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Diabetes ABCs Provided Courtesy of RD411.com Where health care professionals go for information Review Date 8/09 D-0549 Contributed by Shawna Gornick-Ilagan,

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Presentation on theme: "Diabetes ABCs Provided Courtesy of RD411.com Where health care professionals go for information Review Date 8/09 D-0549 Contributed by Shawna Gornick-Ilagan,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Diabetes ABCs Provided Courtesy of RD411.com Where health care professionals go for information Review Date 8/09 D-0549 Contributed by Shawna Gornick-Ilagan, MS, RD, CWPC

2 Disclaimer This presentation should not substitute or replace any medical advice prescribed by your doctor The presentation is meant to provide you with general health information to empower you and your family to prevent or manage diabetes

3 Objectives What is diabetes? What are my risks of getting it? How can I prevent diabetes? How do I manage diabetes if I get it? What do the ABCs stand for?

4 What Is Diabetes Diabetes is a condition in which the body is unable to properly utilize blood sugar

5

6 Diabetes IQ Test 1. Every 24 hours: a.More than 1000 adults are diagnosed with diabetes b.More than 2000 adults are diagnosed with diabetes c.More than 3000 adults are diagnosed with diabetes d.More than 4000 adults are diagnosed with diabetes

7 Diabetes IQ Test 2. Every 24 hours: a.About 10 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes b.About 20 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes c.About 30 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes d.About 40 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes

8 Diabetes IQ Test 3. Every 24 hours: a.2 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes b.5 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes c.8 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes d.10 children and adolescents are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes

9 Diabetes IQ Test 4. Every 24 hours: a.Approximately 50 people die from diabetes b.Approximately 100 people die from diabetes c.Approximately 150 people die from diabetes d.Approximately 200 people die from diabetes

10 Diabetes IQ Test 5. Every 24 hours: a.50 people with diabetes have a nontraumatic lower-limb amputation b.100 people with diabetes have a nontraumatic lower-limb amputation c.150 people with diabetes have a nontraumatic lower-limb amputation d.200 people with diabetes have a nontraumatic lower-limb amputation

11 Diabetes IQ Test 6. Every 24 hours: a.About 30 people with diabetes develop kidney failure b.About 60 people with diabetes develop kidney failure c.About 90 people with diabetes develop kidney failure d.About 130 people with diabetes develop kidney failure

12 Diabetes IQ Test 7. Every 24 hours: a.Nearly 5 adults with diabetes go blind b.Nearly 15 adults with diabetes go blind c.Nearly 25 adults with diabetes go blind d.Nearly 50 adults with diabetes go blind Quiz derived from information found at

13 Answer Key The correct answer for all questions— d. Over the years, high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) damages nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as: – Heart disease – Stroke – Kidney disease – Blindness – Nerve problems – Gum infections – Amputation

14 What Are the Symptoms? Some people do not have symptoms Other people have experienced these symptoms: – Increased thirst – Increased urination – Weight loss without trying – Blurred vision – Increased hunger – Increased fatigue

15 Types of Diabetes The three types of diabetes: –Type 1 (juvenile diabetes, insulin dependent: 5%-10% –Type 2 (adult onset, noninsulin dependent): 90%-95% –Gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy): 2%-5% Prediabetes –Centers for Disease Control estimates that 57 million Americans age 20+ have prediabetes

16 Normal Process Insulin

17 Diabetes: Type 1

18 Diabetes: Type 2 Insulin = Fat

19 Diabetes: Type 2 (Over Time)

20 Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors Family history of type 1 diabetes: 10%-15% Race: White people have a greater risk Presence of islet cell antibodies in the blood Prevention Currently no way to prevent type 1 diabetes Can prevent or delay the development of complications, such as: –Vision, kidney, or heart failure –Blood vessel and nerve diseases Prevention: Keep blood sugar near normal levels

21 Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Factors Risk factors that you can not control: –Family history –Age –Race –History of gestational diabetes Risk factors that you can control: –Lose weight if overweight –Eat healthy and exercise –Quit smoking –Get treatment if you have prediabetes, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol

22 Gestational Diabetes Stay at a healthy weight and do not gain too much weight during pregnancy Exercise regularly to help keep your blood sugar level within a safe range and to prevent gestational diabetes

23 Weight Gain During Pregnancy CategoryWeight Gain Recommendations If you began pregnancy at a normal weight 25–35 pounds If you began pregnancy underweight 28–40 pounds If you began pregnancy overweight 15–25 pounds If you are expecting twins35–45 pounds

24 How Is It Diagnosed? Fasting plasma glucose: Must fast for 8 hours or more Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL) Diagnosis 99 or belowNormal Prediabetes 126 or aboveDiabetes dL=deciliter, mg=milligram

25 Glucose Testing Recommendations Blood glucose: –During a regular physical –Symptoms suggesting hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia –During pregnancy –Diabetic Starting at age 45 and every 3 years if normal results

26 Prediabetes

27 Is prediabetes the same as impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting? Yes: Doctors sometimes refer to this state of elevated blood glucose levels as impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IGT/IFG), depending on which test was used to detect it Source: American Diabetes Association. Frequently asked questions about pre-diabetes. Available at: Accessed September 10, 2009.http://www.diabetes.org/pre-diabetes/faq.jsp

28 Good News Type 2 diabetes is preventable if you catch it early and make some changes in your lifestyle

29 85%-90% of Diabetes Is Preventable Preventable

30 Diabetes: Type 2 Insulin

31 Bad News Type 2 diabetes is a condition that consumes your: –Time –Money –Energy

32 How to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Maintaining a healthy weight Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption Increasing fiber intake Decreasing fat intake Exercising Breastfeeding infants –20% less likely to have diabetes and high cholesterol

33 Tips to Maintain a Healthy Weight Do not drink calories Eat slowly Stay hydrated Try the low-fat or nonfat version of foods Change habits Eat three meals each day Focus on fruits and vegetables Get enough fiber

34 Tips to Maintain a Healthy Weight Fruits and vegetables Canned or frozen Frozen grapes Prepackaged Microwaveable Low-fat dip 5 servings/day Dietary fiber Beans Oatmeal Whole grain – Pastas – Cereals – Breads Adults need grams (g)/day; children older than age 3 need their age plus 5 g (minimum recommendation) Source: Dwyer JT. Dietary fiber for children: how much? Pediatrics (serial online). 1995;96: Available at: Accessed September 10, 2009http://www.diabetes.org/pre-diabetes/faq.jsp

35 Exercise Regularly Exercise regularly to help raise your high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the good cholesterol, and lower your low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the bad cholesterol Aim for 30 minutes of activity or more on most days of the week

36 Decrease Saturated and Trans Fats Type of Harmful FatFood Source Saturated fat  Animal products, such as meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, dairy products, lard, and butter  Coconut, palm, and other tropical oils Trans fat  Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils  Commercial baked goods, such as crackers, cookies, and cakes  Fried foods, such as doughnuts and French fries  Shortening and margarine

37 Opt for Healthy Fats Type of Healthy FatFood Source Monounsaturated fat  Olive oil, peanut oil, and canola oil  Avocados  Nuts and seeds Polyunsaturated fat  Vegetable oils, such as safflower, corn, sunflower, soy, and cottonseed oils  Nuts and seeds Omega-3 fatty acids  Fatty cold-water fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and herring  Flaxseeds and flax oil  Walnuts

38 Know Where to Look Lose weight—calories Lower cholesterol— saturated and trans fats Manage glucose—total carbohydrate

39 The Good News… By managing the ABCs of diabetes, people with diabetes can reduce their risk of heart disease and stroke A stands for A1c B stands for body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure C stands for cholesterol

40 A: Ask About Your A1c A1c measures average blood glucose over the last 3 months Get your A1c checked at least twice/year A1c Reading Average Blood Sugar Level 6%135 mg/dL 7%170 mg/dL 8%205 mg/dL 9%240 mg/dL 10%275 mg/dL 11%310 mg/dL 12%345 mg/dL

41 Healthy Plate Format One fourth plate starch One fourth plate meat One half plate nonstarchy vegetables 8 fluid ounces of reduced-fat milk One serving of fruit

42 Cereal or Grain 15 g of carbohydrate=one serving One cereal or grain serving is: –One slide of bread –One half of a hamburger bun –¾ cup (C) of unsweetened cereal – ⅓ C cooked pasta –3 C popcorn –½ C cooked oatmeal

43 Fruit 15 g of carbohydrate=one serving One fruit serving is: – ⅓ C of fruit juice –½ C of canned fruit –One small piece of fruit, such as an apple

44 Milk or Dairy 15 g of carbohydrate=one serving One milk or dairy serving is: –1 C of milk –6 ounces of yogurt

45 Starch or Vegetables 15 g of carbohydrate=one serving One starch or vegetable serving is: – ⅓ C of beans –½ C of corn or peas –½ C of mashed potatoes

46 Quick Reference Chart for Eating With Diabetes Number of Exchanges/Day for Various Calorie Levels Calories Starch/Bread Meat Vegetable Fruit Milk Fat Source: University of Maryland Medical Center. Diabetes diet—diabetic exchange lists. Available at: healthy_diets_000042_5.htm. Accessed September 10, 2009.http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/what_general_guidelines_heart- healthy_diets_000042_5.htm

47 B: BMI BMI is a number calculated from a person’s weight and height Higher BMI values are associated with risk for health problems BMI goal=less than 25 More information at bmi/ bmi/

48 BMI (kg/m 2 ) Height Normal WeightIncreased RiskHigh Risk

49 B: Beware of Your Blood Pressure High blood pressure raises your risk for heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney disease Get your blood pressure checked at every visit Target blood pressure=less than 130/80

50 Key Steps for Lowering Blood Pressure Lose weight Eat more fruits and vegetables Reduce the amount of salt in diet Lower alcohol intake Quit smoking Take blood pressure pills, if prescribed –Many people require more than one pill

51 C: Check Your Cholesterol Several kinds of blood fats: –Total and LDL (“lousy”) cholesterol—can narrow or block vessels –HDL (“healthy”) cholesterol—helps remove cholesterol deposits –Triglycerides—can raise your risk for heart attack/stroke

52 Know Your Numbers ValueGoals A1cLess than 7 Blood pressureLess than 130/80 Total cholesterolLess than 200 LDL cholesterolLess than 100 HDL cholesterolGreater than 40 (men) Greater than 50 (women) TriglyceridesLess than 150


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