Presentation on theme: "Environmental Ethics and the Use of Fixed Anchors in Wilderness Areas Agata Czerminska."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental Ethics and the Use of Fixed Anchors in Wilderness Areas Agata Czerminska
Fixed Anchors Rock Climbing Nylon slings, Metal bolts and pitons Pounded or drilled into cliff
The Bolting War Can climbers legally place anchor bolts in federally designated wilderness areas?
The Battle Erupts 1997: Anchors banned in Sawtooth Wilderness Area in Idaho June 1998: Ban extended to include all wilderness areas Fierce opposition from climbing groups August 1998: Ban repealed
Negotiated Rulemaking Fixed Anchors in Wilderness Negotiated Rulemaking Advisory Committee met on four separate occasions through the summer of 2000 Committee comprised of 21 representatives from organizations such as Wilderness Watch (anti-bolt) and the Access Fund (very pro-bolt)
Interpreting the Wilderness Act Access Fund: Fixed anchor ban contradicts the Wilderness Act’s provision to provide for primitive and unconfined types of recreation Climbing is a legitimate use of public lands and permanent fixed anchors must sometimes be used to ensure climbing safety
Interpreting the Wilderness Act Wilderness Watch: Fixed anchors are permanent installations as defined by the Wilderness Act and therefore violate the act Bolts would open the hills to mountain bikes, ATVs, and snowmobiles
“After a decade of war in the hills, environmentalists and rock rats draft a treaty” But do they?