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ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence Like all LSPs, Like all LSPs, English for commercial correspondence has the following characteristics a social and/or.

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Presentation on theme: "ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence Like all LSPs, Like all LSPs, English for commercial correspondence has the following characteristics a social and/or."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence Like all LSPs, Like all LSPs, English for commercial correspondence has the following characteristics a social and/or professional setting a specific lexis a specific grammar specific information structuring and other communicative strategies

2 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence GOODCORRESPONDENCE=GOODCOMMUNICATION

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5 Phatic contactMessage transmission

6 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence Specific lexical choices in commercial correspondence are particularly evident in the phatic function: Specific lexical choices in commercial correspondence are particularly evident in the phatic function: “Dear Sir or Madam”, “Esq.”, “yours truly”, “yours faithfully”, “Messrs”, “To whom it may concern” etc.

7 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence Specific Commercial Correspondence Lexis can also be observed with an informative function as in “I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter” Specific Commercial Correspondence Lexis can also be observed with an informative function as in “I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter” Here it goes without saying that the register is highly formal, as often haapens Here it goes without saying that the register is highly formal, as often haapens

8 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence Remember, it is very important to be aware of register differences in commercial correspondence Remember, it is very important to be aware of register differences in commercial correspondence So, always try to avoid extremes. Avoid pompous language like “we wish to convey our most profuse apologies” or “the letter mentioned heretofore”. “We apologize” or “the above letter” is quite sufficient. So, always try to avoid extremes. Avoid pompous language like “we wish to convey our most profuse apologies” or “the letter mentioned heretofore”. “We apologize” or “the above letter” is quite sufficient.

9 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence Don’t use language that is too colloquial like “don’t worry you’ll get your money back”. “Your loan will be repaid” is much better. Don’t use language that is too colloquial like “don’t worry you’ll get your money back”. “Your loan will be repaid” is much better. Don’t ever use slang. You simply cannot write anything like “a couple of hundred quid” or “bucks”, or “I have to scrounge off you” instead of “I need a loan”. Don’t ever use slang. You simply cannot write anything like “a couple of hundred quid” or “bucks”, or “I have to scrounge off you” instead of “I need a loan”.

10 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence Avoid using idioms or figures of speech. Avoid using idioms or figures of speech. Prices simply “go up” or “increase”, rather than “rocket” or “go through the roof”.Or they simply “go down” or “drop”, rather than “plummet”, “crash” or “go through the floor”. Prices simply “go up” or “increase”, rather than “rocket” or “go through the roof”.Or they simply “go down” or “drop”, rather than “plummet”, “crash” or “go through the floor”. Don’t invent abbreviations and acronyms, only use common, standard ones. Don’t invent abbreviations and acronyms, only use common, standard ones.

11 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence REMEMBER, ALWAYS AIM FOR  Correctness, both grammatical and stylistic  Concision, without omitting essentials  Clarity, without being simplistic AND ALWAYS RESPECT  Register

12 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence GRAMMAR GRAMMAR In the process of going from the informal to the formal, certain syntactic changes often take place: VERBAL style tends to become NOMINAL e.g. “I received” - “I acknowledge receipt” PRESENT TENSE CHANGE PRESENT TENSE CHANGE e.g. “I’m referring” - “I refer”

13 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence GRAMMAR PERSONAL becomes IMPERSONAL e.g. “I am reluctant to resort to such measures” “We are reluctant to resort to such measures” ACTIVE to PASSIVE voice transformation e.g. “you haven’t settled your bill yet” “payment of your bill is still outstanding”

14 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence GRAMMAR CONTRACTIONS are replaced by FULL FORMS e.g. “I’ll have to” - “I shall have to” SHORT/SIMPLE sentences become LONG/COMPLEX e.g. “I refer to your letter of 10th October. In it we asked you to clear the balance of £ This amount has been outstanding since last July.” e.g. “I refer to your letter of 10th October. In it we asked you to clear the balance of £ This amount has been outstanding since last July.” “With reference to your letter of 10th October, we would like to remind you again to clear the balance of £519.35, which has been outstanding since last July.”

15 ENGLISH for Commercial Correspondence STRUCTURING AND ORGANISATION Points to remember: layout and presentation of your letter are important signals that you transmit, laying the basis for the first impressions that people have of you. two paragraph styles exist, the traditional indented form or the blocked layout. The latter is becoming increasingly common and saves a bit of time. write both addresses in full, don’t omit or abbreviate them to save time. Always give as much detail as possible. always use addressee’s full and correct titles

16 11 Thornton Hill, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4NM 6th May 2001 Mr Frank Jones Sales Department, Topsham Toys, Plymouth Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 2P

17 PRIVATE LETTER HEADING The Private Letter Format is usually as follows: Sender’s Address  top right Receiver’s  top left, below sender’s Date  top right, below sender’s Style  blocked or indented (caps for city code, city or country) Punctuation  with or without

18 TITLES NORMAL PEOPLE: Mr. (man) Mrs. (married woman) Miss.(unmarried woman) Ms. (woman) Messrs. (plural of Mr., usually for professional partnerships) Esq. (man, following his name) NB. Mrs or Miss may offend, use Ms. Esq. is becoming rare and isn’t used if Mr. is.

19 TITLES CaptainColonelMajorGeneral The Reverend Professor The Honourable The Right Honourable Capt. Col. Maj. Gen. Rev. Prof. Hon. Rt. Hon.

20 TITLES On the envelope, put any degrees, medals, honorary titles & professional associations, but only if you are absolutely sure of them. For example, BA(hons), MSc, PhD, MBE, OBE, FRA, FBMA (hon). Professional titles, like Sales Manager, Vice President, Director of Marketing,, Managing Director, Chairman, may be replaced by Sales Department, Marketing, President’s Office etc., if the actual title is not known.

21 SALUTATIONS Dear Sir =male addressee Dear Sirs=company or unknown gender Dear Sir or Madam=unknown gender Dear Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms, Dr., Prof., etc.=known addressee

22 TOPIC & REFERENCES The subject of the letter may be summarized after the abbreviation “re.” (with reference to), placed either just before the salutation or just after. The topic is often underlined and may also be marked here “Private andConfidential”. References refer to a number or code given to the letter and marked “our ref:”, whereas the number or code referred to in correspondence received is marked “your ref:”. If there is no number, then the reference is simply the date

23 11 Thornton Hill, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4NM Your ref: 6th May 2000 Our ref: DSY/M5/NV00 25 November 2000 Mr. Frank Jones, Sales Department, Topsham Toys, Plymouth Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 2PT re. your 2001 catalogue Dear Mr. Jones,

24 CLOSES yours faithfully =someone you do not know after a Dear Sir, Madam. after a Dear Sir, Madam. yours sincerely =someone you know or know of, after Dear Mr, Mrs etc. yours truly =to a friend or (US) to either of the above best regards, wishes etc =to a friend or acquaintance

25 SIGNING OFF Always sign your name after the salutation in the centre of the page, after which you always print or type your name and position together with any titles you may wish correspondents to use when writing to you. NB. Two common abbreviations are used when signing off to give certain information: pp.=(per pro) i.e. you are writing on behalf of someon else cc.=(carbon copy) i.e. you are also sending a copy of the letter to someone else

26 A TYPI CAL CLOSE _______________________________________ ____________. I also wish to thank you for your cooperation in this matter and look forward to hearing from you at your earliest convenience (as soon as possible, by return of post). Yours faithfully, signature signature John M. Dodds, British Hon. Consul pp & cc Mr. Charles de Chassiron British Consul General British Consul General

27 PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE Opening  sets the tone  expresses thanks for any previous correspondence or contact  introduces writer and his or her organisation  states purpose of letter

28 PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE Corpus  always plan your sequence  make your points as clearly as possible  ask any questions or make any enquiry you feel necessary for the communication to continue to succeed  always answer any question or query posed in previous correspondence  you should be exhaustive without being long-winded

29 PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE Ending  thank the person for writing (especially if you haven’t already done so)  thank the person for writing (especially if you haven’t already done so)  thank the person for (presumed) help and cooperation if you are asking for something  thank the person for (presumed) help and cooperation if you are asking for something  encourage further correspondence or other form of contact (usually with expressions like “look forward to”, “if you need further information, don’t hesitate to” )  encourage further correspondence or other form of contact (usually with expressions like “look forward to”, “if you need further information, don’t hesitate to” )  recap the main points briefly if the letter is complex, using expressions like “to go over the main points briefly”, “to sum up” etc.  recap the main points briefly if the letter is complex, using expressions like “to go over the main points briefly”, “to sum up” etc.

30 LETTER TYPOLOGY Enquiries requesting information, catalogues, prices, estimates, dates, details, samples; suggesting if something is possible, methods of payment, asking for discounts, delivery times etc. requesting information, catalogues, prices, estimates, dates, details, samples; suggesting if something is possible, methods of payment, asking for discounts, delivery times etc. Replies & Quotes confirming help, selling products, referring to someone, suggesting demonstrations,contacting local representatives; quotations, price lists, discounts, alternatives to something, explaining payment, delivery times, product training programmes, fixed and negotiable terms, estimates confirming help, selling products, referring to someone, suggesting demonstrations,contacting local representatives; quotations, price lists, discounts, alternatives to something, explaining payment, delivery times, product training programmes, fixed and negotiable terms, estimates

31 LETTER TYPOLOGY Orders placing orders, letters of acceptance, confirming conditions and terms, delivery times, packing, shipping, accepting or rejecting changes, delivery delays, refusing a delivery, etc. placing orders, letters of acceptance, confirming conditions and terms, delivery times, packing, shipping, accepting or rejecting changes, delivery delays, refusing a delivery, etc.Payment invoices, pro-forms, statements of account, methods of payment (home and abroad), advice of payment, of non-payment, asking to defer payment, switching to installments, first and second requests for payment, further reminders and final demands. invoices, pro-forms, statements of account, methods of payment (home and abroad), advice of payment, of non-payment, asking to defer payment, switching to installments, first and second requests for payment, further reminders and final demands.

32 LETTER TYPOLOGY Complaints writing complaints, explaining problems, suggesting acceptable solutions, replies to complaints, justifiable and unjustifiable complaints, explaining company’s situation,adjusting accounting errors writing complaints, explaining problems, suggesting acceptable solutions, replies to complaints, justifiable and unjustifiable complaints, explaining company’s situation,adjusting accounting errors Credit & Banks forms of credit, credit requirements, asking for credit, accepting/refusing credit, taking up references, guarantors, credit rating, bank facilities, opening/closing accounts, negotiating interest on deposit accounts, requesting cheque books, credit cards, overdrafts, standing orders, loans, mortgages. forms of credit, credit requirements, asking for credit, accepting/refusing credit, taking up references, guarantors, credit rating, bank facilities, opening/closing accounts, negotiating interest on deposit accounts, requesting cheque books, credit cards, overdrafts, standing orders, loans, mortgages.


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