IQ Test Every 24 hours: About 30 people with diabetes develop kidney failureAbout 60 people with diabetes develop kidney failureAbout 90 people with diabetes develop kidney failureAbout 130 people with diabetes develop kidney failure
12 Diabetes IQ Test Every 24 hours: Nearly 5 adults with diabetes go blindNearly 15 adults with diabetes go blindNearly 25 adults with diabetes go blindNearly 50 adults with diabetes go blindQuiz derived from information found at
13 Answer Key The correct answer for all questions— d. Over the years, high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) damages nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as:Heart diseaseStrokeKidney diseaseBlindnessNerve problemsGum infectionsAmputation
14 What Are the Symptoms? Some people do not have symptoms Other people have experienced these symptoms:Increased thirstIncreased urinationWeight loss without tryingBlurred visionIncreased hungerIncreased fatigue
15 Types of Diabetes The three types of diabetes: Type 1 (juvenile diabetes, insulin dependent: %-10%Type 2 (adult onset, noninsulin dependent): %-95%Gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy): 2%-5%PrediabetesCenters for Disease Control estimates that 57 million Americans age 20+ have prediabetes
16 Normal Process Insulin Islet cells are located in the pancreas and make hormones, including insulin,…
17 Diabetes: Type 1glucagon, somatomammotropin, and pancreatic polypeptide. In some people, the immune system produces islet cell antibodies, which attack and destroy the islet cells as though they were foreign substances; this can lead to serious health conditions, such as type 1 diabetes.
20 Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors Family history of type 1 diabetes: 10%-15%Race: White people have a greater riskPresence of islet cell antibodies in the bloodPreventionCurrently no way to prevent type 1 diabetesCan prevent or delay the development of complications, such as:Vision, kidney, or heart failureBlood vessel and nerve diseasesPrevention: Keep blood sugar near normal levels
21 Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Factors Risk factors that you can not control:Family historyAgeRaceHistory of gestational diabetesRisk factors that you can control:Lose weight if overweightEat healthy and exerciseQuit smokingGet treatment if you have prediabetes, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol
22 Gestational DiabetesStay at a healthy weight and do not gain too much weight during pregnancyExercise regularly to help keep your blood sugar level within a safe range and to prevent gestational diabetes
23 Weight Gain Recommendations Weight Gain During PregnancyCategoryWeight Gain RecommendationsIf you began pregnancy at a normal weight25–35 poundsIf you began pregnancy underweight28–40 poundsIf you began pregnancy overweight15–25 poundsIf you are expecting twins35–45 pounds
24 Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL) How Is It Diagnosed?Fasting plasma glucose: Must fast for 8 hours or morePlasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)Diagnosis99 or belowNormalPrediabetes126 or aboveDiabetesdL=deciliter, mg=milligram
25 Glucose Testing Recommendations Blood glucose:During a regular physicalSymptoms suggesting hyperglycemia or hypoglycemiaDuring pregnancyDiabeticStarting at age 45 and every 3 years if normal results
27 PrediabetesIs prediabetes the same as impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting?Yes: Doctors sometimes refer to this state of elevated blood glucose levels as impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IGT/IFG), depending on which test was used to detect itSource: American Diabetes Association. Frequently asked questions about pre-diabetes. Available at: Accessed September 10, 2009.
28 Good NewsType 2 diabetes is preventable if you catch it early and make some changes in your lifestyle
30 Diabetes: Type 2 Insulin The reason why so many diabetes cases are preventable is because 90%-95% of all diabetes cases are type 2. What happens in type 2 diabetes is that extra fat is preventing the insulin from doing its job (to get sugar into the cell).
31 Bad News Type 2 diabetes is a condition that consumes your: Time Money Energy
32 How to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Maintaining a healthy weightIncreasing fruit and vegetable consumptionIncreasing fiber intakeDecreasing fat intakeExercisingBreastfeeding infants20% less likely to have diabetes and high cholesterol
33 Tips to Maintain a Healthy Weight Do not drink caloriesEat slowlyStay hydratedTry the low-fat or nonfat version of foodsChange habitsEat three meals each dayFocus on fruits and vegetablesGet enough fiber
34 Tips to Maintain a Healthy Weight Fruits and vegetablesCanned or frozenFrozen grapesPrepackagedMicrowaveableLow-fat dip5 servings/dayDietary fiberBeansOatmealWhole grainPastasCerealsBreadsAdults need grams (g)/day; children older than age 3 need their age plus 5 g (minimum recommendation)Source: Dwyer JT. Dietary fiber for children: how much? Pediatrics (serial online). 1995;96: Available at: Accessed September 10, 2009
35 Exercise RegularlyExercise regularly to help raise your high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the good cholesterol, and lower your low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the bad cholesterolAim for 30 minutes of activity or more on most days of the week
36 Decrease Saturated and Trans Fats Type of Harmful FatFood SourceSaturated fatAnimal products, such as meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, dairy products, lard, and butterCoconut, palm, and other tropical oilsTrans fatPartially hydrogenated vegetable oilsCommercial baked goods, such as crackers, cookies, and cakesFried foods, such as doughnuts and French friesShortening and margarine
37 Opt for Healthy Fats Type of Healthy Fat Food Source Monounsaturated fatOlive oil, peanut oil, and canola oilAvocadosNuts and seedsPolyunsaturated fatVegetable oils, such as safflower, corn, sunflower, soy, and cottonseed oilsOmega-3 fatty acidsFatty cold-water fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and herringFlaxseeds and flax oilWalnuts
38 Know Where to Look Lose weight—calories Lower cholesterol—saturated and trans fatsManage glucose—total carbohydrate
39 The Good News… A stands for A1c By managing the ABCs of diabetes, people with diabetes can reduce their risk of heart disease and strokeA stands for A1cB stands for body mass index (BMI) and blood pressureC stands for cholesterol
40 Average Blood Sugar Level A: Ask About Your A1cA1c ReadingAverage Blood Sugar Level6%135 mg/dL7%170 mg/dL8%205 mg/dL9%240 mg/dL10%275 mg/dL11%310 mg/dL12%345 mg/dLA1c measures average blood glucose over the last 3 monthsGet your A1c checked at least twice/year
41 Healthy Plate Format One fourth plate starch One fourth plate meat One half plate nonstarchy vegetables8 fluid ounces of reduced-fat milkOne serving of fruit
42 Cereal or Grain 15 g of carbohydrate=one serving One cereal or grain serving is:One slide of breadOne half of a hamburger bun¾ cup (C) of unsweetened cereal⅓ C cooked pasta3 C popcorn½ C cooked oatmeal
43 Fruit 15 g of carbohydrate=one serving One fruit serving is: ⅓ C of fruit juice½ C of canned fruitOne small piece of fruit, such as an apple
44 Milk or Dairy 15 g of carbohydrate=one serving One milk or dairy serving is:1 C of milk6 ounces of yogurt
45 Starch or Vegetables 15 g of carbohydrate=one serving One starch or vegetable serving is:⅓ C of beans½ C of corn or peas½ C of mashed potatoes
46 Quick Reference Chart for Eating With Diabetes Number of Exchanges/Day for Various Calorie LevelsCalories12001500180020002200Starch/Bread58101113Meat47Vegetable23FruitMilkFatSource: University of Maryland Medical Center. Diabetes diet—diabetic exchange lists. Available at: Accessed September 10, 2009.
47 B: BMI BMI is a number calculated from a person’s weight and height Higher BMI values are associated with risk for health problemsBMI goal=less than 25More information at
49 B: Beware of Your Blood Pressure High blood pressure raises your risk for heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney diseaseGet your blood pressure checked at every visitTarget blood pressure=less than 130/80
50 Key Steps for Lowering Blood Pressure Lose weightEat more fruits and vegetablesReduce the amount of salt in dietLower alcohol intakeQuit smokingTake blood pressure pills, if prescribedMany people require more than one pill
51 C: Check Your Cholesterol Several kinds of blood fats:Total and LDL (“lousy”) cholesterol—can narrow or block vesselsHDL (“healthy”) cholesterol—helps remove cholesterol depositsTriglycerides—can raise your risk for heart attack/stroke
52 Know Your Numbers Value Goals A1c Less than 7 Blood pressure Total cholesterolLess than 200LDL cholesterolLess than 100HDL cholesterolGreater than 40 (men)Greater than 50 (women)TriglyceridesLess than 150