Presentation on theme: "Mock Exam 1994. Pretext Question 2 Religion supplies the pretext and gold the motive something that is put forward to conceal a true purpose or object;"— Presentation transcript:
Pretext Question 2 Religion supplies the pretext and gold the motive something that is put forward to conceal a true purpose or object; an ostensible reason; excuse: The leaders used the insults as a pretext to declare war.
Demographic change a single vital or social statistic of a human population, as the number of births or deaths. # 7 Which of the following was a major demographic change in Western Europe between 1850 and 1914? –A. a dramatic shift of population to urban areas –B. a rapidly decreasing birthrate –C. A rapidly increasing deathrate –D. a proniunced trend toward larger families –A. marked decline in emigration (A) a dramatic shift of population to urban areas
Transmutation the transformation of one species into another In the Origin of the Species, charles Darwin addresses the…
Franchise the right to vote: to guarantee the franchise of every citizen.
Cossacks A member of a people of southern European Russia and adjacent parts of Asia, noted as cavalrymen especially during czarist times.
Age Composition of the British Population 1841age in years1967 4%over 6513% 5%55-6511% 8%45-5413% 12%35-4413% 16%25-3411% 22%15-2415% 18%5-1415% 15%0-59% The Table above supports which of the following statements? A. In the 1840’s the majority of Britons did not live past the age of 15 B. the British infant mortality rate was lower in 1841 than in 1967 C. the average age of Britons at first marriage was lower in 1967 than in 1841. D. The change in the age composition of the British population between 1841 and 1967 resulted primarily from emigration E. the average age of the British population was higher in 1967 than in 1841. Answer: E
Couples in early modern Europe generally put off marriage until they were, on average, in their mid to late twenties because A. sexual maturation was delayed until the mid twenties because of poor nutrition B. they were concerned about scarcity of housing C. they needed to acquire land or learn a trade before they could support a family D. The customs and mores of a society dominated by religion promoted sexual restraint E. laws prohibited marriage without parental permission before the age of majority Answer: C
asceticism rigorous self-denial; extreme abstinence; austerity. Question 33 “Renaissance humanism drew its main inspiration from” –A. religious asceticism
anabaptists A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.
#42 During the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the first European country to experience a dramatic decrease in birthrate was A. France B. Italy C. Russia D. Spain E. Germany Answer: A
#50 The repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was most strongly opposed by A. factory owners B. wage laborers C. wealthy landowners D. religious dissenters E. shopkeepers Answer: C
# 51 Crystal Palace 1851 a structure of prefabricated iron units, glass, and wood, built in London to house the Exhibition of 1851: destroyed by fire 1936. The Crystal Palace was built in 1851 in London primarily as: –C. celebration of British technological and economic dominance
#52 Between 1870 and 1914, the heavily industrialized nations of Western Europe earned the loyalty of their citizens by all of the following except: A. extending the right to vote to almost all adult males B. acquiring colonies to promote economic expansion and national pride C. dividing farmland equally among peasants D. increasing the availability of public education E. legalizing trade unions Answer: C
#63 In early modern Europe, which of the following most directly undermined the guild system? any of various medieval associations, as of merchants or artisans, organized to maintain standards and to protect the interests of its members, and that sometimes constituted a local governing body. Answer: (A) entrepreneurial expansion of manufacturing into the countryside. a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, esp. a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk.
#67 On which of the following did Cavour and Garibaldi agree? A. Once united Italy should be a Republic B. Italy should be independent of foreign control C. Italian unity should be achieved in one way, revolution. D. the Pope should rule the new Italian state E. foreign assistance was necessary to drive Austria from Italy Answer: B
Realpolitik political realism or practical politics, esp. policy based on power rather than on ideals. Practiced by Bismarck, Cavour
Which of the following was the most important factor behind the Price Revolution of the 16 th century A. steady population growth and rising food costs B. the massive emigration of Europeans to the new world C. the militarization of society and massive war taxes D. Governmental control of the economy E. The rapid growth of manufacturing and the depopulation of the countryside. Answer: A
#2 Conciliar Power of, pertaining to, or issued by a council.
#3 Family relations in Western Europe in the period 1500- 1750 were generally similar to modern ones in that: A. the core of the family was nuclear B. the legal power the father had over the family steadily declined C. divorce on the basis of irreconcilable differences increased dramatically D. family chapels, directed by fathers, dominated community services E. Children left home and established separate households soon after puberty. Answer: A
#6 Hobbes and Rousseau would have agreed that A. a monarch has absolute power B. the state is based on a social contract C. the state of nature is peaceful and harmonious D. political authority should be shared by the monarch and representatives of the people E. Citizens have a right to revolt Answer: B
Customs/Tariff union an association of independent nations or tariff areas created to remove customs barriers between them and to adopt a uniform tariff policy toward nonmember nations. Examples: Zollverein 1834, European Economic Community 1957
#9 Britain’s Game Laws laws regulating the seasons and manner of taking game for food or for sport.
Decline in birth rates in England and Wales, France, Germany, and Sweden, 1840-1913 The major reason fro the pattern shown in the graph above is: A. Parent’s decision to have smaller families B. a declining standard of prenatal care for pregnant women C. a decrease in the marriage rate of women D. increased use of birth control pills E. the spread of infanticide Answer: A
During the 1950’s many European countries experienced A. a significant rise in the unemployment rate B. Strict governmental controls over the size of families C. A rapid increase in the birth rate D. rising mortality rates due to deterioration in health care E. acute poverty due to a series of food shortages Answer: C
By the late 17 th century, witchcraft trials and executions had declined in Western Europe in part because of: A. popular uprisings and peasant resistance against persecution B. growing feminist protest against persecution C. official church rejection of the concept of witches D. increased disbelief among elites in the concept of witches E. a declining number of women practicing midwifery Answer: D
Oligarchy a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.
In the period between 1871 and 1914, European governments regarded Public Education for the masses as important because it would A. discourage emigration to the new world B. ensure that children received comprehensive religious instruction C. Ensure that laborers were informed D. proved society with well informed and responsible citizens E. lead to woman suffrage Answer: D
Chartist movement: England Desired democratic reform 1838 Failed in 1840’s Gradually adopted by the English government over the next 2 reform bills
Historians attribute the population explosion of the 18 th century to A. The elimination of childhood diseases B. A more abundant food supply C. The widespread introduction of piped water and sewers D. The eradication of childbirth fever E. New sanitary procedures in hospitals Answer: B
“The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles” the quotation above is from the writings of A. Robespierre and Danton B. Saint-Simon C. Marx and Engels D. Malthus E. Bismarck Answer: C
The Growth of Europe’s population in the late 19 th century can be attributed primarily to A. falling mortality rates B. a decline in emigration C. a growing trend toward larger families D. falling marriage rates in Western Europe E. Population growth rates that were higher in western than central europe Answer: A
The individual that first provided mathematical formulas supporting the Copernican theory and explaining planetary motion was A. Galileo B. Newton C. Brahe D. Descartes E. Kepler Answer: E
Of the following, which was the central issue for 19 th European advocates for women’s rights? A. the right for women to control their own property B. equal pay for equal work C. the right to serve in the military D. alimony and child support in cases of Divorce E. the right to civil marriage ceremonies Answer: A
The first European country to develop a social welfare system was A. Great Britain B. Sweden C. France D. Belgium E. Germany Answer: E
All of the following concepts are associated with Sigmund Freud’s theories of psychoanalysis except: A. superego B. sublimation C. collective unconscious D. Oedipus complex E. repression Answer: C
Sublimation to divert the energy of (a sexual or other biological impulse) from its immediate goal to one of a more acceptable social, moral, or aesthetic nature or use.
Oedipus complex the unresolved desire of a child for sexual gratification through the parent of the opposite sex, esp. the desire of a son for his mother. This involves, first, identification with and, later, hatred for the parent of the same sex, who is considered by the child as a rival.
Women’s suffrage was first achieved at the national level in Germany and Great Britain in the period A. 1848-1870 B. 1871-1885 C. 1886-1900 D. 1901-1913 E. 1914-1930 Answer: E
suffrage the right to vote, esp. in a political election
All of the following were major goals of the European feminist movement of the late 1960’s and 1970’s EXCEPT A. expanded employment opportunities for women B. better and more affordable child care facilities C. Suffrage for women over 21 D. reform of civil legislation on marriage and divorce E. improved access to birth control information and technology Answer: C