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India’s Growth in the 1990s and beyond: An International Comparison Lant Pritchett World Bank Feb 10,2005 Loyola Chennai.

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Presentation on theme: "India’s Growth in the 1990s and beyond: An International Comparison Lant Pritchett World Bank Feb 10,2005 Loyola Chennai."— Presentation transcript:

1 India’s Growth in the 1990s and beyond: An International Comparison Lant Pritchett World Bank Feb 10,2005 Loyola Chennai

2 Outline of the presentation Whirlwind tour of the 1990s India’s growth, compared Will India’s growth stall? Why? Will India’s growth accelerate? How?

3 Whirlwind tour of the 1990s-- outside of India Deep and long, bit variable, transformational recession in the FSU Reform but with little growth payoff in Latin America Severe financial crises—with mixed aftermath Bright spot for reform: rapid growth in reforming socialist economies

4 Deep, long, and variable transitional depression in FSU/EE Pre-crisis level

5 Growth came, but did not stay in Latin America, despite steady reform progress

6 Financial Crises Korea, Thailand, Indonesia—shock as the best performers suffer…then Brazil Russia Turkey Argentina—the deepest commitment to convertibility at a fixed parity collapses

7 Reforming socialist star: China

8 Reforming Socialist Star II: Vietnam

9 AFR ECA OECD LAC MNA SAR EAP Regional divergence in the 1990s: East Asia, followed by South Asia

10 India’ growth, compared India accelerated sometime in late 1970s/early 1980s and has been (roughly) steady since Growth in the rest of the world (outside of East Asia) has decelerated India’s growth is now rapid India’s growth has been very steady

11 Sometime in the late 70s/early 80s growth accelerated

12 India went from sputter to sparkle 90 th percentile Median

13 China, has outperformed India…and everyone else

14 But compared to Brazil…

15 … even superstar Korea came to earth in the 1990s—slower than India

16 …and is substantially ahead of the slower but steady USA

17 India is growing faster—but from a very low base…

18 At current rates India reaches USA 1950 level in 34 years—not my lifetime…and USA’s current level in 61 years—not your lifetime India reaches USA 1950 level

19 One big assertion--with two problems for policy Assertion: India is a rich country struggling to free itself of the trappings of poverty—it should not think of itself as a poor country striving to be modestly less poor

20 An aside: Why worry about economic growth? Economic growth is good, good, good as it makes things possible Most socio-economic indicators are explained overwhelmingly by income (and education, which is itself driven by income) Why settle for less? Who wants to be a modestly less deprived poor country?

21 Can India Avoid a Stall? Avoiding the pitfalls

22 Many countries have seen an episode of rapid growth,then poof! It’s gone: Brazil

23 After a great run of rapid growth Japan grew at 1% in the 1990s

24 Philippines never recovers momentum…

25 India’s many strengths: Bullish on the elephant It is behind—playing catch-up creates potential for super fast growth Democracy and political continuity Elite education (see below) Open ideology Large (population and area) integrated market Adequate, but not abundant resources English as one (of many) languages

26 Common causes of “stall”: So far not India’s problems Macro-economic imbalance caused by public sector borrowing and debt crisis (e.g. Brazil, Mexico 1982) Economic overheating without adequate means of adjusting to shocks in the financial sector (e.g. Japan real estate vs. USA) Exogenous shocks to terms of trade, neighbor competitiveness (Argentina 2002). Political shifts causing large amounts of investor uncertainty about the “rules of the game” (e.g. FSU, Indonesia, coming for China?)

27 How might India stall? Fiscal space to meet infrastructure needs Regions are lagging—eventually the dog has to walk, not just the tail wag. Education is highly stratified—will the “services” sector absorb all “qualified” labor and sputter out Not able to sustain reforms to spur the growth process socially and politically

28 Infrastructure is bad, might get worse, choke off innovation

29 Some regions are suffering from infrastructure bottlenecks worse than others

30 India is not well places in many indicators of “governance” Rank in:Control of corruption Regulatory quality Growth China63943 Vietnam1051354 India8610114 Out of N:151180136

31 Regional growth: what is the dog, what is the tail Growth is concentrated in a few cities, mainly in the South and West Huge parts of India—some complete states (e.g. Bihar) and many rural areas are left behind Will regional laggards draw the overall down?

32 Educational inequalities in India were (are?) worst in the world Median attainment of richest 20% Median attainment of Bottom 40% India, top 20=10 India, bottom 40%=0

33 Gaps in education by wealth and sex: TN and UP compared

34 Social and Political Pressures of Rapid Growth Huge social tensions inherent in the transition called “development” Productive and unproductive ways to cope with those tensions (e.g. expanding opportunity versus extensive subsidies to well-off but adversely affected)

35 India is low inequality in income (despite social stratification) India OECD FSU/EE Vietnam China

36 Income inequality has increased dramatically in China

37 Growth has, and does, reduce income poverty—even with inequality increasing if it is fast enough…

38 How to accelerate growth? Increased accumulation versus improved productivity—do you want to? Accelerations from high to higher are relatively rare Firm signals of committed future direction are as important as dramatic actions

39 Acceleration of growth Raising the magnitude of private investment— –More favorable investment climate Continuing strong growth in productivity Continuing stream of innovations/introduction of new sectors

40 Is there a key binding constraint? Financial sector? Labor market reforms? Infrastructure?

41 Conclusions: India is a rich country in waiting India moved in the right direction in the 1990s Steady as she goes is good--stall must be avoided Acceleration is possible—the ride will be bumpy the faster it goes

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