Presentation on theme: "Rise of Totalitarianism"— Presentation transcript:
1Rise of Totalitarianism 1919-1939 World History Chapter 13
2Postwar Social Changes WWI shattered the idealism of the turn of the century, that industry and science and democracy would create a world without war.Changes in Society After WWIMass CultureImproved TelephonesAffordable AutomobilesMotion PicturesRadioThe Roaring TwentiesAfter WWI, as Europe recovered, the US experienced a boom time, fueled by jazz and a rejection of Victorian values, and young women experienced freedom not seen before.Women’s LivesWomen, now armed with voting power, were more emancipated than ever. Labor saving devices like washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and canned foods lightened the burdens of housework, and allowed women more time to do what they wanted.Reactions to the Jazz AgeNot everyone was enamored of the new age, and conservatives banned alcohol in the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution. This did little to stop people from drinking, and soon an explosion of organized crime was delivering alcohol to drinkers in speakeasies.Evangelicals on the radioEvolution vs Creationism (Scopes Trial)
3The New Literature A Loss of Faith Literature of the Inner Mind The modern world as spiritually barrenLack of convictionsA lost generationLiterature of the Inner MindStreams of consciousnessThe Harlem RenaissanceNew York city neighborhood where African-American artists, writers, musicians, explored new styles, mixing traditional arts with African and African American themes
4New Scientific Theories Marie Curie and RadioactivityAtoms can change and are divisibleX-Ray machineEinstein's Theory of RelativitySpace and Time relative – not fixed. Questioned Newtonian physicsEnrico Fermi – Splitting the atom (fission)With Oppenheimer and Teller, made the bombFleming Discovers PenicillinNon-toxic mold that kills bacteriaUsed to developed antibioticsFreud Probes the MindAustrian psychologistSubconsciousRepression and social pressureDeveloped PsychoanalysisWorked with Carl Jung
5Modern Art and Architecture New Directions in PaintingPicassoCubismSurrealismAbstractNew Styles of ArchitectureFrank Lloyd WrightBuildings where form follows functionBuildings that fit environmentBauhausModern utilitarian design – inspired by factories
10The Western Democracies Stumble Western democracies struggled with liberalism and conservatism. Rebuilding Europe after the war was expensive and the deaths of so many young men left a generational gap.Politics in the Postwar WorldParty Struggles in BritainThe Labour party in Britain surpassed the Liberal party, ex liberals joined the Conservative party. Essentially class conflict.Irish Independence at LastThe “Irish Question” was still to be decided, and thoughts of giving Ireland independence was delayed by WWI. In 1919, the IRA (Irish Republican Army) started it’s attacks on British citizens and their supporters. By 1922, moderates on both sides finally agreed on Irish independence, but split Ireland into North and South.France’s Troubled PeaceThough France was one of the “winners” of WWI, much of the devastation occurred in France, returning veterans found little work, and scandals continued to rock the government.“The Red Scare” and Isolationism in the United StatesThough the U.S. was relatively unscathed by WWI, unrest and strikes swept the country, and the communist revolution in Russia spurred renters strikes, union registration, and anti-capitalist rhetoric. This, along with increased immigration from Eastern Europe brought about a “Red Scare” against communism. Immigration laws were tightened, and some people were deported.
11Postwar Foreign Policy Arguing AlliesFrance was concerned about a resurgent Germany, while Britain was concerned about France and Russia becoming too powerful on the continent, and wanted to relax some of the harsh provisions of the Versailles Treaty.The Search for PeaceThrough the League of Nations, the great powers agreed to limit their armies and navies.The League’s WeaknessThough the goals of the League were laudable, the League had no way to enforce it’s actions.
12Postwar Economics Britain and France Recover The United States Booms Huge war debts, unemployment, strikes, out of date factories, and damage from WWI contributed to large economic problems for Britain and France. Reparations from Germany did help however, though this did not entirely help with unstable political situations.The United States BoomsThe U.S. came out of WWI as the worlds leading economic power
13The Great Depression Falling Demand and Overproduction High demand for goods during the war fell afterwards, hurting farmers and miners as prices for basic products fell. This brought about reduced consumption at the same time as new production techniques allowed for record production of consumer goods.As demand for factory goods dwindled, factories laid off thousands, further hurting the economy.Crash and CollapseWall Street was booming, stock prices were going up, people were borrowing at record rates. Then the fundamental problems with the economy caught up with Wall Street, and the house of cards came tumbling down. In order to control inflation, the Federal Reserve raised interest rates, which exacerbated the problem.The Depression Spreads1000’s of banks collapsedFarms were foreclosedDepression spreads to world as trade slowed
14The Democracies React to the Depression Britain and France Search for SolutionsCountries looked for solutions to rising unemployment and financial instability. Confronted with these problems, middle of the road democracies seemed incapable of the direct action needed, lending extremists from both the left and the right validity in arguments for dealing with the crisis.Roosevelt Offers the United States a New DealHoover initially decided to let private interests deal with charity for the unemployed, and businesses to deal with the economy. These measures failed completely, leading to the election of FDR.FDR came into office with ideas to help with unemployment, banking, and the economy. FDR believed that the government needed to take an active role in the economy, in opposition to more conservative thinkers. FDR managed to turn the economy around, and more importantly, gave people hope.Loss of Faith in DemocracyAs the misery of the depression deepened, increasingly people questioned the ability of democratic governments to deal with the problems, and started looking to other solutions, including socialism and fascism.
15Fascism in Italy Mussolini’s Rise to Power A Leader Emerges Broken promises from WWI (Austrian territory) enraged Italian nationalists. Russian revolution inspired peasants to seize land, and workers to strike. Returning veterans faced unemployment. Government split, and unable to govern.A Leader EmergesSon of a socialist blacksmith and a teacher, Benito Mussolini rejected socialism in favor of nationalism, and organized veterans into a Fascist Party, vowing to end corruption, and reviving Roman greatness.Mussolini Gains ControlMussolini organized the Fascist combat squads in black shirts, and used violence to break up leftists and socialist meetings, rallies, presses, and farmers cooperatives. He then marched on Rome, calling for a new government.Fearing civil war, King Victor Emmanuel III invited Mussolini to become Prime Minister, October 30, 1929.
16Mussolini's Rule State Control of the Economy The Fascist rise to power began earlier, as Fascists suppressed rival parties, rigged elections, muzzled the press, and replaced officials with Fascist supporters.Critics were thrown into prison, forced into exile, or murdered, and the regime was upheld with terror, propaganda, and secret police.The Pope gave support in exchange for the recognition of the sovereignty of Vatican City.Mussolini takes the title, Il Duce (the Leader).State Control of the EconomyMussolini brought the economy under state control, but continued capitalism. This meant that the government favored businesses over labor, increasing production at the expense of low wage labor that was tightly controlled.The Individual and the StateTo Fascists, the glory of the state was all, the individual was important only to bring glory to the state. Everyone was bombarded with propaganda about the glory of the state “Believe! Obey! Fight!”.Men were to be ruthless, women to have children (have 14 and get a medal from Il Duce), and children were taught to be tough and obey. Young Fascists paraded in torchlight ceremonies, learned about the glories of ancient Rome, sang patriotic songs.
17The Nature of Fascism What is Fascism? The Appeal of Fascism Mussolini created the first totalitarian state (one party dictatorship with complete control of the state and it’s people), and others followed his lead, notably Hitler and Stalin.What is Fascism?Mussolini created the term, and it has been debated the actual ideology, though there is no real unifying ideology other than the glory of the state (14 defining characteristics)The Appeal of FascismStrong, stable governmentNational prideGood for businessFascism Compared to CommunismFascists supported societies with defined social statusFascist support private business and wealthCommunists reject social statusBoth appeal to urban and agricultural workers
18Fourteen Defining Characteristics Of Fascism By Dr. Lawrence Britt Dr Fourteen Defining Characteristics Of Fascism By Dr. Lawrence Britt Dr. Lawrence Britt has examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes. Britt found 14 defining characteristics common to each: 1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism - Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays. 2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights - Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of "need." The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc. 3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause - The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc. 4. Supremacy of the Military - Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. Soldiers and military service are glamorized. 5. Rampant Sexism - The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Divorce, abortion and homosexuality are suppressed and the state is represented as the ultimate guardian of the family institution. 6. Controlled Mass Media - Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common. 7. Obsession with National Security - Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses. 8. Religion and Government are Intertwined - Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government's policies or actions. 9. Corporate Power is Protected - The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite.10. Labor Power is Suppressed - Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed. 11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts - Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts and letters is openly attacked. 12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment - Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations. 13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption - Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders. 14. Fraudulent Elections - Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.
19The Soviet Union Under Stalin A Totalitarian StateKarl Marx had predicted that under communism, the state would eventually fade away as the people made all decisions locally, but under Stalin, the opposite occurred, and the state grew into a fearsome entity.Stalin’s Five Year PlansRussia had always suffered from economic backwardness, and though various leaders had tried to remedy this (Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, The Romanovs, Lenin), Stalin took direct control of the economy, and set 5 year plans to catch up with the west. This form of economy is called a command economy, where the state makes all the decisions about production and distribution.Mixed Results in IndustryUnder the 5 year plans, bonuses were given for meeting goals, and punishment for failing to meet them. Because of the inefficiency of the system, surpluses occurred in some areas, and shortages in others.On the whole, industry expanded greatly during this time, but the average living conditions of the people did not. Workers were given low wages, and were forbidden to strike. Consumer goods were scarce.Forced Collectivization in AgricultureUnder Lenin, Stalin was one of the officers in charge of making sure agricultural goods made it to the cities after the revolution, which was made more difficult because of the redistribution of land after the revolution.Stalin wanted all the farms to be large collectives, with no private plots of land, and quotas would be established to bring food to the centers of industry. To this end, Stalin started a program of de-kulakization (a kulak is a wealthy farmer), which led to terrible famine as all the food was taken by the Red Army from the farmers in retaliation to the farmers trying to resist the order. Between 5 to 8 million peasants died in the forced collectivization, known as the “terror famine.” Agricultural output remained low however.
20Stalin’s Terror Tactics Stalin used terror as a weapon to bring the population under control. Secret police, torture, disappearances, violent purges stamped out dissent.Terror as a WeaponCrimes against humanityViolated individual rightsOpened lettersListening devicesControlled pressNo protestsCritics sent to gulags or executedSome individuals were completely erasedThe Great PurgeUnder the guise of preventing counter-revolutionOld BolsheviksActivistsWar heroesIndustrial mangersWritersShow trialsResults of the PurgeMany experts were purged, leading to cronyism, corruption, inefficienciesMany general officers were purged, with large gaps in the chain of command, which seriously hampered the Soviet Union during the first years of WWII.
21Communists Attempt to Control Thought PropagandaControl of hearts and minds, boost moraleCult of personalityThe main newspaper was called Pravda (Truth), and was the main source of propagandaCensorship and the ArtsThe Revolution was supposed to be about freedom, but artists and writers soon came under intense scrutiny by the party and the secret police to make sure everything agreed with Stalin’s messages.Socialist RealismAll media was supposed to glorify and support the state, and vilify capitalism and enemies of the state.RussificationMaking the population more Russian.11 different republicsDozens of languages and culturesUsed troops from different republics to control each otherWar on ReligionReligion was seen as a source of power outside the control of the state, so religion was banned, and preaching a counter-revolutionary activity.Churches and shrines were taken and used for offices, or destroyed.
22Soviet Society Under Stalin The New Elite Takes ControlThe Communist Revolution was gone, and in it’s place was something called Communism, that took some of the ideas and forms, but was under a totalitarian government, controlled by an elite comprised of Communist Party members, industrial leaders, high ranking military officers, scientists, favored artists and writers.The elite enjoyed better housing, special shops and clubs, privileges, and travel. On the other hand, the elite were often the target of purges.Benefits and DrawbacksWhile only a few were members of the party, all Soviets enjoyed some benefits:Free educationFree medicalFree clothingFree day careLow cost housingLow cost foodDisadvantages included shortages of fruits and meats, shortage of housing, very few specialty items.Women in the Soviet UnionWomen perhaps gained the most, becoming equal partners in society, engaged in all spheres of activity including the military.Later on however, because women were putting off having children in order to pursue careers, population growth was stalling, and propaganda was changed to encourage women to become wives and have children.
23Soviet Foreign PolicySoviet foreign policy up to 1939 was a mixture of paranoia in defense of the revolution, and attempts to spread the revolution around the world.In 1919, Lenin formed the Comintern, or Communist International, to foment and spread Communist Revolution around the world. These actions created a great deal of suspicion among the western powers about Soviet intentions, and fueled the Red Scare in the U.S. and anti-communist activities in many western nations.
24Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany In 1923, an army veteran and leader of an extremist party tried to emulate Mussolini’s example, and staged a coup in Munich that failed. He ended up behind bars, where he wrote a book proclaiming his views that would become a bestseller, Mein Kampf (My Struggle).The Weimar Republic’s Rise and FallWith the close of WWI, the country was close to chaos, a socialist revolution was brewing, and the Kaiser abdicated. In Weimar, German leaders created a new constitution for the Weimar Republic, a democratic government with a parliament, and gave women the right to vote.Political StrugglesThe moderate government was immediately attacked from all sides, for the Treaty of Versailles, for being too liberal, too conservative, too weak, and for all of the problems Germany experienced as a result of the war.Runaway InflationWhen payments to France on reparations fell behind, France occupied the Rhur Valley (coal and iron). Germans protested by striking, and the government continued to pay them. The Weimar Republic ended up printing more and more money to make payments, causing massive inflation. In one year an item that cost 100 marks in 1922, would cost 944,000 marks in Savings were wiped out, and it could take a wheelbarrow full of money just to buy a loaf of bread.Recovery and CollapseIn response, the Western powers agreed to reduce the reparations, France withdrew from the Rhur, and the U.S. made loans available to the German government. These actions stabilized the Republic until the depression hit, and the people turned to Hitler to solve these problems.Weimar CultureMuch like Harlem, Berlin became a center of art, music, literature, plays, much of it critical of the government, and western culture in general. Later, these times would be viewed as vulgar and permissive.
25The Nazi Party’s Rise to Power Born in Austria in 1889, Hitler was a part of the culture that looked down on the minorities of the Hapsburg Empire (Jews, Serbs, Poles). He moved to Germany after he was rejected from Art School, and joined the German Army in WWI.After the war, he joined a right-wing extremist political group, the National Workers Socialist Group, or Nazi. He gained leadership of the group, organized the followers into fighting squads known as storm troopers (brown-shirts) to fight in the streets.Hitler’s ManifestoAfter his failed coup, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf in prison, which would become the bible of Nazi goals and ideology.Hitler’s writings emphasized nationalism, racism, anti-semitism, the superiority of the Aryan Race, and expansion of Germany to the East, to find Lebensraum (living space).Hitler Comes to PowerHitler spent only a year in prison, and returned to his leadership of the Nazi Party. The Great Depression created the conditions that Hitler needed, and fearing the Communists more, Hitler was invited to become Chancellor. Within a year, the Reichstag (German Parliament building) was burned down and communists were blamed. Hitler became dictator, taking control of all government functions.Non-Nazis were purged from government, civil rights were suspended, other political parties were suspended, and even purged his own party of “disloyal” elements.
26The Third Reich Controls Germany Holy Roman EmpireBismarck's EmpireHitler’s Germany, a thousand year EmpireGermany Becomes a Totalitarian StateThe German state was reorganized into a brutal system of repression, terror, and racism. The Gestapo (secret police) enforced Hitler’s new laws.The Campaign Against the Jews BeginsIn 1935, The Nuremburg Laws stripped Jews of German citizenship. Jews were prohibited from marrying non-Jews, attending or teaching at schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine, publishing books. Many Jews fled Germany.The Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht)November 7, 1938, a young Jew whose parents had been mistreated in Germany, shot and wounded a German diplomat in Paris. Hitler used this as an excuse to attack Jews openly. November 9th , 10th, Nazi mobs attacked Jewish communities all over Germany.Nazi YouthChildren in Nazi Germany were taught racism, and indoctrinated in the Nazi culture. Schoolbooks and courses were changed to reflect the new ideologies. Hitler Youth were created to exemplify the Aryan ideal. Women of the correct heritage were rewarded for having purebred children.Purging German CultureHitler also sought to cleanse German culture by removing all of the foreign and Jewish influences.
27Authoritarian Rule in Eastern Europe Ethnic ConflictMany of the new countries created at the end of WWI did not have experience with democracy, and because of the problems with the great depression and ethnic differences caused turmoil.Democracy RetreatsThese problems challenged governments, and many turned to fascism.In Hungary, military strongman Nicholas Horthy overthrew the communist government in 1919.In 1926, right-wing military hero Joseph Pilsudski took over Poland.Right-wing dictators emerged in every European country except Czechoslovakia and Finland.