Presentation on theme: "Didjaredit? 1.Why was Eusebius famous? 2.What famous Saint trained Eusebius in the faith? 3.What happened to Eusebius during the Roman persecution? 4.Eusebius."— Presentation transcript:
Didjaredit? 1.Why was Eusebius famous? 2.What famous Saint trained Eusebius in the faith? 3.What happened to Eusebius during the Roman persecution? 4.Eusebius was Bishop of what famous city? 5.How did Eusebius feel about Constantine? 6.What was the great heresy arose during the time of Eusebius and Constantine? 7.What was the name of the Council that Constantine called? 8.What was Eusebius’ relationship/attitude towards Athanasius? 9.Did Eusebius believe he could produce a perfect history? Why? 10.How many times did St. Athanasius suffer exile in his life? 11.What heretical idea did Arius believe about Jesus? 12.Who did Bishop Alexander appoint as his secretary against Arius? 13.Who summoned the council of Nicea in 325? 14.St. Athanasius promoted _____________, due mostly to his biography of St. Anthony of the Desert. 15.How did Arius die?
Other Titles for Athanasius Athanasius of Alexandria Father of Orthodoxy in Greek Church. 1 of 8 “Greek Fathers” in Catholic Theology. St. Athanasius the Great, St. Athanasius I of Alexandria, St Athanasius the Confessor and in the Coptic Orthodox Church, mainly, St Athanasius the Apostolic.
Born AD – died 2 May 373 AD Born in Alexandria His most read work is his biography of Antony of the Desert Bishop of Alexandria St Athanasius is also the first person to identify the same 27 books of the New Testament that are in use today. Wealthy Christian parents – good education. Knew Greek philosophy because he was student at great Alexandrian school. St. Alexander of Alexandria, Bishop of Alexandria, 312–328, himself an Origenist was Athanasius teacher. Watched Athanasius playing “Bishop” and determined he truly had Baptized some of his friends. Alexander prepared them for the priesthood! In 325, he served as Alexander's secretary at the First Council of Nicaea. Already a recognized theologian and ascetic, he was the obvious choice to replace Alexander as the Patriarch of Alexandria on the latter's death in 328.
Athanasius spent the first years of his patriarchate visiting the churches with people of his territory, which at that time included all of Egypt and Libya. During this period, he established contacts with the hermits and monks of the desert, which would be very valuable to him over the years. Shortly thereafter, Athanasius became occupied with the disputes with the Byzantine Empire and Arians which would occupy much of his life.
Athanasius' first problem lay with the Meletians, who had failed to abide by the terms of the decision made at the First Council of Nicaea which had hoped to reunite them with the Church. Athanasius himself was accused of mistreating Arians and the followers of Meletius of Lycopolis, and had to answer those charges at a gathering of bishops in 335. At that meeting, Eusebius and the other supporters of Arius deposed Athanasius. On November 6, both parties of the dispute met with Constantine I in Constantinople. At that meeting, Athanasius was accused of threatening to interfere with the supply of grains from Egypt, and, without any kind of formal trial, was exiled by Constantine to Trier in the Rhineland.
On the death of Emperor Constantine I, Athanasius was allowed to return to his See of Alexandria. Shortly thereafter, however, Constantine's son, the new Roman Emperor Constantius II, renewed the order for Athanasius' banishment in 338. Athanasius went to Rome, where he was under the protection of Constans, the Emperor of the West. During this time, Gregory of Cappadocia was installed as the Patriarch of Alexandria, usurping the absent Athanasius. Athanasius did, however, remain in contact with his people through his annual Festal Letters, in which he also announced on which date Easter would be celebrated that year.
Pope Julius I wrote to the supporters of Arius strongly urging the reinstatement of Athanasius, but that effort proved to be in vain. He called a synod in Rome in the year 341 to address the matter, and at that meeting Athanasius was found to be innocent of all the charges raised against him. Julius also called the Council of Sardica in 343. This council confirmed the decision of the earlier Roman synod, and clearly indicated that the participants saw St Athanasius as the lawful Patriarch of Alexandria. It proved no more successful, however, as only bishops from the West and Egypt bothered to appear.
At the Council of Sardica the case of Athanasius was taken up and once more his innocence reaffirmed. Two conciliar letters were prepared, one to the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, the other to the bishops of Egypt and Libya, in which the will of the Council was made known. The persecution against him broke out with renewed vigor, and Constantius II was induced to prepare drastic measures against Athanasius and the priests who were devoted to him. Orders were given that if the Saint attempted to re-enter his episcopal see, he should be put to death.
In 346 the Emperor Constans used his influence to allow Athanasius to return to Alexandria. Athanasius' return was welcomed by the majority of the people of Egypt who had come to view him as a national hero. This was the start of a "golden decade" of peace and prosperity, during which time Athanasius assembled several documents relating to his exiles and returns from exile in the Apology Against the Arians. However, upon Constans' death in 350, a civil war broke out which left Constantius as sole emperor.
Constantius, renewing his previous policies favoring the Arians, banished Athanasius from Alexandria once again. This was followed, in 356, by an attempt to arrest Athanasius during a vigil service. Following this, Athanasius left for Upper Egypt, where he stayed in several monasteries and other houses and continued to write. Constantius' persistence in his opposition to Athanasius, combined with reports Athanasius received about the persecution of non-Arians by the new Arian bishop, prompted Athanasius to write his more emotional History of the Arians, in which he described Constantius as a precursor of the Antichrist.
In 361, after the death of Emperor Constantius, shortly followed by the murder of the very unpopular Arian archbishop, the popular St Athanasius now had the opportunity to return to his patriarchate. The following year he convened a council at Alexandria at which he appealed for unity among all those who had faith in Christianity, even if they differed on matters of terminology. This prepared the groundwork for the definition of the doctrine of the Trinity.
In 362, the new Emperor Julian, noted for his opposition to Christianity, ordered Athanasius to leave Alexandria once again. Athanasius left for Upper Egypt, remaining there until Julian's death in 363. Two years later, the Emperor Valens, who favored the Arian position, in his turn exiled Athanasius. This time however, Athanasius simply left for the outskirts of Alexandria, where he stayed for only a few months before the local authorities convinced Valens to retract his order of exile. Some of the early reports explicitly indicate that Athanasius spent this period of exile in his ancestral tomb.
Council of Nicea Condemned Arianism ANATHEMA = a curse; execration. (Remember how Arius died.)
EXILES St Athanasius' long episcopate lasted 45 years (c. 8 June May 373) of which over 17 years were spent in five exiles ordered by four different Roman Emperors, not counting approximately six more incidents in which he had to flee Alexandria for his own safety to escape people seeking to take his life. First exile: under Emperor Constantine, for 2.5 years [11 Jul Nov 337]; in Trier (Germany).Emperor Constantine Second exile: under Emperor Constantius, for 7.5 years [16 Apr Oct 346]; lived at Rome.Emperor Constantius Third exile: under Emperor Constantius, for 6 years [9 Feb Feb 362]; in the Egyptian desert.Emperor Constantius Fourth exile: under Apostate Emperor Julian, 10 months [24 Oct Sep 363]; in the Egyptian desert.Emperor Julian Fifth exile: under Emperor Valens, 4 months [5 Oct Jan 366]; in his father's tomb.Emperor Valens
Death Valens, who seems to have sincerely dreaded the possible consequences of a popular outbreak, gave orders within a few weeks for the return of Athanasius to his episcopal see. Here, St Athanasius, spent his remaining days, characteristically enough, in re-emphasizing the view of the Incarnation which had been defined at Nicaea. St. Athanasius stood unmoved against four Roman emperors; was banished five times; was the butt of every insult, calumny, and wrong the Arians could devise, and lived in constant peril of death. Though firm as adamant in defence of the Faith, he was meek and humble, pleasant and winning in converse, beloved by his flock, unwearied in labors, in prayer, in mortifications, and in zeal for souls. He spent his final years repairing all the damage done during the earlier years of violence, dissent, and exile, and returning to his writing and preaching undisturbed. He died peacefully in his own bed, surrounded by his clergy and faithful.
Tomb of St. Athanasius in the Church of St. Zaccaria, in Venice, Italy.
Eusebius of Caesarea The Historian c. AD 263–339, called Eusebius Pamphili, became the Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine about the year 314. Eusebius, historian, exegete and polemicist is one of the more renowned Church Fathers. He was a scholar of the Biblical canon. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs.
Little is known about the life of Eusebius. His successor at the see of Caesarea, Acacius, wrote a Life of Eusebius, but this work has been lost. Eusebius' own surviving works probably only represent a small portion of his total output. Since he was on the losing side of the long 4th-century contest between the allies and enemies of Arianism (Eusebius was an early and vocal supporter of Arius), posterity did not have much respect for Eusebius' person and was neglectful in the preservation of his writings. He was presumably born in the town which he lived most of his adult life, Caesarea Maritima. He was baptized and instructed in the city, and lived in Palestine in 296, when Diocletian's army passed through the region (in the Life of Constantine, Eusebius recalls seeing Constantine traveling with the army).
Eusebius was made presbyter by Agapius of Caesarea Was heavily influenced by the writings of Origen. Eusebius succeeded Agapius, as Bishop of Caesarea soon after 313 and played a prominent role at the Council of Nicaea in 325. Eusebius, a learned man and famous author, enjoyed the favor of the Emperor Constantine. Because of this he was called upon to present the creed of his own church to the 318 attendees." However, the anti-Arian creed from Palestine prevailed becoming the basis for the Nicene Creed. After the Emperor's death (c.337), Eusebius wrote the Life of Constantine, an important historical work because of eye witness accounts and the use of primary sources. Eusebius died c.339.