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The Interwar Years 1919-1939. Interwar Years p9 Rise of Nationalism China (Jiang Jeishi vs Mao Zedong) = Comunism India (Gandhi) Middle East (Kemal Ataturk.

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Presentation on theme: "The Interwar Years 1919-1939. Interwar Years p9 Rise of Nationalism China (Jiang Jeishi vs Mao Zedong) = Comunism India (Gandhi) Middle East (Kemal Ataturk."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Interwar Years

2 Interwar Years p9 Rise of Nationalism China (Jiang Jeishi vs Mao Zedong) = Comunism India (Gandhi) Middle East (Kemal Ataturk = modernized) Africa (Egypt= independence)

3 Interwar Years p12 1. Why did the new republic fall into chaos after 1912? Warlords and rival armies battle for control Economy Famine spreads

4 2. Who is Sun Yixian? What did he do for China? Tried to rebuild China 3 Principles of the People 1.Nationalism 2.Democracy/Republic 3.Economic Security Resigned the presidency in favor of General Yuan Shikai

5 3.Who is Yuan Shikai? What did he do for China? Tried to restore order Yuan tried to set up new ruling dynasty w/ himself as emperor Yuan dies 1916

6 4. Significance: May Fourth Movement? 1919, Beijing German colonies given to Japan Students protest Boycott Japanese goods

7 5. Another name for the Nationalist People’s Party Guomindang 1920 Dedicated to unifying China Created by Sun Yixian Run by Jiang Jieshi after Sun’s death

8 6. Jiang Jieshi- What did he do for China? 1925: Army officer – Crushed local warlords – Saw communists as a threat 1927: Chinese Civil War – Slaughtered communist party leaders – 22 years – Occupied Beijing-set up a capital in Nanjing

9 7. Why is Mao Zedong an important figure in modern Chinese history? 1921 Formed the Chinese Communist Party Former teacher + librarian Agreed w/radical communist ideas – Women’s equality – Dictatorship of proletariats (workers) Supported by peasants

10 8. What was the Long March? ,000 miles Communists escape from nationalists 100,000 people began 20,000 survived Victory for communists b/c gained support from peasants Mao rebuilt forces

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12 People’s Republic of China October 1, 1949 Mao Zedong

13 Interwar Years page 15: India Seeks Self Rule 1. How did WWI affect relations between India and Britain? Sacrifices from WWI led to Indian demands for independence

14 2. What is Amirtsar? City in Northeast India April 13, 1919 General Reginald Dyer banned public meetings Meeting held to protest forced conscription and war tax 379 men, women and children killed 1,100 were wounded

15 3. How did Amirtsar Massacre change Indian Goals? Call for full independence Influenced Gandhi in wanting complete independence from Britain

16 4. Who is Gandhi? Born Indian Hindu 1869 Educated as lawyer in England – Practiced in South Africa 1893 – 1914 returned to India Ahisma (nonviolence) Civil disobedience 1948 murdered

17 5. How did Gandhi revive Indian pride? Wore dhoti Encouraged self- sufficiency Made spinning wheel symbol of nationalist movement

18 6. Describe Gandhi’s method for resisting British rule? Civil disobedience Nonviolent protests Boycotts Marches fasting

19 7. What is the Salt March? What were its effects? March 12,1930 Britain had monopoly on salt 78 followers 240 mile march to the sea Thousands began producing own salt Defying British law Embarrassed British for cruel treatment of Indians

20 8. How did the goals of Muslims in India change in the 1930s? Called for a separate state Muhammad Ali Jinnah – Leader of Muslim League Becomes Pakistan

21 India 1947Pakistan 1947

22 Interwar Years packet page 18: Middle East and Africa 1. How did Turkey and Iran seek to modernize? – Developed industrialized technology – Replaced sharia w/secular law – Adopted western ways

23 2. How was modernization linked to nationalism? Modernization = a way to resist western power and imperialism

24 3. Who is Ataturk? Significance w/Turkey? Mustafa Kemal, ( "Father of the Turks” Won fame as a military commander during World War I Led the revolution that established the Republic of Turkey in 1923 Modernization.

25 4. How did Ataturk try to transform Turkey into a western, secular state? Replaced: – Islamic law – Muslim calendar Forced people to wear western clothes Closed religious schools Changed laws regarding women

26 Iran Like Turkey modernized to resist foreign rule. Reza Shah Pahlavi became the ruler of Iran.

27 5. Why did Arabs feel betrayed at the Paris Peace Conference after WWI? They were promised independence Husayn bin Ali –wanted independent Arab state stretching from Syria to Yemen (all of Arabian peninsula)

28 6. Why did Arabs resent the mandate system? Kept their lands under European control France: Syria and Lebanon Britain: Palestine and Iraq and Transjordan

29 7. Why did Palestine become a center of conflict? 1917 Balfour Declaration – Promoted Zionism – Migration pushed Palestinians out of their land Who’s land is it anyways?

30 8. Is there still conflict in Palestine? Now called Israel.

31 9. How was Pan-Africanism an expression of African nationalism? Emphasized UNITY of Africans and people of African descent

32 Treaties Drafted to Encourage International Peace Locarno Treaty – settled borders btwn Germany, France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Poland Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 – Renounced War – Disarmament for U.S., Britain, Japan, France, etc. League of Nations – Nations cooperate Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act – 1930 placed heavy taxes on imports to the USA “Buy American!!!!!”

33 Countries want Independence Commonwealth of Nations: – formed by British after WWI Canada New Zealand Australia South Africa Ireland-I.R.A. – (Irish Republican Army) – used guerilla warfare against British – 1916 Easter Rising-revolt against British – 1922 gains freedom except in Northern Ireland

34 Crisis of Democracy in the West Problems After the war: 1Jobs for Veterans 2Rebuilding 3Debt 4Socialism + Nationalism=radical ideas 5Peace Settlements unfair 6Lack of Strong Leaders

35 Weak Spots in the World Economy Overproduction Decreased demand prices  for raw materials+goods Great Depression – affected world economy – banks stopped loans abroad – demand for repayment of foreign lands –  tariffs=“snowball effect

36 Causes of the Depression 1. Overproduction, too much stuff (Factories and Farms) a. Factory Workers begin to get layed-off - Workers cannot buy goods, even more goods are overproduced b. Farmers Can’t Survive -low prices (can’t pay loans / make a living) c. Supply & Demand- Prices Drop 2. Bank Failures a. Banks close and loose $$$ b. People default on loans (Can’t pay Back) c. Banks cannot cover their deposits, because it was lent out to bad creditors **5,000 banks close between ** d. People loose entire LIFE SAVINGS

37 1920’s Problems Factories making Too Much, Farms growing too much Factories Fire Workers (Don’t need them) Farm Prices fall (Farmers can’t make $$) Farmers & Factory Workers can’t pay back loans to Banks: DEFAULT!! Banks Close because theyhave no money: Loans have not been paid back, can’t give people their savings BANKS Have NO $$ PEOPLE LOST SAVINGS & JOBS NO ONE TO HELP!

38 QUICK REVIEW: Causes: 1. Overproduction 2. Bank Closings Spark: 1. Stock Market Crash Results: 1. Unemployment 2. Life Savings Lost

39 Results of GD in USA Presidents during this time: – Wilson, Coolidge, Hoover, FDR New Deal – 1932 Get out of Depression gov’t more involved jobs social security bank insurance

40 Reactions to Depression Coalition governments – merging of political parties. Britain,1926 – general strike, Labour Party + Conservative Party gain support in Parliament. France, 1936-Leon Blum – Socialist Leader, Popular Front Government, Tried to solve labor problems and pass social legislation. Germany – Weimar Republic-political division, competition for power, plagued by corruption.

41 More reactions U.S.A. returns to isolation – does not join League – Limited Immigration “Red Scare” (Russians, Chinese, Japanese)

42 Interwar Years packet page 35: Japanese Aggression

43 1. Who is Hirohito? What did he do for Japan? Emperor Improved economic hard times – Urbanization – Universal education – Expand for natural resources

44 2. How did the Great Depression affect Japan’s economy? Exports declined Unemployment increased Trade was Japan’s only economic force

45 3. How did the Great depression affect Japan’s politics? Poverty, unemployment, labor disputes Expansion = answer to economic problems Promoted the military due to loss of faith in gov’t

46 4. Why did the Japanese support their military’s aggressive acts? Needed strong military leadership to end economic crisis

47 5. Significance: Manchurian Incident 1931 Invasion of Manchuria – northeast China – Needed natural resources – Coal and iron – Renamed Manchukuo Condemned by League of Nations

48 6. Significance: Second Sino-Japanese War 1937 Japan con’t to expand east Captured city of Nanjing – Killed over 100,000 Chinese civilians – Nanjing massacre – Reaction by world = horror

49 7. Becoming friendly with Germany 1936 Anti-Comintern Pact – Japan + Germany work together to oppose/fight spread of communism – Italy joins 1937

50 Interwar Years page 41:Dictators in Europe Economic Hardship = rise of totalitarian dictators Totalitarian Government – Single party dictatorship – State control of economy – Censorship – Obedience to single ruler – Schools and Media used to force id

51 Benito Mussolini

52 Mussolini Il Duce (“the leader”) 1919 founded National Fascist Party 1922 October March on Rome King Victor Emanuel resigns Mussolini establishes dictatorship – Propaganda & Fear Black Shirts Women = mothers not workers Influenced Hitler and Stalin

53 Mussolini and Aggression 1935 Italians Invade Ethiopia. King Haile Selassie goes to League of Nations for help

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55 Joseph Stalin USSR = totalitarian state 5 year plans – Goals set by state – Central planning – Modernize + industrialize Collectivization – Took back land – Combination of small farms – Led to famine – Resistance = Gulag (Siberia) – Ukraine-1932 millions died (starvation)

56 Adolf Hitler Weimar Republic = weak Nationalist Socialist Party – Nazi Party Wrote Mein Kampf “My Struggle” Germans = master race 1933 appointed chancellor Fuhrer “leader” Reduced unemployment – wage controls, gov’t spending, public works programs Anti-Semitism – Nuremberg Laws – Kristallnacht

57 Fascism vs Communism Fascism EXTREME NATIONALISM No Human value exists outside the state Believes state controls: – Corporatism (Economy) – Militartism (Armed forces) – Totalitarianism (dictatorship) State = # 1 Communism EXTREME SOCIALISM Stateless Society Socioeconomic System Community controls means of production Believes State is Custodian of means of production

58 Fascism vs Nazism Fascism Italy: Mussolini Fascio-Italian for union Emphasis: Nationalism – National Culture rules Social Mobility Accepted Peace = Weakness Aggression = Strength Nazism Germany: Hitler Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party – Nationalism Socialism Emphasis: Racism – “Master Race”


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